Who Dat is the Cajun French pronunciation of who is that, and it stands on its own. Long before the first football was ever heaved, and certainly long before the year 1981, the Cajuns were saying this. There is one thing that is certain for Saints fans: they have grown accustomed to the NFL plagiarizing their team’s culture. The team photo celebration following a great play is the most recent example of such an infraction. But, regardless of whether you say “Who Dat” or “Who Dey,” when our lads depart Paul Brown Stadium on Sunday, we will be the ones who are proudly reciting our chant, knowing where it originated from and when it began.
A brief history of Gregorian chant
A Gregorian chant rehearsal at the school’s St. Vincent Chapel was conducted on October 10 by Timothy S. McDonnell, director of music ministries at The Catholic University of America’s Institute of Sacred Music, Benjamin T. Rome School of Music in Washington. Gregorian chant is the chanting of the liturgy, and the texts are nearly completely drawn from the Bible. (CNS photo courtesy of Chaz Muth) (CNS) – Washington, D.C. – Whenever Erin Bullock walks in front of the altar at Washington’s Cathedral of St.
- During an October Mass at the church, her function as cantor is as obvious as the priest’s, and much of the music she intones with her powerful soprano – together with the choir and those in the seats – is the unadorned resonances of Gregorian chant.
- In their performance by a choir, the chants are normally chanted in unison and unaccompanied by any kind of rhythmic or melodic accompaniment, with the tones rising and falling in an ad libitum way.
- McDonnell, director of the Institute of Sacred Music at The Catholic University of America in Washington, the history of sung prayer extends back to the first millennium, with Gregorian chant being the suitable music of the mature Roman rite.
- Despite its resurgence in popularity in recent decades, the chant is not the primary musical accompaniment in most Catholic parishes in the United States, according to McDonnell of Catholic News Service.
- According to Elizabeth Black, assistant music director at St.
As an example, when the priest sings, “the Lord be with you,” and the congregation responds in song, “and with your spirit,” they are participating in Gregorian chant because those holy texts are an essential part of the Mass, according to Black, who spoke to Catholic News Service in a recent interview about the practice.
- When you sing a component of the liturgy that is fundamental to the Mass, you’re singing Gregorian chant, according to Lang, who is an expert on the subject.
- Despite the fact that hymns, which are typically layered in rich harmonies, are liturgical in character, such melodies are intended to beautify the Mass with meditative spirituality rather than serving as a key component of the liturgy, according to Black.
- However, there are several exceptions to this unofficial chant rule, and certain choirs embellish their chants with harmonies and musical accompaniment on occasion.
- But, according to theologian John Paul II, it is only recently that Gregorian chant, which began to take shape in the ninth century, has been written down and kept for historical preservation.
The development of Gregorian chant is unlikely to have been a direct result of Pope Gregory I’s efforts, according to McDonnell, who described him as a “building pope” who helped reorder the liturgy in a more practical way, creating the artistic environment necessary for the establishment of some form of plainchant.
- Gregory the Great’s death that the music we know today as Gregorian chant began to develop, according to Dr.
- “In fact, most historians believe it was Pope Gregory II (715-731), who reigned about 100 years later, who was the Pope Gregory who actually had more of a hand in formulating this body of chants that we know today as Gregorian chant,” he said.
- Matthew the Apostle.
- John the Beloved, has made the chant a natural component of the liturgy.
McDonnell stated that “Gregorian chant has the potential to be extremely sophisticated, intricate, and convoluted, as well as possessing a high level of artistic merit.” However, much of its beauty may be found in the simplicity of the design and the fact that most of it is accessible to members of the congregation and children.” According to him, “everyone can learn to sing some amount of Gregorian chant,” and the church has organized the chants into categories based on their accessibility over the years.
- There are numerous chants that are intended to be sung by the faithful as part of their participation in the liturgy, and those chants are every bit as much Gregorian chant as the more florid and complex ones,” says the author.
- The chant is more effective because of this technique, in some ways,” says the author.
- According to him, the causes of these waves are unpredictable.
- “When the popes returned from Avignon (a period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven popes resided in Avignon, France, rather than in Rome), the city was in utter disarray, and the culture of Rome had to be reconstructed,” he explained.
As a result, we witnessed the resurgence of Gregorian chant.” The Renaissance polyphony of the 16th century, with its intricate texturized harmonies, became the dominant music in the church and for a time superseded Gregorian chant, according to McDonnell, who believes that the Renaissance was a period of cultural restoration.
Then, in 1947, Pope Pius XII released his encyclical “Mediator Dei” (“On the Sacred Liturgy”), which encouraged active involvement by the laity in the liturgy while also strengthening the use of Gregorian chant, according to historian Black.
The use of Gregorian chant was advocated for in papers produced during Vatican II in the 1960s; but, as the Latin Mass was replaced by the vernacular, most parishes opted for music that was more in tune with popular culture, such as praise and worship and folk genres, according to McDonnell.
When “Chant,” an incredibly successful CD produced by the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos, Spain, was published in the 1990s, interest in the practice was once again piqued, according to him.
Gregorian chant is no longer the dominant force in parish life as it once was, but according to McDonnell, if history repeats itself, it is in the process of regaining its former prominence and might once again become a mainstay of church music.
Medieval Music: Introduction to Gregorian Chant
Sonja Maurer-Dass contributed to this article. Gregorian chant is one of the most famous musical legacies of medieval Europe, distinguished by its free-flowing melodies, holy Latin lyrics, and distinctive monophonic texture. Gregorian chant, which was developed and propagated during the Carolingian dynasty, appears to be a world away from the much more contemporary epochs of Western music to which many of our ears are accustomed; however, it is from this ages-old liturgical tradition that our current understanding of Western music and its accompanying system of musical notation derives from.
This section will look at how Gregorian chant came to be and how it spread throughout the world.
Many medieval music fans nowadays are aware with Gregorian chant (also known as Frankish-Roman chant), which is the most well-known of the liturgical chant traditions; nevertheless, throughout early medieval Europe, there were numerous distinct styles of holy chant that differed according to area.
- When one considers the several diverse Western liturgical chant traditions that have existed throughout the centuries, one would wonder why Gregorian chant has become the most generally recognized and maintained of them all.
- The development of Gregorian chant took place between the seventh and ninth centuries CE, during a period in which Frankish monarchs, most notably Charlemagne, tried to bring liturgical consistency to their kingdoms.
- Charlemagne declared in 789 that all of his kingdoms would be consolidated under a single Roman liturgy and chant, which became known as the Roman Rite.
- In essence, Gregorian chant was, as Margot Fassler puts it, “the revised song of the Franks,” which arose from a fusion of Old Roman chant with the Gallican chant of the Franks, according to Fassler.
- So far, we’ve looked at how the Carolingians had a crucial part in the spreading and development of Gregorian chant, but what about the popular tale that claims that Pope Saint Gregory I (“Gregory the Great”) is responsible for the spread of Gregorian chant?
- Because it was sung to Gregory I by the Holy Spirit, who came to him in the guise of a white dove, it was considered the most sacred and true type of liturgical chant.
- Some musicologists, on the other hand, have speculated that Gregory may have had a role in the codification and consolidation of previous chants, which eventually served as the foundation for later Gregorian chant.
A common depiction of the dove is that it is singing its sacred songs to Gregory, while Gregory is concurrently dictating the dove’s melodies to a nearby scribe.
Gregorian Chant’s Texture and Melody are both beautiful.
“Monophonic” is a musical word that refers to the performance of a single tune with no accompaniment (that is, there is no harmony played with a melody).
In the opening minute of the following chant sample, which was produced by the twelfth-century abbess, philosopher, mystic, and composer Hildegard of Bingen, you can hear a drone that is repeated several times.
For those who have heard different recordings of Gregorian chant, you may have noticed that its melodies are quite flowing in comparison to many modern types of Western art music and popular music.
Classical Gregorian melodies were produced using the notes of an organized pitch system known as modes (which were distinct from the major and minor keys that are now employed in Western music), and they were set to sacred Latin texts from religious services such as the Mass and the Divine Office.
- Gregorian Chant and Early Types of Medieval Musical Notation are two examples of medieval musical notation.
- This necessitated the development of a method of recording tunes that could be correctly taught and conveyed without the limitations of human memory.
- Instead, it made use of symbols known as “neumes,” which served as a kind of trigger for melodies that had previously been acquired and retained as part of an oral culture.
- They reflect the relative rising and descending melodic motion of the text.
- The St.
- Gall in Switzerland, is one of the earliest existing sources of this notation (which was copied in the tenth century).
- Guido d’Arezzo, a prominent music theorist who lived in Arezzo in the eleventh century, continued to create the framework for modern music notation by developing a four-line musical staff divided by intervals of thirds (an interval is the distance between two pitches).
Guido described the manner in which his employees worked in the preface to his antiphoner (of which only the prologue has been preserved): As a result, the notes are organized in such a manner that any sound, no matter how many times it appears in a song, can always be located in the same row.
–Margot Fassler provided the translation.
As a singer or member of a chorus, you may be acquainted with the syllable pattern Do-Re-Mi-Fa Sol, etc., in which each syllable corresponds to a written note (Guido’s syllable pattern differed somewhat in that the first syllable he used was “Ut” instead of “Do”).
Square notation allowed for the inclusion of more melodic elements that may be interpreted by vocalists who were unfamiliar with the source material.
It’s possible that you’ve already seen some square notation in medieval chant manuscripts, such as punctum (a single note sung to a single syllable); podatus (two notes—one is written on top of the other and the lowest of the two notes is sung first followed by the second note which moves in ascending motion); clivis (contains two notes that are sung in descending motion); and torculus (three notes sung consecutively When compared to our modern experiences of melody and notation, the notation and melodies of Gregorian chant may appear to be foreign and unfamiliar at first glance and listen; however, upon closer examination, it is fascinating and possible to see how the earliest attempts to record and accurately transmit sacred chant evolved over many centuries and eventually matured into the comprehensive system that is widely used and understood in the modern day.
- Sonja Maurer-Dass is a Canadian musicologist and harpsichordist who specializes in Baroque music.
- In addition, she possesses a Master’s degree on Musicology from York University, where she specialized in late medieval English choral music and the Old Hall Manuscript, among other things (Toronto, Canada).
- The paper was presented at the 9th International Medieval Meeting.
- Read on for more information: Willi Apel is the author of this work.
- Western Music in Context: Western Music in the Medieval West is a book on music in the Medieval West (W.W.
- Carolingians and Gregorian Chant are two examples of medieval music (Princeton University Press, 1998) Richard Taruskin is the author of this work.
From the earliest notations through the sixteenth century, there has been music (Oxford University Press, 2010) Adiastematic gregorian aquitanian notation is seen in the top image. Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
What is Gregorian Chant? History, Characteristics and Composers
Since the 9th and 10th centuries, Gregorian chant has played an important role in the development of religious music. Despite its mournful beauty, its chorus could be heard throughout the immense worship halls of large early European cathedrals, and its echoes may still be heard in current music in classical forms that somehow yet seem authentic. In this piece, we’ll make an attempt to provide a thorough assessment of the history and qualities that have defined Gregorian chant throughout history and into the present day.
Background and History
St. Gregory the Great It is generally believed that Pope Gregory I, who is often credited with developing Gregorian Chant, was the first to use it in the 9th century following his death. Gregorian style chant as holy music may have been affected by Pope Gregory I (715-731 AD), who may have been the first to influence the establishment of the style after the music began as prayer enriched by art in song and read like poetry put to music. In the words of St. Augustine, transforming prayer into music “adds such strength that it is like praying twice.” Gregorian chant, on the other hand, began to lose popularity when secular values began to take precedence over religious beliefs throughout the first part of the first century.
As the Holy Roman Empire’s strength and influence diminished in the 15th century, the seat of the pope was restored to Rome after several generations spent at Avignon, France, as the empire’s power and influence fell.
The resurgence of the clergy in Roman society resulted in the reintroduction of Gregorian chant to the general populace.
Characteristics and Style
Gregorian chant is a amonophonic type of music, which means that there is just one melodic line in the piece of music. Because there are no polyphonic harmonies, all of the vocalists sing in unison to the same single tune. Especially when performed in acoustically ideal places of worship such as St. Paul’s Cathedral in London or the Basilicas of Rome, the impact may be breathtaking and even eerie in places of devotion like these. Today, Gregorian chant is used in both Catholic and Protestant rituals, particularly in the call and answer liturgy of sermons.
In addition, current solfege singing has its roots in old Gregorian chant.
It is a amonophonic type of music, which means that there is just one melodic line throughout the piece. A single melody is followed in unison by the entire choir, while polyphonic harmonies are absent. Especially when performed in acoustically ideal places of worship such as St. Paul’s Cathedral in London or the Basilicas of Rome, the impact may be breathtaking and even eerie in places of devotion such as the Vatican City. The call and answer liturgy of preaching, which is used in both Catholic and Protestant ceremonies today, is based on Gregorian chant.
They are chanting Gregorian chant when the priest or reverend leads the congregation in singing a line of the liturgy and the congregation responds in song. In addition, current solfege singing is rooted from historical Gregorian chanting practices.
Form and Texture
The single melodic line is frequently performed by a group of voices singing in unison. Rhythmically, it ranges from Largo (slow) to Andante (“walking speed”), with a smooth and velvety texture, as well as being sluggish and flowing. Each note flows into the next like a river, with minimal pauses and no short or staccato notes in between. When performing Gregorian chant, breathing is an important aspect of the performance, and singers frequently purposefully alternate breaths with one another in order to keep the melodic flow uninterrupted.
Boys’ and all-female choirs perform Gregorian chant in a variety of tonalities ranging from alto to soprano, and, on occasion, falsetto, among other things.
Mixed choirs have the greatest range of adaptability, since they include members from all voice ranges in a single group.
Most of the most famous medieval composers of Gregorian chant were males, and the majority of them held positions of authority within the clergy. It is possible that some of these composers inspired subsequent Renaissance composers, and several of their pieces are still popular among classical music enthusiasts today.
1. Stephen of Liège (850-920)
Most of the most famous medieval composers of Gregorian chant were males, and the majority of them held positions of authority in the clergy. These composers had an impact on subsequent Renaissance composers, and several of their pieces are still popular among classical music enthusiasts today.
2. Fulbert of Chartres (960-1028)
Famous medieval composers of Gregorian chant were generally males who, on the whole, held ministerial posts in the clergy or were themselves ministers. It is possible that some of these composers inspired subsequent Renaissance composers, and several of their pieces are still famous among classical music fans today.
3. Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179)
Hildegard von Bingen was a medieval nun who lived in Germany. Her name was Hildegard von Bingen, and she lived in the early second millennium. She was a philosopher, mystic, writer, and composer. In 2012, the Catholic Church canonized Mary in recognition of the miracles she accomplished and her amazing dedication. In a spiritually induced trance-like state of divine ecstasy, the prophetess wrote extensive works that are still read today. Many of her writings are still in print today. Despite the fact that she was the only known female composer of her day, St.
4. Peter Abelard (1079-1142)
Peter Abelard was a theologian and scholar who was one of the most scandalous and well-known religious personalities of the medieval period. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time. But he was also a gifted composer of Gregorian chant, well known for his melancholy songs of lamentation for the loss of loved ones, which frequently made reference to Biblical and theological characters. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time.
It’s possible that we’ve discovered further proof of Abelard’s musical talent, which was ahead of its day in terms of musical structure and melodic simplicity, in this work.
Despite the fact that it appears to be straightforward, the sacred subject matter and distinct melodic lines of Gregorian chant have continued to influence religious composers throughout the ages. The impact of the great composers may be seen and heard in subsequent works by legends such as Mozart, Beethoven, Handel, and Bach, as well as in works by lesser-known artists. In this century, classical artists continue to reinterpret, record, and present these and other ancient works on the stage in new ways, as well as in previous centuries.
1. Ordo Virtutum
While the sacred subject matter and clear melodic lines of Gregorian chant appear to be straightforward, they have had an impact on religious composers for hundreds of years. Mozart, Beethoven, Handel, and Bach, among others, have all benefited from the mastery of the art’s top composers as seen by their effect on later works. In this century, classical artists continue to reinterpret, record, and present these and other old works on the stage in new ways, as well as in previous generations.
2. “Chorus Novae Jerusalem”
Later recordings have re-interpreted several of Saint Fulbert’s holy songs, notably “Ye Choirs of New Jerusalem,” composed by English composer Henry John Gauntlettin the 19th century and still performed at Easter masses throughout the western world today.
3. “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha”
King Saul and his son, Prince Jonathan, were killed in Abelard’s “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha,” which was written to grieve Israel’s defeat at the hands of the Philistines and to lament the deaths of the two kings.
King Saul and his son, Prince Jonathan, were killed in Abelard’s “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha,” which was written to grieve Israel’s defeat at the hands of the Philistines and to lament the deaths of both Saul and Jonathan.
What is Gregorian Chant – GIA Publications
|Before reviewing the main Gregorian chant books and resources, perhaps it is good to state what Gregorian chant is.Gregorian chant is the church’s own music, born in the church’s liturgy. Its texts are almost entirely scriptural, coming for the most part from the Psalter. For centuries it was sung as pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment, and this is still the best way to sing chant if possible. It was composed entirely in Latin; and because its melodies are so closely tied to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best to sing it in Latin. (Among possible exceptions are chant hymns, since the melodies are formulaic and are not intrinsically tied to the Latin text.) Gregorian chant is in free rhythm, without meter or time signature.Because the liturgy was sung almost entirely in Gregorian chant in the Middle Ages (with polyphony saved for special occasions), every type of liturgical text has been set in chant: readings, prayers, dialogs, Mass propers, Mass ordinaries, office hymns, office psalms and antiphons, responsories, and versicles. Although Pope St. Gregory the Great (590–604) certainly did not play a role in the creation or compilation of our chant melodies, popular legend led the church to name Gregorian chant after this great leader.Many other types and styles of music are similar to Gregorian chant or inspired by it, but one should distinguish them from Gregorian chant. Taizé chants, for example, are generally in Latin, similar to Gregorian chant antiphons. But the musical style is quite different: metered and with choral harmonies and/or instrumental accompaniments.Many psalm tones have been written since the Second Vatican Council. They are much like Gregorian chant psalm tones with their free rhythm and their repeatable melodic formulas. By Gregorian psalm tones, however, we mean a set of particular melodies, one for each of the Gregorian modes, always in the form of two measures. The Gregorian psalm tones are well suited to the Latin language, but do not work very well with English accents, unless one takes freedom in adapting them. For English psalm verses, it is probably wiser to use psalm tones written for the English language. Back to Gregorian Chant Resources|
Gregorian Chant Resources and History
- Aiming to promote the study and performance of Gregorian chant in accordance with the “Gregorian Semiology” approach pioneered by Dom Eugène Cardine, the International Gregorian Chant Studies Association (AISCGre) now has German, Italian, and Spanish language sections. There is a bilingual site containing news about upcoming events, a bibliography, typefaces for chant notation, and much more information that is of interest. Associazione Viri Galilaei choir and supporting organization in Florence, Italy, performing chant at the Duomo
- Canticum Novum choir in Florence, Italy, singing chant at the Duomo Instruction in the gregorian chant
- It is possible to find chants in selected manuscripts and early printed materials of the liturgical Office by searching the database CANTUS: A Database for Latin Ecclesiastical Chant. CANTUSGREGORIANUS.COM is a website maintained by the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada. In this publication, the “Saint Michael the Archangel” Association of Stroncone describes the research, teaching, and musical initiatives undertaken by the association in the study of sacred music from the Middle Ages, with particular attention paid to its sources, execution methods, and the liturgy, all of which were integral to the music’s existence. Presented in both English and Italian
- Data pool for Gregorian chant study
- David Hiley, Regensburg, Germany
- Chant Christ in the Desert Monastery, New Mexico, USA
- ChantCD.com (Gregorian chant CD). Gregorian Chant CDs that are one-of-a-kind, lyrics to many renowned Chant songs, and free samples to download
- Sheets of Chants for Use by Celebrants For priests who are singing the Orations and Readings of the Mass, The Chant Kit is a sacred music resource site dedicated to restoring Gregorian chant to its proper place in Catholic liturgical music. The Windsor Tridentine Mass Community has developed a resource to assist priests in singing the Orations and Readings of the Mass. With the Chant Kit, you get two professionally recorded CDs with corresponding sheet music, as well as a brief tutorial on how to chant. Ensemble Trecanum is a classical music ensemble that performs music from the Renaissance to the present day. The group was founded in December 1996 by Etienne Stoffel, a prizewinner of the National High Conservatoire of Paris and a student of two monks from the Solesmes Abbey, Dom Eugene Cardine (d. 1988), who was Father at the Pontifical Institute for Sacred Music in Rome, and Dom Jean Claire, a former choral conductor of the Solesmes Abbey. France. Gloria Dei Cantores is a group of singers that perform for the glory of God (Singers to the Glory of God) It is dedicated to honoring the great history of sacred choral music that spans the centuries from Gregorian chant to the twenty-first century Grégoire is a piece of software. Gregorian Chant is written using a computer software
- Association of the Gregorian Calendar The Plainsong Society was established in England in 1870 to encourage the study and practice of plainsong. University of Toronto’s Gregorian Institute Research and instruction are carried out in order to promote the study and performance of Gregorian and other western chant repertoires in the country of Canada. Presented in both English and French
- The Notation of the Gregorian Chant – LPH Resource Center This website provides an explanation of the classic Gregorian Chant notation, so that anybody may read it and sing it
- Gregoriano.org.br is an example of this. Site dedicated to the Gregorian Chant in Brazil, in Portuguese
- The Norbertine Fathers of St. Michael’s Abbey in California have produced a series of Gregorian Chant albums. Notation for Gregorian Chant Description of the traditional Gregorian Chant notation, so that anybody may learn to read and sing the notation
- Gregorian Chant E-mail List
- Gregorian Chant Website A mailing list dedicated to the discussion of the use of Gregorian chant in its natural context: as the music of the Christian church for the worship of the Almighty. What kind of chanting is done in your church? What is the best way to get started learning to read chant notation? Can you tell me about the courses and books that are available? The Gregorian Schola information and connections
- Information on congregational singing as well as scholas of chant GregorianikLiturgik links and more from St. Joseph’s Parish in Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States. Internationalen Gesellschaft für Studien des Gregorianischen Chorals AISCGre
- International Association for Studies of Gregorian Chant
- International Association for Studies of Gregorian Chant Downloads of the Latin Mass Society Chant There is a large range of Ordinaries, the Asperges, and a number of additional useful chants to choose from
- Page dedicated to Luis’ Gregorian Chants The Benedictine monks of the Mosteiro de So Bento in So Paulo, Brazil, perform live mp3 recordings on a Brazilian Web site maintained by Luis Henrique Camargo Quiroz. The Medieval Music Database at La Trobe University contains Gregorian chants from the Dominican (Ordo Praedicatorum) tradition, as well as information on Scribe notation software
- It is maintained by the University of Melbourne. Nota Quadrata is an abbreviation for Nota Quadrata. Dedicated to musical notation from the late Middle Ages, the Nota Quadrata project provides an introduction to square notation as well as monthly updates on continuing research. Resources for Orthodox Music
- The Sarum Rita and Its Application Essay by Reverend Canon Professor J. Robert Wright on the Sarum Rita and Its Application. PDF files necessitating the use of Adobe Reader or a similar
- Books and CDs about Gregorian Chant are available from Paraclete Press. This organization represents the most authentic study and devotion in the subject of Gregorian chant today
- The St. Laurentius Digital Manuscript Library at the Lund University Library in Sweden is a treasure trove of manuscripts. Ordinaries of the Gregorian Chant of Sainte Antoine Daniel (Kyriale)
- The Church Music Association of America provides free sheet music, chant books, and hymns for download. Resources for chanting in both English and Latin languages
- Topics covered by the OSB include: Bibliography and websites related to Gregorian Chant Richard Oliver, of the Order of St. Benedict in Collegeville, Minnesota, United States
- RADIO SETTINGS Gregorian broadcasting Gregorian chants 24 hours a day, seven days a week through Windows Media Player in FM Stereo quality
- St. Joseph’s College Chant Institute, Rensselaer, IN
- Women in Chant: The Choir of Benedictine Nuns at the Abbey of Regina Laudis
A brief history of Gregorian chant from King David to the present
One might imagine that something as simple as “plainchant” or “plainsong” would not provide much to write about; after all, the mere name implies that it is plain and that it is chant. However, this is not the case. In actuality, Gregorian chant is anything from plain, save in the sense that its lovely melodies are intended to be sung unaccompanied and unharmonized, as befits the old monastic culture from which they came, as befits the ancient monastic culture from which they sprang. In Western music, what we term “Gregorian chant” is one of the richest and most delicate art forms available — in fact, it is one of the richest and most subtle art forms available in any civilization.
- Different books of the Old Testament, particularly the Psalms and the Chronicles, provide witness to the significant role that music played in temple worship.
- Considering that the Psalter of David was prepared specifically for the sake of divine worship and was widely regarded as the Messianic literature par excellence, we find that Peter, Paul, and the Apostolic Fathers make frequent use of it in their preaching and teaching.
- In this way, the Christian ritual as a whole emerged from the union of the Psalter and the Sacrifice.
- Our absolute submission to God is represented by the gory sacrifice of an animal, which results in the death and destruction of the animal.
- During the first millennium of the Christian era, the art of chant flourished.
- Gregory the Great, who reigned from 590 to 604, a body of chant for the Mass and the daily circle of prayer had already been established (Divine Office).
- Gregory ordered the musical repertory, as a consequence of which the chant has been known as “Gregorian” ever since, a tribute to his memory.
Before the year 800, the core of the Gregorian chant repertory had been assembled, and the vast majority of it had been finished by the year 1200.
No one could have imagined divorcing the texts of the liturgy from their accompanying music; they were like a body-soul composite or a happily married pair to each other.
Once the chasuble, stole, alb, amice, and maniple became established, no one in their right mind would consider doing away with them.
In the same way, the chants are the clothing that the liturgical texts are dressed in.
No one could have imagined divorcing the texts of the liturgy from their accompanying music; they were like a body-soul composite or a happily married pair to each other.
By the beginning of the nineteenth century, chant had fallen into a condition of significant ruin and neglect due to a lack of maintenance.
— would have to take place sooner or later.
Dom Prosper Guéranger (1805–1875) founded Solesmes Abbey in 1833 and developed it into a center of monastic practice, including the complete chanting of the Divine Office and the celebration of the Mass.
After his election as Pope in 1903, St.
As a result, the monks completed their work, and Pius X gave his blessing to it.
A clear and logical connection may be traced from Solesmes and Pius X to the Vatican II Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, known as Sacrosanctum Concilium.
The holy music heritage must be carefully safeguarded and nurtured in order to be passed on to future generations.
However, other types of holy music, particularly polyphony, are by no means barred from liturgical celebrations, as long as they are in keeping with the spirit of the liturgical act.
Unfortunately, an explosive mix of fake antiquarianism and novelty-seeking modernism put a huge wrench into the works, resulting in a battle zone of clashing views in which we are currently stuck — and in which chant has almost completely disappeared.
However, there are signs that the tide is beginning to turn in a few locations. Chant will never perish since it is the most ideal form of liturgical music there is.
“A short history of Gregorian chant from the time of King David to the present,” by Peter Kwasniewski. LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym (November 5, 2018).
With permission from LifeSite and Peter Kwasniewski, this article has been reprinted.
Peter Kwasniewski has a B.A. in Liberal Arts from Thomas Aquinas College, as well as an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Philosophy from The Catholic University of America. He is a member of the American Philosophical Association. In addition to teaching at the International Theological Institute in Austria and the Franciscan University of Steubenville’s Austrian Program, he was a member of the founding team of Wyoming Catholic College in Lander, Wyoming. He was in charge of the choir and schola, and he also served as the college’s dean of academics.
His books include Resurgent in the Midst of Crisis: Sacred Liturgy, the Traditional Latin Mass, and Renewal in the Church, A Missal for Young Catholics, and Noble Beauty, Transcendent Holiness: Why the Modern Age Needs the Mass of the Ages.
His webpage may be found here.
Gregorian Chant, A Beginner’s Guide
Educated at Thomas Aquinas College, where he received his bachelor’s degree in liberal arts, and at The Catholic University of America, where he received his master’s and doctorate in philosophy. In addition to teaching at the International Theological Institute in Austria and the Franciscan University of Steubenville’s Austrian Program, he was a member of the founding team of Wyoming Catholic College in Lander, Wyoming. He was in charge of the choir and schola, and he also served as the college’s dean of academics and vice president.
He also composes music.
He is also the author of several articles and book chapters.
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Medieval Church Music
It is nearly hard to comprehend what Gregorian chants are without at least a passing familiarity with the Catholic Church. rather than attempt to describe theology and millennia of religious ceremonies and traditions, I will just clarify some basic terms that will be useful in the future…. Remember that the definitions and descriptions in this section are specific to Western Christianity (Roman Catholicism) and may not have the same meaning in the Eastern Orthodox Church (or vice versa). The Cantate Domino is an illustration for Psalm 97, composed in 1380.
- The Mass/Holy Eucharist and the Divine Office are the two most important services offered by the Roman Catholic Church.
- The overall structure of these services remains rather consistent, although the precise content varies based on the time of year and the season.
- Observances of religious festivals, which are religious celebrations or commemorations of events and/or persons, include Festivities are a time for feasting.
- The first is referred to as Proper of the Time, Temporale, or Feasts of the Lord in some circles.
- The second feast cycle is known as theProper of the Saintssorthe Sanctorale, and it is devoted to the lives of specific saints and their sanctified properties.
- A number of feasts are held on the same day each year.
- Mass is the most important liturgy in the Roman Catholic Church, and it is held every Sunday.
During the Mass, there are musical and nonmusical portions, some of which are taken from the Proper and others which are taken from the Ordinary.
These eight sets of prayers and services (referred to as “canonical hours”) are performed on a daily basis and are distinct and separate from the celebration of the Mass.
Hymns, psalms, canticles, responsories, and antiphons are some of the musical genres that are employed in the Office/Liturgy of the Hours.
Even though the melodies may alter according on the preferences of the local clergy, the text remain consistent.
There are no changes to these songs and chants because they are permanent aspects of the Mass and do not vary with the seasons.
In the Mass and the Office services, the Proper are the texts, chants, and music that vary from one feast to the next, and they are made up of the Proper.
There are several forms of music in the Proper that are used during Mass, including the introit, the Gradual, the Alleluia, the Offertory, and the Communion Song. Tropes, sequences, and processionals are some of the other types of chants that are utilized for special events.
Are you confused? Keep reading!
Gregorian chants are nearly hard to comprehend without at least a passing familiarity with the Catholic Church’s liturgical traditions. Instead of attempting to describe theology and centuries of religious ceremonies and practices, I will just clarify some basic terms that will be useful in the future. Remember that the definitions and descriptions in this section are particular to Western Christianity (Roman Catholicism) and may not have the same meaning in the Orthodox Church. It is estimated that the Cantate Domino was composed in 1380.
- The Mass/Holy Eucharist and the Divine Office are the two most important services offered by the Roman Catholic Church..
- These services have a fairly consistent pattern throughout the year, however the precise material varies based on the period of time.
- Fasting and Fasting-related events and/or persons are commemorated or celebrated during religious feasts.
- To make up the liturgical year, there are two feast cycles that are observed.
- Holidays such as Christmas and Easter are included in this category because they are centered on the life of Christ.
- The two feast cycles are interspersed with one another.
- Others, such as Easter, are subject to shift in date and are referred to as “movable” feasts in this context.
In commemoration of the Last Supper, it is performed as a rite.
Some are taken directly out ofthe Propers, whilst others come directly out of the Ordinaries.
These eight sets of prayers and services (referred to as “canonical hours”) are performed on a daily basis and are distinct and separate from the celebration of the Eucharistic celebration.
Hymns, psalms, canticles, responsories, and antiphons are some of the musical genres employed in the Office/Liturgy of the Hours.
Even though the melodies may alter according to the preferences of the local priest, the text remain consistent.
They are constant components of the Mass and do not alter in accordance with the seasons or holidays.
Proper-The texts, chants, and music that make up the Proper are those elements of the Mass and Office services that change from one feast day to the next.
The Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offertory, and Communion are the genres of music in the Proper that are used during Mass. Troteopes, sequences, and processionals are examples of chants that are utilized for special events.
Gregorian Chant, a Brief History
In religious rituals, early Christians were already practicing unaccompanied singing and chanting even before Christianity was officially authorized in the 4th century AD. Plainchant and Plainsong are two terms used to describe these chants. As Christianity expanded across the Roman Empire, a number of musical traditions and plainchant repertories arose on their own, independently of one another. Mozarabic (Roman Spain), the Gallicanchants of Gaul (France), Ambrosianchant (Milan, Italy), Beneventan (Italy), Anglo-Saxon and subsequently theSarum (England), Old Roman, and Gregoryian were among the Western traditions that were known to scholars (Rome).
- Other liturgical variants, such as the Celtic rite in Ireland and the Slavonic rite in Scandinavia, existed in other parts of the world.
- There is a great deal of controversy about Pope Gregory’s role in the establishment and development of the Gregorian tradition in Rome.
- Regardless of who originated this liturgical practice, it gained widespread acceptance throughout the empire in a very short period of time.
- Charlemagne, in particular, was a staunch proponent of the abolition of all non-Roman customs and the replacement of such practices with Roman ceremonies.
- A papal edict had effectively outlawed the use of Gallican and Slavonic languages by the 9th century.
- Local customs were eventually displaced by Gregorian calendars, or they had evolved to the point where they could co-exist with Roman rituals, at least to some extent.
- Ambrosian chant, along with Gregorian chant, is the only kind of chant that has been officially sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church.
What makes a Gregorian chant a Gregorian chant?
Early Christians used solo singing and chanting in religious ceremonies even before Christianity was officially authorized in the 4th century. Plainchant and Plainsong are terms used to describe these types of chants. As Christianity expanded across the Roman Empire, a diverse range of musical traditions and plainchant repertories arose on their own, independently of one another. Mozarabic (Roman Spain), the Gallicanchants of Gaul (France), Ambrosianchant (Milan, Italy), Beneventan (Italy), Anglo-Saxon and subsequently theSarum (England), Old Roman, and Gregoryian were among the Western traditions that were known to us (Rome).
- Other liturgical variants, such as the Celtic rite in Ireland and the Slavonic rite in Scandinavia, existed in other parts of the world..
- Regarding Pope Gregory’s role in the establishment and formation of the Gregorian tradition in Rome, there is a great deal of disagreement.
- No matter who was responsible for creating this liturgical practice, it gained widespread acceptance across the empire in a very short period of time.
- Especially influential was Charlemagne, who advocated for the abolition of all non-Roman customs and the adoption of Roman ceremonies in their place.
- A papal edict in the 9th century outlawed the use of Gallican and Slavonic in all their forms.
- Local customs were eventually displaced by Gregorian calendars, or they had evolved to the point where they could coexist peacefully with Roman practices, at least to some extent.
Beyond Gregorian chant, Ambrosian is the only type of chant that has been sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church on a formal basis. Both of these words are still in common usage.
Sources and Further Reading
Because I am not a Catholic, I relied on information obtained from the following sources to guarantee that the material was accurate:
- Because I am not a Catholic, I relied on information obtained from the following sources to guarantee that the information was correct:
The main image for this piece is an illuminated manuscript from a 14th-century choir book, which is worth mentioning in its own right. The picture is a carving of St. Lawrence in the letter “C,” which is seen in the letter “C.” The Introit to the Mass for the Feast of St. Lawrence begins with this opening syllable.