How Did The Genre Of Gregorian Chant Get Its Name

Gregorian chant

Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.

The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.

The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.

The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.

  1. TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
  2. Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
  3. The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
  4. During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.
  5. As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.
  6. Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.
  7. Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.
  8. Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.
  9. By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.
  10. The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.
  11. The song has a neumatic feel to it.

Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.

Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.

A brief history of Gregorian chant

Roman Catholic liturgical music consisting of monophonic or unison parts that is used to accompany the text of the mass and the canonical hours, or divine office, is known as Gregorian chant. Saint Gregory I, Pope from 590 to 604, is credited for collecting and codifying the Gregorian chant throughout his pontificate. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) introduced Gregorian Chant into his realm, which had previously practiced a different liturgical style known as Gallican chant. During the eighth and ninth centuries, a process of assimilation occurred between Gallican and Gregorian chants, and it is this developed version of the chant that has survived to the current day.

  • Neumatic (patterns of one to four notes per syllable) and melismatic (patterns of any number of notes per syllable) styles are used in the chanting of the Kyrie.
  • Using psalm tones, which are basic formulae for intoned recitation of psalms, in the recital of early Glorias attests to their antiquity and ancient provenance.
  • In certain ways, the Credo’s melodies recall psalm tones, which were integrated into the mass during the 11th century.
  • Neumatic chants are used in the traditional Sanctus chant.
  • The final Ite Missa Est and its alternative, Benedicamus Domino, both take the melody from the opening Kyrie as a basis for composition.
  • Originally a psalm with a refrain repeated in between verses, the Introit has evolved into a processional chant.
  • It was also evolved from a refrain between psalm lines when it was first presented in the 4th century.

Originally from the East, the Alleluia dates back to the 4th century.

If you’re in a good mood, the Tract can take over for the Alleluia.

It was mostly throughout the 9th to 16th centuries when thisquence thrived in its entirety.

During the second line of the stanza, the melody was repeated, with a new melody being introduced for the next line of the stanza; the music is syllabic in structure.

Melisma pervades the compositions.

TheCommunion is a processional chant, much like the Offertory.

Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline are the eight services that make up the canonical hours: Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas, and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s shape and style are influenced by the sponsor’s role.

In the most recent revision and update, Amy Tikkanen provided further information.

Gregorian Chant: An Integral Part to Music History

Middle-eastern music dates from around 500 to 1400 and is considered to be the first period in the history of music. During this period, liturgical vocal music for the Catholic Church, as well as secular vocal and instrumental compositions, were popular forms of entertainment. It was Gregorian chant, which was one of the most important elements of liturgical music during the medieval period. Many forms of music, not simply liturgical music, have benefited from the usage of Gregorian chant as the foundation for their development.

  • It takes its name from Pope St.
  • Many chants take their text from the Mass Ordinary, the elements of the Catholic Mass that are always the same and that are, or were, often chanted throughout the celebration of the Mass.
  • The Mass Proper, which is a collection of prayers for mass that vary according to the season or feast being observed, provides the other texts for Gregorian chanting as well.
  • Our modern approach, on the other hand, was derived from this old technique of representation.
  • They began in the Middle Ages, when the only music that was being recorded was for the Church, and progressed through the centuries.
  • It had been some years since chanting had been learnt orally rather than being written down.
  • At some point, a staff or some variation of a staff was incorporated into the procedure to show how far higher or lower to go.
  • This featured the introduction of a staff with four lines and the beginnings of our solfège system, both of which helped us to indicate pitch more precisely.
  • A book called the Liber Usualis, which contains all of the chants of the Mass, was published in the late nineteenth century by monks from Solesmes, France, and is still in use today.

In churches and monasteries today, chants from the Liber Usualis, which were initially chanted in the Middle Ages, are still being sung in certain variations. Sources:;;;

What is Gregorian Chant? History, Characteristics and Composers

Since the 9th and 10th centuries, Gregorian chant has played an important role in the development of religious music. Despite its mournful beauty, its chorus could be heard throughout the immense worship halls of large early European cathedrals, and its echoes may still be heard in current music in classical forms that somehow yet seem authentic. In this piece, we’ll make an attempt to provide a thorough assessment of the history and qualities that have defined Gregorian chant throughout history and into the present day.

Background and History

St. Gregory the Great It is generally believed that Pope Gregory I, who is often credited with developing Gregorian Chant, was the first to use it in the 9th century following his death. Gregorian style chant as holy music may have been affected by Pope Gregory I (715-731 AD), who may have been the first to influence the establishment of the style after the music began as prayer enriched by art in song and read like poetry put to music. In the words of St. Augustine, transforming prayer into music “adds such strength that it is like praying twice.” Gregorian chant, on the other hand, began to lose popularity when secular values began to take precedence over religious beliefs throughout the first part of the first century.

As the Holy Roman Empire’s strength and influence diminished in the 15th century, the seat of the pope was restored to Rome after several generations spent at Avignon, France, as the empire’s power and influence fell.

The resurgence of the clergy in Roman society resulted in the reintroduction of Gregorian chant to the general populace.

Characteristics and Style

Gregorian chant is a amonophonic type of music, which means that there is just one melodic line in the piece of music. Because there are no polyphonic harmonies, all of the vocalists sing in unison to the same single tune. Especially when performed in acoustically ideal places of worship such as St. Paul’s Cathedral in London or the Basilicas of Rome, the impact may be breathtaking and even eerie in places of devotion like these. Today, Gregorian chant is used in both Catholic and Protestant rituals, particularly in the call and answer liturgy of sermons.

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In addition, current solfege singing has its roots in old Gregorian chant.

Instrumentation

Gregorian chant was traditionally sung only by human voices, according to tradition. This time, the choir sang without accompaniment, with a strong emphasis on the often sad, sometimes soaring melodic intonation of religious texts or vowel sounds as a key focus of the performance. Stringed or wind instruments, primarily flutes, harpsichords, organs, and violins, as well as electronic instruments like as keyboards and synthesizers, may be used to accompany modern versions of Gregorian chant, depending on the style.

Even current Gregorian chant does not include drums or bass instruments, due to the lack of an established rhythm section in Gregorian chant.

Form and Texture

Human voices were used exclusively in the performance of Gregorian chant, as was customary at the time. A prominent focus on the often sad, sometimes soaring melodic intonation of religious texts or vowel sounds was created by the unaccompanied singing of the choir, which filled the cathedral. When performing Gregorian chant, stringed or wind instruments, primarily flutes, harpsichords, organs, and violins, as well as electronic instruments like as keyboards and synthesizers, may be employed to accompany the singers.

Famous Composers

Most of the most famous medieval composers of Gregorian chant were males, and the majority of them held positions of authority within the clergy. It is possible that some of these composers inspired subsequent Renaissance composers, and several of their pieces are still popular among classical music enthusiasts today.

1. Stephen of Liège (850-920)

Most of the most famous medieval composers of Gregorian chant were males, and the majority of them held positions of authority in the clergy. These composers had an impact on subsequent Renaissance composers, and several of their pieces are still popular among classical music enthusiasts today.

2. Fulbert of Chartres (960-1028)

The intriguing beginnings of the French teacher and future Bishop of Chartres are still a mystery to this day. But some of Fulbert’s works have endured, notably many hymns praising the Virgin Mary and the still-popular Easter song “Chorus Novae Jerusalem,” which is dedicated to the city of Jerusalem.

3. Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179)

Hildegard von Bingen was a medieval nun who lived in Germany. Her name was Hildegard von Bingen, and she lived in the early second millennium. She was a philosopher, mystic, writer, and composer. In 2012, the Catholic Church canonized Mary in recognition of the miracles she accomplished and her amazing dedication. In a spiritually induced trance-like state of divine ecstasy, the prophetess wrote extensive works that are still read today. Many of her writings are still in print today. Despite the fact that she was the only known female composer of her day, St.

4. Peter Abelard (1079-1142)

Peter Abelard was a theologian and scholar who was one of the most scandalous and well-known religious personalities of the medieval period. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time. But he was also a gifted composer of Gregorian chant, well known for his melancholy songs of lamentation for the loss of loved ones, which frequently made reference to Biblical and theological characters. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time.

It’s possible that we’ve discovered further proof of Abelard’s musical talent, which was ahead of its day in terms of musical structure and melodic simplicity, in this work.

Famous Pieces

Despite the fact that it appears to be straightforward, the sacred subject matter and distinct melodic lines of Gregorian chant have continued to influence religious composers throughout the ages. The impact of the great composers may be seen and heard in subsequent works by legends such as Mozart, Beethoven, Handel, and Bach, as well as in works by lesser-known artists. In this century, classical artists continue to reinterpret, record, and present these and other ancient works on the stage in new ways, as well as in previous centuries.

1. Ordo Virtutum

Hailing from a tradition of ingenuity, Hildegard von Bingen’s 82-song Gregorian operaOrdo Virtutumbe was the world’s first morality drama, and her music went on to inspire a generation of Renaissance musicians.

2. “Chorus Novae Jerusalem”

Hildegard von Bingen’s 82-song Gregorian operaOrdo Virtutumbebecame the world’s first morality drama, and her music was eventually influenced by numerous Renaissance musicians, including Johann Sebastian Bach.

3. “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha”

King Saul and his son, Prince Jonathan, were killed in Abelard’s “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha,” which was written to grieve Israel’s defeat at the hands of the Philistines and to lament the deaths of the two kings.

Conclusion

King Saul and his son, Prince Jonathan, were killed in Abelard’s “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha,” which was written to grieve Israel’s defeat at the hands of the Philistines and to lament the deaths of both Saul and Jonathan.

Gregorian Chant Resources and History

  • Abelard’s “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha” (Planctus David over Saul and Lotha) laments the defeat of Israel at the hands of the Philistines, as well as the deaths of King Saul and his son, Jonathan.

A brief history of Gregorian chant from King David to the present

One might imagine that something as simple as “plainchant” or “plainsong” would not provide much to write about; after all, the mere name implies that it is plain and that it is chant. However, this is not the case. In actuality, Gregorian chant is anything from plain, save in the sense that its lovely melodies are intended to be sung unaccompanied and unharmonized, as befits the old monastic culture from which they came, as befits the ancient monastic culture from which they sprang. In Western music, what we term “Gregorian chant” is one of the richest and most delicate art forms available — in fact, it is one of the richest and most subtle art forms available in any civilization.

  • Different books of the Old Testament, particularly the Psalms and the Chronicles, provide witness to the significant role that music played in temple worship.
  • Considering that the Psalter of David was prepared specifically for the sake of divine worship and was widely regarded as the Messianic literature par excellence, we find that Peter, Paul, and the Apostolic Fathers make frequent use of it in their preaching and teaching.
  • In this way, the Christian ritual as a whole emerged from the union of the Psalter and the Sacrifice.
  • Our absolute submission to God is represented by the gory sacrifice of an animal, which results in the death and destruction of the animal.
  • During the first millennium of the Christian era, the art of chant flourished.
  • Gregory the Great, who reigned from 590 to 604, a body of chant for the Mass and the daily circle of prayer had already been established (Divine Office).
  • Gregory ordered the musical repertory, as a consequence of which the chant has been known as “Gregorian” ever since, a tribute to his memory.

Before the year 800, the core of the Gregorian chant repertory had been assembled, and the vast majority of it had been finished by the year 1200.

No one could have imagined divorcing the texts of the liturgy from their accompanying music; they were like a body-soul composite or a happily married pair to each other.

Once the chasuble, stole, alb, amice, and maniple became established, no one in their right mind would consider doing away with them.

In the same way, the chants are the clothing that the liturgical texts are dressed in.

No one could have imagined divorcing the texts of the liturgy from their accompanying music; they were like a body-soul composite or a happily married pair to each other.

By the beginning of the nineteenth century, chant had fallen into a condition of significant ruin and neglect due to a lack of maintenance.

— would have to take place sooner or later.

Dom Prosper Guéranger (1805–1875) founded Solesmes Abbey in 1833 and developed it into a center of monastic practice, including the complete chanting of the Divine Office and the celebration of the Mass.

After his election as Pope in 1903, St.

As a result, the monks completed their work, and Pius X gave his blessing to it.

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A clear and logical connection may be traced from Solesmes and Pius X to the Vatican II Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, known as Sacrosanctum Concilium.

The holy music heritage must be carefully safeguarded and nurtured in order to be passed on to future generations.

..

However, other types of holy music, particularly polyphony, are by no means barred from liturgical celebrations, as long as they are in keeping with the spirit of the liturgical act.

Unfortunately, an explosive mix of fake antiquarianism and novelty-seeking modernism put a huge wrench into the works, resulting in a battle zone of clashing views in which we are currently stuck — and in which chant has almost completely disappeared.

However, there are signs that the tide is beginning to turn in a few locations. Chant will never perish since it is the most ideal form of liturgical music there is.

Acknowledgement

“A short history of Gregorian chant from the time of King David to the present,” by Peter Kwasniewski. LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym (November 5, 2018).

With permission from LifeSite and Peter Kwasniewski, this article has been reprinted.

The Author

From King David until the present, according to Peter Kwasniewski, “a brief history of Gregorian chant.” LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym (November 5, 2018).

LifeSite and Peter Kwasniewski have granted permission for this reprint.

IB Music/Music History/Medieval Period – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Return to the IB Music Archive Middle Ages (450-1450) Sacred and secular music were distinguished in the Medieval Period, which was divided into two distinct categories. Sacred music was music that was used by the Roman Catholic Church, whilst secular music was music that had no connection to the Church and was utilized by other organizations.

Sacred Music

It is believed that sacred music emerged from a style known as theGregorian chant. A collection of chants named after Pope Gregory I, the Gregorian chants are considered to be the official compositions of the Catholic Church.

Characteristics of Gregorian chants

  • The melody of a Gregorian chant is highly free-flowing, as is the rhythm of the chant. The chant progresses upward and downward in little increments and jumps within a limited range. Melodies are frequentlymelismatic, meaning that syllables are stretched across numerous notes. Harmony- Because Gregorian chants have a monophonic texture, they do not include any harmony. Although drone (singing the same note over a lengthy period of time, generally in entire notes) was popular, it wasn’t always used. It is impossible to determine the exact timing of each word in a Gregorian chant. It is permissible to hold notes for a “short” or “long” period of time, but no complicated rhythms are employed. In terms of structure, several Gregorian chants are written in ternary (ABA) form. An incipit, or introduction solo, is performed by a cantor at the start of the composition. The piece is subsequently performed by the chorus, and at the conclusion, the cantor ends with a solo that was frequently performed at a lower dynamic level and with a more limited range of notes. Timbre- Sung by entirely male choirs in a hushed tone. However, they were occasionally composed as a teaching tool for women who were nuns in convents. Structure-Gregorian chants are one of the rare pieces of music that is totally monophonic, as seen by its texture. In a Gregorian chant, there is just one melodic line to be heard. The Gregorian chants were employed by the Church to help in the performance of prayers. They were sung by monks (and, on occasion, women in convents) in the past. In addition, because it was the official music of the Roman Catholic Church, all gregorian chants were just vocalists, as instrumentation was regarded to be Pagan by the Church. As a result, every text was written in Latin as a result of this. They were performed at the “office” and “mass” of religious ceremonies, and all gregorian chant was passed down orally because the use of written music was quite unusual at the time. Church Modes were the scales in which gregorian chants were performed, and they were divided into three categories. Up to the Renaissance period, they were in widespread usage during the middle ages. The phrase “what can we do with a drunken sailor” is an example of how they are used frequently in folk song. Church modes are composed of seven tones, with the eighth tone duplicating the tonic an octave higher than the tonic.

Organum

Around the year 700, the Gregorian chant began to take shape. From 700 to 900, composers would write a line in parallel motion to the chant at a predetermined interval of a fifth or a fourth above the original line, resulting in a total of nine lines. From 900 until 1200, this technology underwent considerable development. During this time, the upper line moved in its own right, independent of the initial chanting pattern. After 1100, top lines began to develop rhythmic independence and eventually became independent.

This is the name given to the Gregorian chant on which the higher lines are based, which is known as thecantus firmus.

Leonin and Perotin, two composers who worked together on organum, were important in its development.

Leonin was the director of music of Notre Dame Cathedral, and Perotin, a student of Leonin’s, took over as the director after him. It is therefore legitimate to speak to these two composers and their pupils collectively as theSchool of Notre Dame.

Significant Composers

  • Leonin – He is the first known composer to employ measured rhythm in his works
  • He is also the first known composer to utilize measured rhythm in his compositions. The composer Perotin is credited with being the first known composer to create three separate lines at the same time.

Sacred music was usually performed by singers. This was mostly owing to the association between instruments and paganic ceremonies. Although instruments were increasingly significant throughout the Medieval Period, this was not the case throughout the whole period. When it comes to holy music throughout the Medieval Period, the organ is the most essential instrument. Even while early organs were quite loud, they were significantly more difficult to operate and necessitated a considerable lot of physical power on the part of the player.

Secular Music

In contrast to religious music, secular music had a more clearly defined rhythm and a texture that was closer to homophony or polyphony than holy music. Because chords were merely inferred, it wasn’t pure homophony in this case. The texture was predominantly vocal, as was the case with holy music, albeit it did not treat instruments with the same level of distrust as the Church.

TroubadoursTrouvères

During the Medieval Period, a great deal of secular music was composed by troubadours and troubavères. These were nobility from France, and they were known for writing music in order to earn status.

Significant Composers

  • Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine
  • Chastelain di Couci
  • Beatriz de Dia (a female troubadour)
  • Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine

Jongleurs

Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine; Chastelain di Couci; Beatriz de Dia (a female troubadour); Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine; Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine

Ars Nova

Around the year 1350, a new type of music known as Ars Nova (New Art) began to emerge. The period known as Ars Nova encompasses both ecclesiastical and secular music, however secular music gained prominence during this time. The following are some of the most important aspects of Ars Nova:

  • Polyphony is being developed, as is the use of duple meter and syncopation.

Sacred Music

The emergence of a great form for religious music, themass ordinary, occurred during the Ars Nova period. The ordinary of the mass is made up of five prayers that are put to music in five separate movements. The prayers are as follows:

Secular Music

In part as a result of the Church’s declining power, secular music began to gain in popularity during the Ars Nova Period. Instruments were employed more often, while the majority of the song was still performed vocally. The ballata is a new secular form that emerged during the Ars Nova period. Theballatais a dance that takes the shape of the letters A BB AA. A ballata is also referred to as a falala due to the fact that it employs this line throughout its compositions.

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Significant Composers

  • Works of significance
  • It is the first known polyphonic mass, and it is celebrated at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
  • Works of significance
  • Ecco la Primavera – This is an example of an Ars Nova ballata
  • It was composed in the early twentieth century.

Instruments of the Period

The curtain is raised in the first chapter. MUSICAL NOTATIONS FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURYR Mr. ichard Taruskin (nickname) However, Gregory II did not really create the “Gregorian” chants, as is often believed. There wasn’t a single individual who did it. A massive collaborative and anonymous business, it appears to have reached standardization in Rome by the end of the seventh century, according to historical evidence. But what were the circumstances surrounding its inception?

  1. When it comes to the literary content of Gregorian antiphoners, it is almost entirely comprised of psalm verses.
  2. Richard Taruskin is credited in this MLA format.
  3. The Oxford History of Western Music is a comprehensive reference work on Western music.
  4. 22 December 2021.
  5. APA style citation: Taruskin, R.
  6. The first chapter begins with the raising of the curtain.
  7. New York, United States of America.

In Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century, Oxford University Press published a chapter titled “Chapter 1 The Curtain Goes Up.” (New York, United States of America, n.d.) Retrieved on December 22, 2021, from Users who do not have a membership will not be able to view the entire site.

To get all of the information, you must subscribe or log in.

What is Gregorian Chant – GIA Publications

Before reviewing the main Gregorian chant books and resources, perhaps it is good to state what Gregorian chant is.Gregorian chant is the church’s own music, born in the church’s liturgy. Its texts are almost entirely scriptural, coming for the most part from the Psalter. For centuries it was sung as pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment, and this is still the best way to sing chant if possible. It was composed entirely in Latin; and because its melodies are so closely tied to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best to sing it in Latin. (Among possible exceptions are chant hymns, since the melodies are formulaic and are not intrinsically tied to the Latin text.) Gregorian chant is in free rhythm, without meter or time signature.Because the liturgy was sung almost entirely in Gregorian chant in the Middle Ages (with polyphony saved for special occasions), every type of liturgical text has been set in chant: readings, prayers, dialogs, Mass propers, Mass ordinaries, office hymns, office psalms and antiphons, responsories, and versicles. Although Pope St. Gregory the Great (590–604) certainly did not play a role in the creation or compilation of our chant melodies, popular legend led the church to name Gregorian chant after this great leader.Many other types and styles of music are similar to Gregorian chant or inspired by it, but one should distinguish them from Gregorian chant. Taizé chants, for example, are generally in Latin, similar to Gregorian chant antiphons. But the musical style is quite different: metered and with choral harmonies and/or instrumental accompaniments.Many psalm tones have been written since the Second Vatican Council. They are much like Gregorian chant psalm tones with their free rhythm and their repeatable melodic formulas. By Gregorian psalm tones, however, we mean a set of particular melodies, one for each of the Gregorian modes, always in the form of two measures. The Gregorian psalm tones are well suited to the Latin language, but do not work very well with English accents, unless one takes freedom in adapting them. For English psalm verses, it is probably wiser to use psalm tones written for the English language. Back to Gregorian Chant Resources

The Middle Ages

Historically, the traditions of Western music may be traced back to the social and theological changes that occurred in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, which corresponded to the period roughly spanning 500 to 1400 years before the present. Because of the dominance of the early Christian Church during this time period, religious music was the most common type of music heard. The development of church music began with Gregorian Chant and progressed to a polyphonic melody known asorganum, which was sung at Notre Dame in Paris around the eleventh century.

Before the Middle Ages, music had been a part of the world’s civilizations for hundreds of years, if not thousands of years.

The term music stems from the ancient Greek muses, who were nine goddesses of art and knowledge who were worshipped in ancient Greece.

Pythagoras and others were responsible for establishing the Greekmodes, which are scales composed of entire tones and halfsteps.

The early Church was able to assert ultimate control over these feudal lords primarily via the use of superstitious terror.

In these days and times, western music was almost the exclusive property of the Christian Church.

Christianplainchant, like all music in the Western culture until to this point, was monophonic: that is, it consisted of a single melody with no harmonic support or accompaniment.

The melodies are loose and appear to roam, as if they are being guided by the Latin liturgical texts to which they have been composed.

In the sixth century, it was claimed that Pope Gregory I (reigned 590-604) standardized them, ensuring universal usage across the Western Church.

In the Easter hymn, Victimae paschali laudes, you may get a sense of the clear, floating melody that it has.

(Insert audio clip) The Ars Antiqua and Notre Dame are two of the most famous buildings in the world.

Organum was the name given to the hollow-sounding music that resulted as a result of this process during the following hundred years.

This was followed by a slow singing of the original chant tune in the tenor voice, with additional melodies weaving around and embellishing the resultant drone.

Leonin (fl.

1163-1190), who produced organa for two voices, and his successor Pérotin (fl.

Pérotin’s work is an exceptional example of this extremely early type of polyphony (music for two or more voices that sound at the same time), as may be heard in his arrangement of Sederunt principes (Sederunt principles) (sound clip).

The Trouvères and the Troubadours are two types of street performers.

There were no restrictions on this music because it did not follow the traditions of the Church, and it was not even written down until sometime after the tenthcentury.

Even so, hundreds of these songs were written and performed (and much later recorded) by bands of musicians that flourished across Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, the most renowned of whom were the French trouvères and troubadours, who were the most famous of all.

It is love, in all its incarnations of joy and agony, that is the theme of the vast majority of these songs.

1286).

Additionally, he has been recognized as the author of a large number of songs and verses, someof which take the form of themotet, a musical composition in which two or more separate lines are stitched together at the same time, without regard to what we now consider normal harmonies.

(sound clip) is an example of such a work.

Guillaume de Machaut and the Ars Nova Guillaume de Machaut was born in the Champagne area of France about 1300 and died in Rheims in 1377.

He remained at the court of John until the monarch’s death in battle at Crécy in 1346, during which time he worked as the king’s secretary.

Several significant patrons, including the future Charles V of France, sought out his talents as a composer and conductor.

Machautis is arguably most known for being the first composer to construct a polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Catholic Mass, which he did in 1845.

The “Gloria” from Machaut’s Messe de Notre Dame exemplifies the new style of the fourteenthcentury, which was dubbed theArs Nova by composers of the time (sound clip).

Despite the fact that the Mass is perhaps his most well-known work today, Machaut also penned scores of secular love songs, many of which were in the manner of the polyphonic Ars Nova or “new art,” which he admired.

The secular motets of the Middle Ages eventually developed into the massive quantity and outpouring of music produced by the great RenaissanceMadrigalists of the Renaissance period. Jason R. Ogan conducted research in 2001.

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