How Plainchant Started and Where It Is Now
THE TOWN OF EAST RUTHERFORD, NEW JERSEY According to Von Miller, a linebacker with the Denver Broncos, the team’s offense has improved to the point that “even I could play quarterback” this offseason, according to practically anybody who will listen. T.J. Bridgewater made his regular-season debut with the squad on Sunday, and even Miller was impressed. “Incredibly well done by him. He was ten times better than I was, or maybe eight times better than I was, in almost every category “A smile spread across Miller’s face as he shared his thoughts.
He maintained his composure in the backfield, as seen by his ability to escape several devastating sacks early in the game and capitalize on subsequent scrambles.
And, perhaps most importantly for a team that has a history of committing turnovers at the quarterback position – the Broncos were first in the league in both interceptions and total giveaways in 2020 – Bridgewater remained calm under pressure and finished the season without committing a mistake on the season.
They also had three touchdown drives that lasted at least 10 plays and would have added another touchdown drive had tight end Demarcus Lawrence not been injured.
- With a QBR of 95.7, Bridgewater had the greatest mark in the league.
- They put up an offensive performance that would have ranked third on their team’s offensive production chart the previous year.
- Ted-dy, you’re the best!
- Bridgewater is a breath of new air for a squad that has struggled to find stability and dependability behind the offensive line since Peyton Manning departed following the 2015 season.
- “You could just feel it, when a guy isn’t faking it, you can just sense it,” Miller said of the speech he delivered.
- He was just as crucial as any other player for his ability to “keep shooting,” as he called it, and to persuade his colleagues to do so despite making some early blunders.
- Once again, the Broncos’ first possession of the second half resulted in a KJ Hamler interception that would have been a certain 50-yard touchdown reception.
- “Continually fire.
- Bridgewater, who received one of the game balls following the victory, responded to all of the verbal bouquets thrown his way with his trademark “it’s cool” response.
In the meanwhile, Bridgewater added, “we must continue to manage the things that we can control,” which include “our hard work each and every day, the sort of attitude that we have, and simply how we approach each day.” “The fact that this game exists means a great deal; come out and support this new group.
There are others who feel the same way. It’s a wonderful feeling to come out on top.”
Plainchant, a primitive style of music, first appeared about the year 100 C.E. Early on, it was the only sort of music that was permitted in Christian churches. A common belief among Christians is that music should make the listener more open to spiritual ideas and reflections. This belief is supported by research. As a result, the melody was maintained clean and unaccompanied throughout. This was especially true because the same tune would be replayed throughout the plainsong. There are no harmonies or chords to enhance the melody in this song.
Why Is it Also Called Gregorian Chant?
There were numerous various types of plainchant in use during the early centuries, and there was no standardization. A collection of chants was envisioned by Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) about the year 600, and it was completed by Pope Gregory the First in the year 600. This collection of music was known as Gregorian Chant since it was named after him. Later, the word Gregorian Chant was adopted to denote this type of music in general. Prayer, reading, psalm, canticle, hymn, prose, antiphon, responsory, introit, alleluia, and many more varieties of Gregorian Chant are among the many types of Gregorian Chant.
Musical Notation of Plainchant
There were numerous various types of plainchant in use during the early centuries, and there was no standardization of these styles. A collection of chants was envisioned by Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) about the year 600, and it was completed by Pope Gregory the First in the year 700. This collection of music was known as Gregorian Chant since it was named after him. Later, the word Gregorian Chant was adopted to represent this type of music more broadly. Psalm, canticle, hymn, prose, antiphon, responsory, introit, alleluia and many more genres of Gregorian Chant are among the many diverse varieties of Gregorian Chant.
There were many various varieties of plainchant throughout the early centuries, and there was no standardization. Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) had an idea around the year 600 to unite all of the numerous sorts of chants into an one collection. This collection of music, which was named after him, was known as Gregorian Chant, which eventually became a phrase used to designate this type of music in general. Prayer, reading, psalm, canticle, hymn, prose, antiphon, responsory, introit, alleluia, and many other varieties of Gregorian Chant are among the many types of Gregorian Chant available.
There were numerous various types of plainchant throughout the early centuries, and there was no standardization. Around the year 600, Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) desired to unite all of the many types of chants into an one collection. This collection of music, which was named after him, was known as Gregorian Chant, which eventually became a common phrase to designate this type of music in general.
The many kinds of Gregorian Chant include prayer, reading, psalm, canticle, hymn, prose, antiphon, responsory, introit, alleluia, and many more.
Acantus firmus (also known as “fixed song”) is a pre-existing melody that serves as the foundation for a polyphonic composition.
It is virtually usually the case that the earliest polyphonic works have an acantus firmus, which is often a Gregorian chant, although the phrase “acantus firmus” was not used until the 14th century. Polyphonic compositions date back to circa AD 900, when the Musica enchiriadis was produced, and contain the chant in the top voice and the freshly composed portion beneath; however, this practice altered around 1100, when thecantus firmus began to emerge in the lowest-sounding voice. It was not until later that thecantus firmusappeared in the tenor voice (derived from the Latin verbtenere, meaning “to hold”), singing notes of greater length around which more florid lines, both instrumental and vocal, were written.
- Martial and Notre Dame schools, as well as the vast majority of thirteenth-century motets, are composed in this style of composition.
- In the fourteenth century, the approach was still commonly adopted for the majority of religious vocal music, but there was substantial regional diversity in use.
- At first, thecantus firmus was nearly always derived from plainchant, but over time, the range of sources expanded to include other religious texts as well as popular melodies and popular music.
- While still in use in the 16th century, the technique of cantus firmus was gradually phased out and replaced by the parody (or imitation) approach, in which several voices from an already-existing source were integrated into a holy composition such as a mass.
- There are around 40 documented settings, including two by Josquin des Prez and six by an unidentified composer or group of composers in Naples, which were meant to be performed as a cycle of songs.
- There are numerous ideas about the origin of the name: one argues that the “armed man” is a representation of St Michael the Archangel, while another suggests that it is a reference to the name of a prominent pub (Maison L’Homme Armé) located near Dufay’s Cambrai residence.
Many additional secular cantus firmi have been utilized in the composition of masses; some of the most notable are “Se la face ay pale” (Dufay), “Fortuna desperata” (attributed to Antoine Busnois), “Fors seul” (Johannes Ockeghem), “Mille Regretz,” “Pange language” (Josquin), and “Westron Wynde” (anonymous).
The chorale “O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig” comes in the first movement of Bach’s St Matthew Passion in lengthy notes, performed by a distinct choir of boys “in ripieno,” which means “in rapid succession.” In the pedal portion of several of his chorale preludes, he incorporates a chorale theme.
OUTLINE FOR MUSIC Since the dawn of recorded history, humans have played an essential role in a variety of activities. Music today plays an extremely essential and critical function in the lives of all human beings. It can be found virtually everywhere on our planet. One more stimulation to add to the huge ocean of impulses that our senses acquire on a daily basis. Humans utilize music for a variety of purposes, including: Amusement for one’s own amusement Activities that promote contemplation.
- Sound is transmitted and received in two ways.
- Areceiverto is a device that can detect and record sound vibrations.
- A membrane made of animal hide or synthetic material is used to protect the skin.
- Beads rattling in a confined container can be heard.
- In a tiny resonating tube, the buzzing of lips may be heard.
- The movement of small pieces of reed linked to a tube is triggered by the action of human breathing.
- Sound may also be created artificially through the use of electrical synthesis.
- Notation, melody, rhythm, harmony, texture, form, dynamics, and timbre are all elements of music.
NOTATION Written on paper in order for the music to be performed again and over again is the goal. System of notation for music Having the ability to read and interpret written music notation is not necessary for most people to enjoy and comprehend most music, but it does help. MELODY – A song about love and loss (Line, Space) Melody A series of single tones or pitches that are thought to be coherent in their appearance. Melody has the following characteristics: �Pitch The highness or lowness of a tone is determined by the frequency of the tone (rate of vibration) �Interval The distance between two pitches, as well as their connection.
- (either narrow, medium, or broad) �Shape The direction that a melody follows as it ascends or descends, or as it remains static, is called the tempo.
- �Cadence Musical punctuation is a location where a musical phrase can take a break.
- RHYTHM – A rhythm is a pattern of beats (Rhythm, Pattern, Repetition, Time) Rhythm In music, the concept of time is present.
- Accentuation is the placement of emphasis on a note such that it is louder or lasts longer than another.
- In music, there are many different types of styles.
- �Meter Measurement is the grouping of beats into bigger, more regular patterns that are notated.
�Downbeat In any meter, the first beat of a measure is the most powerful beat. Syncopation is the deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse by a brief change of the accent to a weak beat, or an offbeat, in a musical composition.
- Polyrhythmic – The employment of numerous different rhythmic patterns or meters at the same time
Nonmetric music is music that does not have a strong sense of rhythm or meter. A HARMONY – (Balance)Harmony is the simultaneous combination of notes, as well as the connections between intervals and chords that result. Harmony has the following characteristics: �Chord A single block of harmony is formed by the simultaneous combination of tones (usually three or more) that form a single block of harmony. �Scale A succession of tones or pitches that are either rising or decreasing in pitch. �Tonality The principle of structuring a work around a core tonic, or home pitch, that is based on a major or minor scale is called tonic structure.
- Tonic and diatonic
THE TEXTURE – (Texture) Texture A musical fabric is formed by the intertwining of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) parts. Generally speaking, they are as follows: A single melody is presented by a single voice or section in a monophonic composition. Heterophonic compositions are those in which two or more voices/parts elaborate on the same melody at the same time. Homophonic music consists of a main melody and an accompanying harmony. The term polyphonic refers to the combination of two or more melodies into a multi-voiced texture.
Formal characteristics include: �Repetition Within a form, repetition cements the material in our minds and fulfills our craving for the familiar; it brings a form’s elements together as a whole.
(Variety) �Variation A principle that allows for some characteristics of the music to be changed while remaining recognizable.
�Theme In music composition, a melodic concept is employed as a fundamental building component in the production of the piece.
- Motive A tiny, thematic fragment that serves as the basis of a melodic-rhythmic structure
- Sequence The same notion repeated at a higher or lower pitch level
- Obligato A brief musical pattern- melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic- that is repeated repeatedly throughout a work or a main portion of a composition In this example, a brief (four-note) descending pattern in the bass can be heard throughout the piece beneath the vocals.
Ostinato is a brief musical pattern—melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic—that is repeated repeatedly throughout a piece or main portion of a composition. Under the vocals in this example, a brief (four-note) descending pattern in the bass may be heard throughout.
The Book of Gregorian Chant
Liturgical music and Latin texts make up the bulk of the book’s content. It is the chants from the Ordinary of the Mass that comprise the majority of the manuscript, including arrangements of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Ite Missa Est, Deo gratias, and Benedicamus Domino texts. In this collection, you’ll find a variety of chants from various Proper settings, such as those from the Asperges Mass, the Requiem Mass, the Mass for a Church’s Dedication, the Mass for the Purification of Mary (Candlemas), and others.
- Francisci, the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Lady Day), Maundy Thursday, and Palm Sunday, among other occasions.
- The UMKC Library Catalog contains a comprehensive listing of the manuscript’s contents, which can be found here.
- Six scribes appear to have contributed to the book, according to an examination of the notation features..
- In addition to the initial notation, other scribes “fixed” the work of prior scribes, which was done in a variety of ways.
- The process of comparing the original with the new version of various chants, and then comparing those two versions with other medieval sources, was critical in determining the publication date of the book.
- This, together with the fact that the number of staff lines varied from four to six lines per staff in the manuscript, indicates that at least a portion of the book was written before the standard staff for chant notation were established.
- Alumnus of the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory of Music James Adair purchased the manuscript in 1968 while visiting Seville, Spain.
Adair has determined that a stamp in purple ink that occurs on three folios (folios 26r, 93r, and 98r) is an official identifying mark from the Spanish government.
Adair presented the book to the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory Library in 1973, which later became a component of the Miller Nichols Library.
Every chant in the UMKC text has been recorded in contemporary notation, which is the most significant outcome of her endeavor.
A lecture-recital based on chosen chants from the UMKC text was delivered on April 16, 2000, at the RLDS Temple in Independence, Mo.
Kraybill was the guest speaker for the event.
After the chants, Dr.
Kraybill, who graciously provided a recording of it.
They are the Kyrie and Alleluia from the Mass for the Dedication of a Church, as well as the Antiphon from the Palm Sunday celebration.
Kraybill’s transcriptions of them, are also available on this website for viewing and listening.
Kraybill has contributed digitized photographs from the book for use in this web exhibit, in addition to the written text.
The experience and research of Ms.
Moses Ong, Special Collections volunteer and former student assistant, who gave extremely beneficial technical support. We would like to express our gratitude to Rob Ray, our previous Special Collections Librarian, for his leadership and assistance during this endeavor.
An acclamation that is sung immediately after the Introit in the Latin Mass is known as the Kyrie. Lord, have mercy on us,’ says the fundamental text, which is in Greek, which is composed of the phrases ‘Kyrie, eleison’ (three times), ‘Christe, eleison’ (three times), and ‘Kyrie, eleison’ (three times): ‘Lord, have mercy on us,’ says the text. Please, Christ, have mercy on me. ‘Lord, take compassion on me.’ After becoming popularized as part of pagan civic and religious events throughout the Roman Empire, the phrase ‘kyrie eleison’ continued to be employed in Christian rites, eventually becoming a staple of many Christian liturgies beginning in the 6th century and continuing today.
(This information comes from the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians Online.) The audio element cannot be played because your browser does not support it.
Kraybill’s performance of the Kyrie eleison is available on CD.
This Proper chant is performed after the Gradual during the Fore-Mass on liturgical days connected with penitence and fasting (most notably during Lent), and on liturgical occasions associated with sadness (such as the Requiem Mass), when it may be substituted by the Tract. During Paschal Time, which begins with Low Sunday and ends with High Sunday, the Gradual is skipped and two Alleluias are sung instead. After singing the word “alleluia” and closing with a prolonged melismatic flourish (the Jubilus), the Alleluia will be followed by a somewhat ornate verse, followed by another repetition of the phrase “alleluia.” The Alleluia will be done in a responsorial way.
Although there is no evidence of such participation by the chorus in the early sources, it is possible that the chorus sang at least the final iteration of the Alleluia at some point.
This form of liturgical chant was common to the Gregorian and other Western chant repertoires and was connected mostly with antiphonal psalmody, although it was also used in other contexts. When a Psalm or canticle is being sang, it is customary for the refrain to be composed in basic syllabic manner, and it is usually only a few measures in length. There were, on the other hand, several sorts of Antiphons that were not related with psalmody at all. In the processional Antiphons, which were first preserved in graduals and later in separate books and sung at processions on such occassions as the Feast of the Purification (Candlemas), the Greater Litanies, and Palm Sunday, there were verses after the fasion of responsories that were sometimes included in a processional.
It is still used in processionals at modern services, which is a testament to its longevity.
The UMKC text has just a few chants from the Office. This one, from the Office of “Terce,” would have been at the church at 9 a.m. for worship. This information is derived from the New Harvard Dictionary of Music.
According to an examination of the peculiarities of the notation, it appears that six scribes worked on the UMKC’s Book of Gregorian Chant. ‘Scribe 1’ is responsible for the majority of the manuscript’s work, which includes the biggest illumination in the text, a capital “P,” which occurs on folio 82r and takes up more than half of the page (left). In addition to the initial notation, other scribes “fixed” the work of prior scribes, which was done in a variety of ways. On the right is a page from the manuscript (folio 8r), which was written by another scribe and features an illumination of the letter “P,” but this illumination is much different from the previous one.
Kraybill, “the illuminations distinguish and enhance the beauty of this book, as is true of many medieval instances.” Many various colors of pen were used to produce these text decorations, including black, red, teal blue, dark blue, green and orange.
As a result, a wide variety of techniques were employed, yielding results that ranged from extremely ornate and colorful decorations that filled the margins from top to bottom with beautiful filigree to very crude, “colored-in” letters that appeared to be a clumsy attempt by an unskilled hand to imitate the beauty of the former.
Folio 8r has the final section of the Asperges Antiphon with Psalm, as well as the first section of an unnamed Credo, among other things (which also begins with an illuminated “P”).
Although we have three Latin Creeds (the ‘Apostles’, the ‘Nicene, and the ‘Athanasian’), the history of the texts is complicated; nonetheless, the one used at Mass is the one often referred to as the ‘Nicene.’ Early in the 6th century, the Credo was introduced into the eucharistic liturgy in the eastern church in the form known as the ‘Nicene’ (or ‘Nicea-Constantinople’) version (so named because it summarizes the doctrines agreed upon at the Councils of Nicea, 325, and Constantinople, 381), and soon after that, it was introduced into the Visigothic rite by the Council of Toledo (589).
In both cases, it was instituted in the wake of theological disputes, with the goal of defining the conviction that all those who participate in the Eucharist should hold in common.
Baptismal usage of the Credo (or Symbolum, as it was known in this capacity) persisted throughout the Middle Ages, and it is thought to have been responsible for the maintenance of a Greek text in Latin manuscripts depicting customs in northern France and Germany during this period.
(Image courtesy of the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians on the Internet.)
musical form – Formal types
There are four basic types of musical forms that can be distinguished in ethnomusicology: iterative, which is defined as the repetition of the same phrase over and over; reverting, which is defined as the repetition of a phrase after a contrasting one; strophic, which is defined as a larger melodic entity repeated over and over to different strophes (stanzas) of a poetic text; and progressive, which is defined as the presentation of new melodic material on a continuous (thus synonymous with through-composed).
The following discussion will begin with Western music and then go on to non-Western forms of music.
Iterative and reverting types
Gregorian chant, for example, uses iterative types, which are uncommon in Western music. For example, each line of a psalm is sung to the same melodic formula, which makes up a psalm recitation tone. Reverting kinds, on the other hand, are far more prevalent. The set forms employed in songs, such as the French ballade (A a b), the Italian ballata (A b b an A), the German bar form (A a b), and the Italian ballata (A b b an A), existed in the Middle Ages. These forms, which contain patterns of repetition and contrast, corresponded to literary forms.
In use since the Baroque period (c.1600–c.1750), binary, or two-part form, such as the letter b, has been prevalent.
It has two sections, each of which is repeated twice before the second section begins, and the two sections are a and b a (i.e., with a final return to the original material in the second section).
It was not until the late 18th century that the rounded binary form gained significant significance, when it was enlarged and elaborated into what is known assonataform (also known as sonata-allegro or first movement form), which may be described as follows: In this way, the relationship between the structure of the rounded binary form and the a:b a: structure of the a:b a: structure of the rounded binary form is evident.
In most cases, the primary musical themes are stated in the exposition; in the development, they are subjected to a process of working out and modification; and, eventually, in the recapitulation, they are reaffirmed.
Since the mid-18th century, this formal concept, which is normally addressed with a certain amount of latitude, has been of fundamental importance in Western instrumental music.
It was not until the late 18th century that the rounded binary form gained significant significance, when it was enlarged and elaborated into what is known as the sonataform (also known as sonata-allegro or first movement form), which may be expressed as follows: In this way, the relationship between the structure of the rounded binary form and the exposition: development recapitulation: is obvious.
In most cases, the primary musical themes are stated in the exposition; in the development, they are exposed to a process of working out and modification; and, lastly, in the recapitulation, the themes are declared once more.
In Western instrumental music, this formal concept has been of fundamental importance since the middle of the 18th century, but it is normally treated with a certain amount of latitude.
It was not until the late 18th century that the rounded binary form gained significant prominence, when it was enlarged and elaborated into what is known as the sonataform (also known as sonata-allegro or first movement form), which may be expressed as follows: The relationship between the a:b a:c structure of rounded binary form and the a:b a:c structure of a:b a:c structure of rounded binary form is evident.
Typically, the primary melodic themes are established in the exposition; they are worked out and varied in the development; and, lastly, they are reaffirmed in the recapitulation.
Since the mid-eighteenth century, this formal concept, which is normally addressed with a certain amount of latitude, has been of fundamental importance in Western instrumental music.
When different poetic strophes are put to the same tune, this form of composition is seen in hymns and traditional ballads, among other places. In this way, while the melody of a single stanza may be in accordance with one of the reverting kinds, thehymnorballadas as a whole is strophic; this is also true of the fixed forms of medieval music as well as many other genres of song, both simple and complicated. The variation (or theme and variation) form is the instrumental equivalent of the strophic form, in which a humorous topic, sometimes a whole melody with a harmonic accompaniment, is given and then repeated a number of times, but with changes.
However, the form is more typical in independent instrumentalcompositions, which are often of substantial size (for example, Beethoven’sDiabelli Variations for piano), than in vocal works.
It was built around a repeated melodic or harmonic pattern, usually in the bass, with the accompanying parts being varied with each statement of the pattern, as in Bach’sPassacaglia and Fugue in C Minorfor organ or his “Chaconne” from thePartita in D Minorfor unaccompanied violin.
Brahms made extensive use of the ostinato in his compositions during the nineteenth century (finales of theVariations on a Theme by Haydnand theSymphony No.
Despite its prevalence in songs and instrumental pieces from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the progressive type is found in earlier music (for example, in the melodies used for the Gloria and Credo of theassin plainchant) and in the prose orsequence (c.9th–c.12th centuries), in which the phrases are arranged in pairs (a b c, etc.), as well as in its instrumental equivalent, theestampie.
The progressive type is prevalent in songs and instrumental pieces from the Polyphonicforms that make use of an acantus firmus or a basic melody (often aplainchantexcerpt) are also classified as progressive, and include the liturgicalorganum, the early motet, and the conductus from the medieval era, as well as many chorale-preludes for organ from the Baroque period, among others.
The most important forms of Renaissancepolyphony also belong to the progressive type, because the characteristic procedure was to give each line of the text its own musical phrase, as in the Renaissance motet and other types of secularpolyphonic music, which is also true of other types of secularpolyphonic music.
Thematic material in other progressive types of music, such as intonations, preludes, toccatas, and fantasias for lute and keyboard from the 16th, 17th, and early 18th centuries, is primarily composed of figurative elements (scale passages, arpeggiated chords, trills, turns, and the like); in larger works of this type, such as those by Bach, fugal passages are frequently included in the composition.
Finally, there is the basic binary form (a b), which is frequently encountered in early dances as well as in huge operatic arias from the Classical period (Mozart and Beethoven).
Gregorian Chant – 1600 Words
Gregorian Chant (Gregorian Chant) “This music may be split into three categories, each of which is distinguished by the degree of difficulty. Using simple chants allowed everyone in the congregation to join in, and some could easily trace their ancestors back to before Gregory, possibly even to the music of the synagogue.” The antiphons for lauds and vespers are more difficult to learn. Nonetheless, they are not prohibitively tough for a monastic community with members of varied abilities to complete.
- They are composed of structural sounds that are tied together by an intricate interlacing of notes, similar to the Celtic knots seen in the Book of Kells imagery….
- In terms of music, there are many different definitions of the phrase.
- Pop rock is sometimes derided as a polished, commercial product that is less real than rock music, according to its opponents.
- When referring to more commercially successful music that incorporates elements of rock music or takes on the shape of rock, the words “pop-rock” and “power pop” have been used.
- Since the early twentieth century, the term pop has been used to refer to popular music in general.
- From around 1967, it was frequently used in contrast to the word rock music to denote a genre that was more commercial, transient, and ad hoc in its nature.
Gregorian Chant, A Beginner’s Guide
The music of the Middle Ages is often classified into two primary categories: secular music and religious music. Anyone who has delved into the complicated world of medieval music has almost certainly come across religious chants, which are also known as Gregorian Chants in some circles. While it may appear that all chants are essentially the same (particularly to those who are unfamiliar with medieval liturgical music), there is a broad range of genres, subjects, and purposes to be found within the genre.
Medieval Church Music
It is nearly hard to comprehend what Gregorian chants are without at least a passing familiarity with the Catholic Church. rather than attempt to describe theology and millennia of religious ceremonies and traditions, I will just clarify some basic terms that will be useful in the future…. Remember that the definitions and descriptions in this section are specific to Western Christianity (Roman Catholicism) and may not have the same meaning in the Eastern Orthodox Church (or vice versa). The Cantate Domino is an illustration for Psalm 97, composed in 1380.
- The Mass/Holy Eucharist and the Divine Office are the two most important services offered by the Roman Catholic Church.
- The overall structure of these services remains rather consistent, although the precise content varies based on the time of year and the season.
- Observances of religious festivals, which are religious celebrations or commemorations of events and/or persons, include Festivities are a time for feasting.
- The first is referred to as Proper of the Time, Temporale, or Feasts of the Lord in some circles.
- The second feast cycle is known as theProper of the Saintssorthe Sanctorale, and it is devoted to the lives of specific saints and their sanctified properties.
- A number of feasts are held on the same day each year.
- Mass is the most important liturgy in the Roman Catholic Church, and it is held every Sunday.
During the Mass, there are musical and nonmusical portions, some of which are taken from the Proper and others which are taken from the Ordinary.
These eight sets of prayers and services (referred to as “canonical hours”) are performed on a daily basis and are distinct and separate from the celebration of the Mass.
Hymns, psalms, canticles, responsories, and antiphons are some of the musical genres that are employed in the Office/Liturgy of the Hours.
Even though the melodies may alter according on the preferences of the local clergy, the text remain consistent.
There are no changes to these songs and chants because they are permanent aspects of the Mass and do not vary with the seasons.
In the Mass and the Office services, the Proper are the texts, chants, and music that vary from one feast to the next, and they are made up of the Proper.
There are several forms of music in the Proper that are used during Mass, including the introit, the Gradual, the Alleluia, the Offertory, and the Communion Song. Tropes, sequences, and processionals are some of the other types of chants that are utilized for special events.
Are you confused? Keep reading!
Gregorian chants are nearly hard to comprehend without at least a passing familiarity with the Catholic Church’s liturgical traditions. Instead of attempting to describe theology and centuries of religious ceremonies and practices, I will just clarify some basic terms that will be useful in the future. Remember that the definitions and descriptions in this section are particular to Western Christianity (Roman Catholicism) and may not have the same meaning in the Orthodox Church. It is estimated that the Cantate Domino was composed in 1380.
- The Mass/Holy Eucharist and the Divine Office are the two most important services offered by the Roman Catholic Church..
- These services have a fairly consistent pattern throughout the year, however the precise material varies based on the period of time.
- Fasting and Fasting-related events and/or persons are commemorated or celebrated during religious feasts.
- To make up the liturgical year, there are two feast cycles that are observed.
- Holidays such as Christmas and Easter are included in this category because they are centered on the life of Christ.
- The two feast cycles are interspersed with one another.
- Others, such as Easter, are subject to shift in date and are referred to as “movable” feasts in this context.
In commemoration of the Last Supper, it is performed as a rite.
Some are taken directly out ofthe Propers, whilst others come directly out of the Ordinaries.
These eight sets of prayers and services (referred to as “canonical hours”) are performed on a daily basis and are distinct and separate from the celebration of the Eucharistic celebration.
Hymns, psalms, canticles, responsories, and antiphons are some of the musical genres employed in the Office/Liturgy of the Hours.
Even though the melodies may alter according to the preferences of the local priest, the text remain consistent.
They are constant components of the Mass and do not alter in accordance with the seasons or holidays.
Proper-The texts, chants, and music that make up the Proper are those elements of the Mass and Office services that change from one feast day to the next.
The Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offertory, and Communion are the genres of music in the Proper that are used during Mass. Troteopes, sequences, and processionals are examples of chants that are utilized for special events.
Gregorian Chant, a Brief History
It is nearly hard to understand what Gregorian chants are without at least a passing familiarity with the Catholic Church. Rather than attempting to describe theology and centuries of religious ceremonies and practices, I will just clarify some basic terms that will be useful in the future. It should be noted that the definitions and descriptions provided are particular to Western Christianity (Roman Catholicism) and do not necessarily have the same meaning in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Cantate Domino, an illustration for Psalm 97, composed in 1380.
- The Mass/Holy Eucharist and the Divine Office are the two most important services provided by the Roman Catholic Church.
- Although the general format of these services remains same, the precise material varies depending on the time of year.
- Observances of religious festivals, which are religious celebrations or commemorations of events and/or persons.
- The liturgical year is divided into two feast cycles.
- The life of Christ is the central theme of these feasts, which include festivals like as Christmas and Easter.
- The two feast cycles coincide with one another.
- Others, like as Easter, are subject to alter in date and are referred to as “movable” feasts.
It is a rite of passage that commemorates The Last Supper.
The Divine Office, also known as theLiturgy of the Hours and theBreviary, is a religious practice that takes place every day.
The Divine Office services can be performed in a variety of settings, including monasteries, cathedrals, and churches, which affects how they are organized or planned.
Ordinary-The precise texts, chants, and music that are used in certain sections of the Mass and Office services that are always the same, regardless of the day or the feast.
The Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, and Agnus Dei are the musical forms that make up the Ordinary.
The entire texts of the Ordinary of the Mass can be found by clicking on the link below.
There are several sorts of music in the Proper that are utilized during Mass, including the introit, the Gradual, the Alleluia, the Offertory, and the Communion. Other types of chants, such as tropes, sequences, and processionals, are reserved for exceptional occasions.
What makes a Gregorian chant a Gregorian chant?
Gregorian chants are free-form, which means that they are not metered and do not have a time signature like other types of music. They are modal, which means that composers have the choice of writing a tune in one of eight different scales. Most will use a method known as melisma, which is the singing of a number of notes for each syllable of text in a sentence. The vast majority of them are written and performed entirely in Latin. For centuries, Gregorian chants were performed a cappella, with only the tune as the accompaniment.
- The majority of chants were monophonic (one voice), which means that just one tune was chanted in unison by all participants.
- At most, a portative organ might play a single note as a type of drone, but practically all of the time, there was nothing but voices playing on the instrument.
- Only instruments of the spirit, sometimes known as “alive strings,” were worthy of being used to honor the Almighty.
- The organum, which is a group of several “voices” singing the same tune in unison but at different intervals, was first developed in the 9th century.
- The goal here was not to create harmony in the sense that most current music does (chords, blending of tones that are distinct from the song’s melody and rhythm), but rather to “enliven” the melody by adding depth to it.
- ‘Parallel Organum’ is an abbreviation for Parallel Organum.
- 5 “Deum Verum” is an Invitatory to the Holy Trinity (7th century).
This chant begins with a monophonic tune, which is subsequently followed by an organum section.
Pay attention to the second line, which is sung at a 4th interval higher.
The text is not from scripture, but rather is prose authored by Hildegard herself.
It is a monophonic chant with a lot of melisma in the melody.
With the hope that everyday musicians such as me may have the opportunity to perform at home, I’ve provided the following ink to a piano version of the Gregorian chant “O Ignee Spiritus” as an extra gift for my musically-inclined readers.
Thanks for your consideration!
However, my passion for Medieval music has prompted me to transcribe this chant into a manner that remains loyal to the original melody while altering it with additional harmony to make it playable and delightful on the piano, which you can hear below.
In order to capture the otherworldly character of this hymn while also making it enjoyable to listen to and play, I set out to create a new arrangement. Here’s an audio sample (in MIDI format) to get you started:
Sources and Further Reading
Because I am not a Catholic, I relied on information obtained from the following sources to guarantee that the material was accurate:
- Breviary Hymns, Fides Quaerens Intellectum, Chantblog, and GIA Publications, Inc. are some of the resources available. Music for the Church
- National Association of Pastoral Musicians
- Schola Cantorum Bogotensis
- Gregorian Chant Resources and History: Music Outfitters
- Gregorian Chant Resources and History: Encyclopaedia Britannica
- Mark Everist is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Music is a reference work on medieval music. Randel, Don Michael, et al., eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2011. The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a concise reference work on music and musicians. The President and Fellows of Harvard College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 1999. Print
The main image for this piece is an illuminated manuscript from a 14th-century choir book, which is worth mentioning in its own right. The picture is a carving of St. Lawrence in the letter “C,” which is seen in the letter “C.” The Introit to the Mass for the Feast of St. Lawrence begins with this opening syllable.