How Was Chant Notated

Gregorian Chant Notation

This is a description of the traditional Gregorian Chant notation, with the goal of making it easy for anybody to read and sing the music. Chant is written in neumes, which are notes spoken on a single word that are separated by a space. Gregorian Chant does not have a meter at all, yet it does have a rhythm consisting of groups of two or three notes that is repeated. Vertical lines divide musical phrases and may occasionally provide a break for taking a breath, like in Chant, which is not in a major or minor key, but inmodesto, which means inmodesto (though there are some modes which can sound like a modern scale).

Dois is indicated on the staff by a dot.

Do would occupy the bottom available place in this case.

On the right is a modern-day version of this.

Liquescent Neumes

There are several different ways to demonstrate that a note is in your possession: One way to achieve this is to add a dot (punctum-mora) after the note. In modern music, it’s a little like a dotted note in the middle of a phrase. In order to demonstrate that a note is held, more than one of the same note in a row on the same syllable should be included in the composition. A repurcussive neume is what is referred to as this. In contemporary music, a horizontal line (episema) over a neume indicates that the note should be held or that it should be slowed down a bit likerit.

  • A single accidental that may be employed in Chant notation is the B-flat, which appears to be quite similar to the current B-flat on the piano keyboard.
  • In every other case, it just lasts for a single syllable.
  • If you love this website and would want to contribute a few of dollars to help keep it running, you may do so by sending a check to the following address: The payment is made to That is how to read Gregorian Chant notation, in its entirety!
  • The LPH Resource Center for Catholic Homeschoolers offers elementary-level Latin and music lessons to homeschooling families.
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Gregorian notation

Previous pagenext page Previous pagenext page The essential ideas of Gregorian notation, as well as the method of producing scores in Gregorian notation with Harmony-Melody, are introduced in this chapter. If you are unfamiliar with this notation, we hope that reading this chapter will pique your interest and prompt you to learn more about it. Here’s an example of a gregorian staff created using Harmony-Melody software: In the Demos folder, you will find some gregorian music that you may use (“Gregorian” subfolder).

  1. C, D, E, F, G, and A are the notes that make up the scale in contemporary notation.
  2. Notes are written on a four-line staff to keep them organized.
  3. Only notepitchis are stated; the choir master(or vocalist) is allowed to pick the length of the piece.
  4. Places where the vocalist can take a breath (and relax) are also mentioned.
  5. The words of chants are typically always connected with the staff, which makes sense given that we’re talking about them.

All of the notes that are sung on the same word or syllable are grouped together into an entity known as aNeume. Neumes are the second of the four elements. The neume is the fundamental unit of Gregorian notation. It is the first letter of the alphabet. Aneumeis is defined as follows:

  • The notes that make up the neume (numbered one through four)
  • How long the intervals between these notes are (whether they are upward or downward)

Each of the neumes has a unique name. Notice how the notes inside the neume are represented by a square, a diamond, or a bold line? A neume is usually the first syllable of a syllable that it appears in. When notes are written on the same column, a neume is always read from left to right (as in contemporary notation), but from bottom to top when notes are placed on different columns. As an illustration: Here are three notes in contemporary notation for your consideration. When comparing the first and second, it is important to note that pitchis increased, and then raised again when comparing the second and third.

As a result, a single neume might have up to three different pitch shifts (inflexions).

Each one has a unique moniker.

Numberof notes Inflexions Neume name
1 None Punctum (simple note) or Virga (note with stem)
2 Up (U) Podatus (pes)
2 Down (D) Clivis (flexa)
3 UU Scandicus
3 UD Torculus
3 DU Porrectus
3 DD Climacus
4 UUU Virga praetripuncits
4 UUD Scandus flexus
4 UDU Torculus resipunus
4 UDD Pes subtripunctis
4 DUU Porrectus resupinus
4 DUD Porrectus flexus
4 DDU Climacus resupinus
4 DDD Virga subtripunctis

Here is a neume for you to practice with. Look up the name of the object in the preceding array (answer at the bottom of this page)

Note:Neume names are given only for information. Itwill not be necessary to know these names to work with Harmony-Melody.

III – Indicators of the length of the note In most cases, the length of each note is the same. On the other hand, it is feasible to include information regarding note duration in the score itself. As in contemporary notation, the beginning of a new note will be denoted with a dot (punctum mora). Notes of shorter duration (liquescens) will be denoted by a smaller square. In most cases, this remark is found at the conclusion of the neume and alters the name of the neume. Accidents are the fourth category.

  1. Accidentals are notated in the same way as contemporary music is notated nowadays.
  2. clef: clef: clef: (C is located on the line marked with thearrow) clef: clef: clef: clef: (Fis located on the line marked withthe arrow) These clefs can be put on any line of the staff to indicate which line corresponds to the note being referenced by the clef.
  3. Breath indicators are the equivalent of pauses and rests in current notation.
  4. Custos (seventh) CUSTOS are little notes written on the staff, at the top and bottom right corners of each sheet of paper.
  5. Melody-Harmony creates and displays custos in a completely automated manner.
  6. You may, however, only cutpasteentire neumes at a time.
  7. Individual notes are separated into two groups in the first one; individual notes are combined in the second one to form one neume.
  8. In the help box, you may get a description of each of its components.
  9. If you want to make changes to an existing document, you can add a new staff and modify the document type to “Gregorian.” Choose the clef change tool and place a click on the gregorianstaff to begin writing in the clef.

The C or F clef, as well as the base line of the clef, are then selected. Including a note To move the gregorianstaff, select a note duration from the Gregorian toolspalette (dotted punctum, punctum, or liquescens) and drag the cursor over it. The following information is displayed on the help line:

  • The type of neume that is located under your mouse cursor (together with the note pitches that are present)
  • The type of neume you will get if you combine thenote with thenote

If a neume already has four notes, this information is highlighted in the help line; if you attempt to add a fifth note to a neume that already contains four notes, an error warning is presented and the fifth note is not included. For example, to insert a note at the beginning of a neume, click on the right line before the neume. To insert a remark at the end of a neume, click on the right line after the neume. To insert a remark in the center of a neume, simply click on the appropriate spot within the neume.

Tip:Notes are sometimes graphically very close togetherwithin a neume. To be sure of clicking at the right place, increase thedisplay scale of your document.

Including a pause Then select a rest from the palette and move the gregorian staff over to it. Insert a break by clicking on it (breath). Increase the duration of each breath by clicking many times. Getting rid of a note or a rest Select the delete tool (lightning bolt) and then click on the note (rest) that you want to remove from the document. By selecting a neume and clicking on it, only the note that is being pointed to will be removed from the neume’s contents. IX-Limitations

  • Choosing a time signature for the document is required if you want to sync several Gregory staves (or a gregorian staff with a standard staff). With a 16/4 time signature, on the other hand, you may write 32 puncta in a single bar
  • Nevertheless, the position of the neume graphic inside the bar is not fully free. The addition of a punctum immediately following a four-note neume will not be feasible since the area required by a neume is always the total of the corresponding puncta
  • Nonetheless, it will be possible to cut and paste between gregorian and contemporary staves. Some sets of notes (for example, chords) can, on the other hand, produce odd outcomes when written on a gregorian staff.

Torculus is a three-note neume that goes up and down in the key of C. The answer to the exercise is: page before page after page after page after page after page after page


In Western and Eastern methods of musical notation prior to the development of five-line staff notation, a neume (sometimes written neum) is the fundamental constituent of the notation system. The word first appeared in the English language in the fifteenth century in the Middle English forms “newme,” “nevme,” and “neme,” which were derived from the Middle French “neume,” which was derived from either medieval Latin “pneuma” or “neuma,” the latter from ancient Greek vpneuma(“breath”) or nema(“sign”), or else directly from Greek as a corruption or adaptation of the former.

  1. Later innovations included the use of heightened neumes, which displayed the relative pitches between neumes, and the invention of a four-line musical staff, which recognized specific pitches by their position on the four-line staff.
  2. It was then employed in medieval music to denote particular patterns of rhythm called rhythmic modes, and it eventually evolved into the current musical notation that we know and understand today.
  3. The ninth century marks the appearance of the first Western notation for chanting.
  4. Various researchers believe that they are derived from cheironomic hand movements, from Byzantine chant’s ekphonetic notation, or from punctuation or accent marks.

In each syllable, cheironomic neumes indicated changes in pitch and duration, but did not attempt to specify the pitches of individual notes, the intervals between pitches within a neume, or the relative starting pitches of different syllables’ neumes, as was the case with other musical notation systems.

It’s likely that they were merely intended to serve as mnemonics for tunes that were learnt by ear. The following are examples of the earliest existing manuscripts of such neumes (from the ninth to tenth centuries):

  • In Western and Eastern methods of musical notation prior to the development of five-line staff notation, a neume (sometimes written neum) is the fundamental element of the notation. The word first appeared in the English language in the fifteenth century in the Middle English forms “newme,” “nevme,” and “neme,” which were derived from the Middle French “neume,” which was derived from either medieval Latin “pneuma” or “neuma,” the latter from ancient Greek vpneuma(“breath”) or nema(“sign”), or else directly from Greek as a corruption or adaptation of the latter. They were inflective signs that denoted the basic structure of a song, rather than the specific notes or rhythms that were going to be sung. A few innovations later included the use of heightened neumes, which displayed the relative pitches between neumes, and the invention of a four-line musical staff, which distinguished specific pitches by their position on the staff. In most cases, neumes do not denote rhythm
  • Nonetheless, extra symbols were sometimes used in conjunction with neumes to denote changes in articulation, duration or pace. It was then employed in medieval music to represent particular patterns of rhythm called rhythmic modes, and it eventually evolved into the current musical notation that we know and love today. Modern versions of plainchant continue to use the neumatic notation as their primary notation. The ninth century marks the appearance of the first Western notation for chant. They were first seen as freeform wavy lines above the text, and were later given the namecheironomicorin campo opento (staffless neumes). They have been attributed to cheironomic hand motions, ekphonetic notation of Byzantine chant, punctuation, and emphasis marks, according to various academics. A single neume might represent a single pitch, or a succession of pitches all sung on the same syllable, depending on how it is arranged. In each syllable, cheironomic neumes denoted changes in pitch and length, but did not try to describe the pitches of individual notes, the intervals between pitches within a neume, or the relative beginning pitches of distinct syllables’ neumes, as was the case with other musical notation. Around 800, there is evidence that the oldest Western musical notation, in the form of neumesin campo aperto (without staff lines), was developed at Metz as a result of Charlemagne’s wish for Frankish church musicians to maintain the performance subtleties utilized by the Roman singers. The mnemonics for tunes that were learnt by ear were, it is presumed, the only use of these symbols. Examples of such neumes found in the earliest existing manuscripts (from the ninth to eleventh century) are:
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An 11th-century manuscript from Dijon has neumes in the form of digraphs. Individual notes in the neume are designated by letter names, which are supplied. At various distances from the text, Beneventan neumes (derived from the churches of Benevento in southern Italy) were written in order to convey an idea about the overall shape of a melody; these neumes were referred to in the literature as “heightened,” “diastematic,” or “diastematic-heightened,” and they indicated the relative pitches between neumes.

  1. Shortly after, one to four staff lines were introduced, an invention that has been attributed to Guido d’Arezzo and which established the precise connection between pitches.
  2. The chironomic notation was written in a thin, scripty form, and these neumes were written in the same style.
  3. This variation is also known as Hufnagel notation, since the neumes that are used to represent them are similar to the nails (hufnagels) that are used to attach horseshoes.
  4. When Gregorian chant was first written in square notation, it was on a staff with four lines and three spaces, as in the fourteenth–fifteenth-centuryGraduale Aboenseshown below.
  5. Melismatic chants, in which a syllable may be sung to a large number of notes, are composed of several smaller neumes, which are written in succession and read from left to right, as a sequence of smaller neumes.
  6. Special neumes, such as the oriscus, quilisma, and liquescent neumes, suggest that certain notes should be treated differently in the vocalization.

The Origin of Notation

It was in my last blog article that I discussed the specifics of Gregorian chant. In this one, I’ll go into the reasons why historians are so well-versed in such specifics. The reason for this is, of course, notation. A wonderful breakthrough that enabled the transmission of musical sound through the use of ink and paper was made possible. Prior to the development of efficient notation, the traditions of Gregorian chant had to be passed down verbally from generation to generation. It took hundreds of years before efficient notation could be devised for the chant tunes and practices that were taught, learnt, retaught, and relearned from monk to monk.

Individual variance was frequently seen as a result of this memory-and-formula method, in which the monks relied on stock words and recognized clichés. When the decision was taken to standardize the liturgy, however, it became clear that individual deviation would no longer be tolerated.

Conditions for Invention

Higher learning, cultural expansion, and economic stability were all fostered by an alliance between the Roman popes and the Frankish Kings. The Carolingian Renaissance (800-1150 CE), a period of human prosperity that took place in what is now modern Germany, France, and Italy, is considered to be the most prosperous period in human history. As early as the ninth century, the Roman liturgy had been declared to be the sole recognized ritual of Christendom across the world. It was necessary for the Roman liturgy to compete with a smorgasbord of local liturgies, primarily the Gallican rite, in order to survive in this huge area of country.

  1. Indeed, prior to the development of notation, the two chant repertoires were intermixed to some extent, mostly as a result of the oral traditions of migratory Christians.
  2. The deadlock contributed to part of the selection pressure that eventually resulted in the development of musical notation.
  3. Notation developed in this area because it was in the center of the junction between the Roman and Galician languages of the Middle Ages, where it was developed.
  4. As a result, the Frankish monarchy was under the greatest amount of pressure to suppress the Gallican rite and accept the Roman liturgy in its place.
  5. There is no documented documentation of this occurrence.


Despite the lack of a written record, historians have deduced from the musical artifacts themselves that the neumes were first employed in Frankish regions about the year 850, according to the written record. It was originally used to define a certain type of melodic phrase that could be sung in a single breath, and it originates from the Greek wordpneuma (which means breath). After a few centuries, however, the wordneume (as well as its pluralneumes) became increasingly popular for describing the marks that designate this type of single-breath musical phrase.

The curve traced by the high and low notes of a melody is known as the melodic contour.

(These are not neumes, by the way.) Despite the fact that neumes were extremely valuable to the monks of the Carolingian renaissance, historians find them to be rather less so.

Neumes are simply pictograms for musicians, and their purpose is only to increase memory retention. The monks began to use these curving symbols to decorate their liturgical books, despite the limitations.

Liturgical Books

Let us take a minute to consider the many types of liturgical books that were available throughout the Middle Ages. Graduates, which held the chants for Sunday mass, antiphoners (which had the chants for office), and a variety of additional texts, such as prosers (which contained prosula) and tropers (which contained tropes), were all available. In addition to these texts, there was a type of appendix of chant melody known as the atonary, which was included with the texts. Using the tonaries, the chants were organized according to the mode (scale) in which they were to be sung.

Oldest Notated Examples

Neumes are inserted over the Latin text of a liturgical hymn in the section below. TheCantatorium of St. Gall is the name of this building. The chantViderunt omnes may be found in the manuscript, which is currently housed in a Swedish library. It is considered to be one of the first full neumatic writings. Accordance with musicologists, it was composed between 922 and 925 CE. Achant discovered in a progressive dating system from about the year 900 is possibly even older than the St. Gall text.

  • We were lucky enough to have a copy of the text on hand.
  • In fact, the Chartres Gradual and the Canatorium of St.
  • Another early example of neumatic notation, and one that was far more precise musically than the preceding ones, came from the town of Dijon in the French province of Bourgogne.
  • The book, which was printed at Volpiano’sscriptoria (a workshop where the monks prepared liturgical texts by hand), had neumes as well as an unusual alphabetical notation in the form of the Greek alphabet.
  • As one of the relatively few educated writers from the Middle Ages who managed to retain part of the Greek wisdom and culture, Boethius was a rare find.
  • That theTonary of Saint Benignewas more musically correct than the music contained in theGradual of Chartres or theCantatorium of St.
  • There were comprehensive notational examples of all kinds of chant styles in the tonary, which was most likely constructed somewhere in the 980s.

These included diverse psalms, antiphons, and tropes for both services, as well as tropes for the office. Here is a page from the St. Benigne tonary, for your consideration. Please take note that the following alphabetical indications and neumes have been written in above the text:

Theoretical Treatises

The theoretical treatises written throughout the Middle Ages, which are maybe even more important than graduals and antiphoners for determining the character of chant, are worth reading. An example of such a treatise is Musica enchiriadis(anonymous, late ninth century), which included musical examples written in Greek letter notation and directional neumes. Many facets of the Gregorian plainsong, as well as characteristics of polyphony—the musical tapestry in which more than one melody is played at the same time—were explored in depth in this book.

  • In a subsequent blog article, I’ll go into further detail on the origins of polyphonic chant.
  • Daisen notation was used to illustrate certain intervals of the scale, such as the half-step and the whole-step, among other things.
  • In addition to the intervallic detail supplied by the Daisen notation, Musica enchiriadis also included Greek letter name notation as well as directional neumes to help the listener navigate through the music.
  • Here is a passage from the musical work Musica enchiriadis:

Notational Improvements

Throughout the years, there have been various transitions and advancements in the use of neumatic notation. The introduction of raised neumes was the first significant upgrade to the system. This type of neume was used to denote the different highs and lows of the melody by placing the marks at different heights above the chant text. Diastematic neumes are the type of neutrons that fall into this category. Here we have theViderunt omnes once more. This one is derived from the gradual and is notated with raised neumes: It was the personnel, though, who brought about the most significant changes.

  • Specific pitches were marked by the lines.
  • As a result, a discrete note representation was established.
  • It was probably between 1025 and 1028 that Guido of Arezzo(992 till sometime around 1033), an Italian monk and master in Gregorian chant, produced the musical treatiseMicrologus, which was published in the early eleventh century.
  • It was a simple two-line system, with a yellow line representing the note C and a red line representing the note F.
  • The neumes were then put above or below these lines, allowing for more precise pitch control.
  • Clips are musical notation markers that are applied at the start of a line of music to identify the note that line represents.
  • He was also the one who came up with the idea of solmization.
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(Today, we sing the scale with the words do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, and ti instead of the traditional do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, and ti.) Guido came up with the concept for this solmization after recognizing that the first six phrases of the chantUt queant laxis described the first six notes of one of the church modes, which he had already discovered.

  1. Check out the following example of Ut queant laxis expressed in contemporary notation: Imagine that we take those six notes and stack them on top of each other, with the higher set of six affixed to the lower set’s fourth-note pich.
  2. This move may be executed seven times, and the result is a pitch set that contains the whole note range of the Gregorian Chant repertory.
  3. This system of pitches was invented by followers of Guido of Arezzo, and the collection of pitches that resulted was known as the system of hexachords.
  4. The followers carried out this range innovation as a pedagogical device to prepare them for the work of modification.
  5. The use of a system of hexachords made it possible to quickly switch between modes.
  6. The Guidonian Hand was a memory aid in which solemnization syllables were allocated to the creases and folds in the palm of one’s hand in order to help in recall.

Watch the video below to see Professor William Mahrt, a modern-day musicologist, demonstrate the usage of the Guidonian hand:

Modern Scholarship

For our current grasp of neumatic notation, we owe our debt to the Solesmes monks in the late nineteenth century. They gathered, structured, recopied, and updated the neumatic script for the whole repertory of the Roman liturgy at Solesmes Abbey in Sarthe, France, which was done by the monks of the Abbey. In 1903, Pope Pius X declared their work to be the official norm of the Catholic Church. In part as a result of the work of the Solesmes monks, Gregorian chant has experienced a surge in popularity, and interest in the music has been rekindled.

This time it’s written in a more recent version of Solesmes monknotation.


During the period between 850 and 1050, notation advanced significantly, although solely in the area of pitch notation (see below). It would take another 300 years for rhythm notation to become established. The origin of notated rhythm will be discussed in greater depth in a later lecture.

Works Cited

Richard Taruskin is the author of this work. The Oxford History of Western Music is a comprehensive reference work on Western music. Oxford University Press published a book in 2005 titled A History of Western Music, edited by D. Grout, J. Burkholder, and C. Palisca, is available online. Norton & Company, 2014. Gerald Abraham is the author of this work. The Concise Oxford History of Music is a condensed version of the Oxford History of Music. The Oxford University Press published this book in 1979.

  • Wilson, et al.
  • Don M.
  • The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a concise reference work on music and musicians.
  • The Belknap Press published this book in 1999.

Gregorio project website

It was composed by a monk from the monastery of Sainte-Madeleine du Barroux in order to express his vision of the structure of the writing of Gregorian chant, which he believed to be correct. In the beginning, it was focused with the development of an XML standard for the description of Gregorian chant. While Gregorio did attempt to integrate this XML standard at one time, the functionality was so little utilized that it was eventually dropped entirely. Gregorio, on the other hand, continues to employ this structure while evaluating its gabc code, making it valuable for users who want to understand how Gregorio “thinks” about a score.


In the same way as human sentences are made up of words, syllables, and letters, it is possible to distinguish between neumes, neumatic components, and neumatic glyphs when transcribing Gregorian chant in typographical transcription. The following analogy (which we will describe in greater detail later) is formed as a result:

  • Words are represented by neumes
  • Syllables are represented by neumatic components
  • Letters are represented by neumatic glyphs.

Here is an example of a neume, which we will go over in further detail later in this document: An illustration of a neume This neume’s initial constituent is referred to as. This element is made up of the glyph, which is followed by the three glyphs, and finally the word and. It is possible that our example of a neume made of 32 notes will surprise you.

It is simply a matter of preference in vocabulary: we refer to aneume as “a collection of notes sung on the same syllable.” For this example of a neume, which may be found in the Antiphonale Monasticum (Solesmes, 2005, vol. I: p. 542-543), we will use the following passage: Score in its entirety

The neumatic elements

In music, the neumatic components are a series of notes that are sung in a linked fashion and that together constitute a specific entity. The terminology used to denote these elements varies from one liturgical book to the next in terms of meaning. The following are the names that are often given to the elements that make up the neume that we used as an example:

Role of the neumatic elements

Using a musical perspective, the neumatic components are a series of notes that are sang together and that together constitute an entity of their own. Although the terminology used to denote these aspects varies from one liturgical book to the next, the basic concepts are the same. The pieces that make up the neume that we used as an example are typically referred to by the following names:

Definition of the neumatic element

We shall return to the idea of neumatic cut, which is still a little hazy in our minds, but for now, we may define theneumatic element as “a set of notes that do not include a neumatic cut.”

The list and the number of neumatic elements

Neumatic elements are found in a number of different forms in modern Gregorian chant scores, which are as follows: When the varying heights (pitches) of the notes and the liquescent forms are not taken into consideration, this list is rather thorough for the elements having only one or two notes in it. Starting with the three-note components, the number of elements increases dramatically, and providing a comprehensive list of all the elements appears to be, if not impossible, at the very least laborious, and not useful for developing a lexical typography for chant.

But, before we get into it, we need to clear up the confusion concerning the gaps that we can come into while following the thread of certain neumatic parts.

Because a typographer is not by definition a musician, a musicologist, or a gregorianist, he need a language that is appropriate for his or her profession.

  • In elements beginning or ending with severalpuncta inclinata
  • In groups of two or three successivepuncta quadrata, strophae, or virgae on the same pitch

As a result, just one neumatic element will be examined for each of the textual forms listed below: However, the following written forms are considered to be two distinct elements:

Difficulties resulting from this choice in establishing a XML standard

Consider the following two examples: If we view thescandicus flexus and theporrectus flexustypographically as one element at times and as two elements at other times, it is very difficult to construct a common XML representation of these two elements. Will the neumatic cut definition we just described be superseded by a more musical one, or will the one we just defined be retained? In many situations, the distinctions are questionable, if not outright challenged, which suggests that this is not the case.

In some manuscripts, both of these sentences are written in this manner.

after which it was transcribed using the following formats: Illustrations of the salicus in various styles.

It appears that the best strategy is to refrain from naming the various neumatic components. However, doing so at the level of theneumatic glyphs will almost probably be more beneficial in the long run.

The neumatic glyphs

According to what we have mentioned above regarding the large number of existent and imagined neumatic parts and the difficulty in identifying them, we must go back to the initial and smallest units for the typographical construction of a gregorian chant score in order to get the best results. A typographer will attempt to identify the various shapes that he will want in order to create his scores on the spur of the moment, and he will discover four primary genres of shapes that will be juxtaposed next to one another.

For example, consider the following geometric forms: Typefaces including this set of primary shapes or glyphs were plainly required in order for lead characters to be used in typography.

For the same reason, the designers of digital typefaces have gone about their business by replacing the numerous neumatic glyphs with their respective tables of characters.

Definition of the neumatic glyph

Consequently, we may define theneumatic glyphas “a pictorial symbol that expresses a neumatic element, either alone or in combination with others.”

The list and the number of neumatic glyphs

Throughout the first pages of most liturgical books published in the twentieth century, we may discover tables of “neumes.” Unfortunately, these tables are the source of some misunderstanding regarding the distinction between neumatic components and neumatic glyphs. In general, they are not adequate to provide a comprehensive list of all the different types of neumatic components, for a variety of reasons. The fact that they are intended to be read by vocalists rather than typographers means that they go beyond the mere listing of primary glyphs.

  • It appears to be pretty difficult to make this number correct.
  • An example of a neumatic element that is exceptionally lengthy For example, the “neumes”punctum, pes, scandicus, and scandicus may all be found in this form of table: punctum, pes, and scandicus.
  • This type of neumatic element will be easier to put together if you combine somepuncta and some podatuses, which will make it easier to assemble.
  • It appears to be more feasible to confine ourselves to textual forms that do not include a space.

Then we need to decide on a maximum number of notes to include. Once we have taken into consideration these two constraints, we must search out all of the conceivable textual forms that may be created using the various pitch sequences and all of the variants.

Medieval Music: Introduction to Gregorian Chant

Sonja Maurer-Dass contributed to this article. Gregorian chant is one of the most famous musical legacies of medieval Europe, distinguished by its free-flowing melodies, holy Latin lyrics, and distinctive monophonic texture. Gregorian chant, which was developed and propagated during the Carolingian dynasty, appears to be a world away from the much more contemporary epochs of Western music to which many of our ears are accustomed; however, it is from this ages-old liturgical tradition that our current understanding of Western music and its accompanying system of musical notation derives from.

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This section will look at how Gregorian chant came to be and how it spread throughout the world.

Many medieval music fans nowadays are aware with Gregorian chant (also known as Frankish-Roman chant), which is the most well-known of the liturgical chant traditions; nevertheless, throughout early medieval Europe, there were numerous distinct styles of holy chant that differed according to area.

  1. When one considers the several diverse Western liturgical chant traditions that have existed throughout the centuries, one would wonder why Gregorian chant has become the most generally recognized and maintained of them all.
  2. The development of Gregorian chant took place between the seventh and ninth centuries CE, during a period in which Frankish monarchs, most notably Charlemagne, tried to bring liturgical consistency to their kingdoms.
  3. Charlemagne declared in 789 that all of his kingdoms would be consolidated under a single Roman liturgy and chant, which became known as the Roman Rite.
  4. In essence, Gregorian chant was, as Margot Fassler puts it, “the revised song of the Franks,” which arose from a fusion of Old Roman chant with the Gallican chant of the Franks, according to Fassler.
  5. So far, we’ve looked at how the Carolingians had a crucial part in the spreading and development of Gregorian chant, but what about the popular tale that claims that Pope Saint Gregory I (“Gregory the Great”) is responsible for the spread of Gregorian chant?
  6. Because it was sung to Gregory I by the Holy Spirit, who came to him in the guise of a white dove, it was considered the most sacred and true type of liturgical chant.
  7. Some musicologists, on the other hand, have speculated that Gregory may have had a role in the codification and consolidation of previous chants, which eventually served as the foundation for later Gregorian chant.

A common depiction of the dove is that it is singing its sacred songs to Gregory, while Gregory is concurrently dictating the dove’s melodies to a nearby scribe.

Gregorian Chant’s Texture and Melody are both beautiful.

“Monophonic” is a musical word that refers to the performance of a single tune with no accompaniment (that is, there is no harmony played with a melody).

In the opening minute of the following chant sample, which was produced by the twelfth-century abbess, philosopher, mystic, and composer Hildegard of Bingen, you can hear a drone that is repeated several times.

For those who have heard different recordings of Gregorian chant, you may have noticed that its melodies are quite flowing in comparison to many modern types of Western art music and popular music.

Classical Gregorian melodies were produced using the notes of an organized pitch system known as modes (which were distinct from the major and minor keys that are now employed in Western music), and they were set to sacred Latin texts from religious services such as the Mass and the Divine Office.

  • Gregorian Chant and Early Types of Medieval Musical Notation are two examples of medieval musical notation.
  • This necessitated the development of a method of recording tunes that could be correctly taught and conveyed without the limitations of human memory.
  • Instead, it made use of symbols known as “neumes,” which served as a kind of trigger for melodies that had previously been acquired and retained as part of an oral culture.
  • They reflect the relative rising and descending melodic motion of the text.
  • The St.
  • Gall in Switzerland, is one of the earliest existing sources of this notation (which was copied in the tenth century).
  • Sang.
  • Sang.
  • Sang.
  • Guido d’Arezzo, a prominent music theorist who lived in Arezzo in the eleventh century, continued to create the framework for modern music notation by developing a four-line musical staff divided by intervals of thirds (an interval is the distance between two pitches).

Guido described the manner in which his employees worked in the preface to his antiphoner (of which only the prologue has been preserved): As a result, the notes are organized in such a manner that any sound, no matter how many times it appears in a song, can always be located in the same row.

–Margot Fassler provided the translation.

As a singer or member of a chorus, you may be acquainted with the syllable pattern Do-Re-Mi-Fa Sol, etc., in which each syllable corresponds to a written note (Guido’s syllable pattern differed somewhat in that the first syllable he used was “Ut” instead of “Do”).

Square notation allowed for the inclusion of more melodic elements that may be interpreted by vocalists who were unfamiliar with the source material.

It’s possible that you’ve already seen some square notation in medieval chant manuscripts, such as punctum (a single note sung to a single syllable); podatus (two notes—one is written on top of the other and the lowest of the two notes is sung first followed by the second note which moves in ascending motion); clivis (contains two notes that are sung in descending motion); and torculus (three notes sung consecutively When compared to our modern experiences of melody and notation, the notation and melodies of Gregorian chant may appear to be foreign and unfamiliar at first glance and listen; however, upon closer examination, it is fascinating and possible to see how the earliest attempts to record and accurately transmit sacred chant evolved over many centuries and eventually matured into the comprehensive system that is widely used and understood in the modern day.

  • Sonja Maurer-Dass is a Canadian musicologist and harpsichordist who specializes in Baroque music.
  • In addition, she possesses a Master’s degree on Musicology from York University, where she specialized in late medieval English choral music and the Old Hall Manuscript, among other things (Toronto, Canada).
  • The paper was presented at the 9th International Medieval Meeting.
  • Read on for more information: Willi Apel is the author of this work.
  • Western Music in Context: Western Music in the Medieval West is a book on music in the Medieval West (W.W.
  • Carolingians and Gregorian Chant are two examples of medieval music (Princeton University Press, 1998) Richard Taruskin is the author of this work.

From the earliest notations through the sixteenth century, there has been music (Oxford University Press, 2010) Adiastematic gregorian aquitanian notation is seen in the top image. Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Clefs in Gregorian chant: complete guide [with examples]

First, I believe it would be helpful to offer a succinct description of the term clef before discussing the typology and purpose of clefs in Gregorian chant. What exactly is meant by clef? In music, a clef is nothing more than a key that allows you to notate, interpret, and execute the musical intervals that make up a tune accurately. It’s likely that you already knew this, but I felt it was important to note. What’s notable is that the clefs used in Gregorian chant are more flexible than the clefs now in use in Western music, which is a unique characteristic.

It is customary to place the treble clef on the second line of the five-line staff, indicating the position of the G note, and the bass clef on the fourth line, indicating that of the note F.

These two clefs serve two primary functions: they indicate the connections between half-notes and entire notes on the staff, and they associate the symbols of the notes with a specific set of frequency values (or frequencies).

Both might be put on distinct lines of the Gregorian 4-line staff, in contrast to what I’ve just written regarding the treble and bass clefs, which are both fixed on the same line of the staff.

This means that a Gregorian chant might be transcribed into any vocal range as long as the intervals printed on the score remained the same as they were originally written.

C clef or Do clef

Look at the following musical notation that represents asyllabic melody: TheC clefis the symbol at the top left of the score, which is highlighted in red. If you look closely at the shape of this clef, you will see that it closely resembles the letter C. According to what you can see, it has been placed on the fourth line of the four-line staff, known as the tetragram, which was historically used by Medieval monks to notateGregorian chant. It’s vital to note that the C clef can be placed in any of the four lines of the staff, depending on the situation.

In this example, you can see how the first two bars of the Gregorian melody stated above were transposed from a four-line staff to a five-line staff: Keep in mind that the frequency assigned to the note C was chosen at random since the clefs in Gregorian chant were used to help the performer identify the intervals of a certain tune rather than the precise frequencies.

It is worth noting that the performers in this rendition of Ave Maria do not begin the chant by singing the frequency corresponding to the note F marked on the stave but instead begin by transposing the melody one tone higher:

F clef or Fa clef

Let’s take a look at this musical score that represents asyllabic melody. At the top left of the score, there is a C clef sign that is highlighted in red. It is interesting to note that the shape of this clef is quite similar to the shape of the letter C when examined closely. According to what you can see, it has been placed on the fourth line of the four-line staff, known as the tetragram, which was originally used by Medieval monks to notate Gregorian chant. It’s vital to note that the C clef can be placed in any of the four lines of the staff, depending on your preference.

From a four-line to a five-line staff, you can see how the first two bars of the previously stated Gregorian tune were transposed: Remember that the frequency assigned to the note C was chosen at random since the clefs in Gregorian chant were used to assist the performer identify the intervals of a certain song rather than the precise frequencies.

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