In Early Organum, Which Voice Sang The Fixed Melody From The Preexisting Gregorian Chant

TRUE 4 Which composers are associated with polyphonic composition at Notre Dame

Roman Catholic liturgical music consisting of monophonic or unison parts that is used to accompany the text of the mass and the canonical hours, or divine office, is known as Gregorian chant. Saint Gregory I, Pope from 590 to 604, is credited for collecting and codifying the Gregorian chant throughout his pontificate. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) introduced Gregorian Chant into his realm, which had previously practiced a different liturgical style known as Gallican chant. During the eighth and ninth centuries, a process of assimilation occurred between Gallican and Gregorian chants, and it is this developed version of the chant that has survived to the current day.

Neumatic (patterns of one to four notes per syllable) and melismatic (patterns of any number of notes per syllable) styles are used in the chanting of the Kyrie.

Using psalm tones, which are basic formulae for intoned recitation of psalms, in the recital of early Glorias attests to their antiquity and ancient provenance.

In certain ways, the Credo’s melodies recall psalm tones, which were integrated into the mass during the 11th century.

  • Neumatic chants are used in the traditional Sanctus chant.
  • The final Ite Missa Est and its alternative, Benedicamus Domino, both take the melody from the opening Kyrie as a basis for composition.
  • Originally a psalm with a refrain repeated in between verses, the Introit has evolved into a processional chant.
  • It was also evolved from a refrain between psalm lines when it was first presented in the 4th century.
  • Originally from the East, the Alleluia dates back to the 4th century.
  • If you’re in a good mood, the Tract can take over for the Alleluia.
  • It was mostly throughout the 9th to 16th centuries when thisquence thrived in its entirety.
  • During the second line of the stanza, the melody was repeated, with a new melody being introduced for the next line of the stanza; the music is syllabic in structure.
  • Melisma pervades the compositions.
  • TheCommunion is a processional chant, much like the Offertory.

Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline are the eight services that make up the canonical hours: Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas, and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s shape and style are influenced by the sponsor’s role.

In the most recent revision and update, Amy Tikkanen provided further information.

CH14: Layering Lines: Polyphony Of The Notre Dame Flashcards

Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music used by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the text of the mass and the canonical hours, often known as the divine office. Saint Gregory the Great, during whose papacy (590–604) the chant was collected and codified, is the inspiration for the name of the style. Charlemagne, king of the Franks (768–814), forced Gregorian chant on his country, which was already dominated by another liturgical tradition, the Gallican chant. It was during the 8th and 9th centuries that the Gallican and Gregorian chants began to blend together, and it is this developed version of the chant that has survived to the current day.

  1. Neumatic (patterns of one to four notes per syllable) and melismatic (patterns of any number of notes per syllable) styles are represented in the Kyrie chant.
  2. The psalmodic recitation of early Glorias, i.e., the use of psalm tones, which are basic formulae for the intoned recitation of psalms, attests to their ancient provenance.
  3. The melodies of the Credo, which were integrated into the mass around the 11th century, are reminiscent of psalm tones in style.
  4. The traditional Sanctus chants are neumatic in nature.
  5. The final Ite Missa Est and its alternative, Benedicamus Domino, both take the melody from the opening Kyrie as their basis.
  6. The Introit is a processional chant that was initially a psalm with a refrain chanted in between verses, but has now evolved into something else.
  7. The Gradual, which was first used in the 4th century, was derived from a refrain between psalm verses as well.

TheAlleluia is a hymn of Eastern origin dating back to the 4th century.

During penitential seasons, the Tract is used instead of the Alleluia.

Thesequencewere active largely from the 9th century until the 16th century.

During the second line of the stanza, the melody was repeated, with a new melody being introduced in the next line of the stanza; the music is syllabic.

The song has a melismatic feel to it.

TheCommunion is a processional chant, similar to the Offertory.

Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline are the eight prayer services that make up the canonical hours of the church day.

Amy Tikkanen has most recently amended and updated this article.

Notre Dame School

Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music used by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. Gregorian chant is called after Pope St. Gregory I, during whose pontificate (590–604) it was collected and codified. Charlemagne, king of the Franks (768–814), forced Gregorian chant on his realm, which was already dominated by another liturgical tradition, the Gallican chant, at the time. During the eighth and ninth centuries, a process of assimilation took place between Gallican and Gregorian chants, and it is this evolved form of the chant that has survived to the present day.

  1. Neumatic (patterns of one to four notes per syllable) and melismatic (patterns of any number of notes per syllable) genres are represented in the Kyrie.
  2. The psalmodic recitation of early Glorias, i.e., the use of psalm tones, simple formulas for the intoned recitation of psalms, attests to their ancient origin.
  3. The melodies of the Credo, which were integrated into the mass around the 11th century, are reminiscent of psalm tones.
  4. Neumatic chants are used in the traditional Sanctus.
  5. The final Ite Missa Est and its alternative, Benedicamus Domino, both employ the melody from the opening Kyrie.
  6. The Introit is a processional chant that was originally a psalm with a refrain performed between verses.
  7. The Gradual, which was first used in the 4th century, was similarly derived from a refrain between psalm lines.

TheAlleluia is a hymn that dates back to the 4th century in the East.

The Tract is used in place of the Alleluia at penitential periods.

Thesequences thrived predominantly from the 9th century until the 16th century.

The melody from the first line was repeated for the second line of the stanza, with a new melody being introduced in the next stanza; the music is syllabic.

The music is fairly melismatic in nature.

TheCommunion, like the Offertory, is a processional chant.

The canonical hours are divided into eight prayer services: Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline.

Amy Tikkanen has just changed and updated this article.

School of St. Martial

From the 10th through the 12th century, the Abbey of St. Martial in Limoges served as a major educational center (also known as the school of Limoges). Aside from producing numerous sequences and tropes (mostly in the 10th and 11th centuries), it is notable for its contribution to the creation of organum, in which the polyphonic school of St. Martial (c. 1100-1150) was directly preceding Notre Dame in the development of organum.

Leonin

Around 1160, Leonin, the first great Notre Dame composer and choirmaster, set the groundwork for the system of rhythmic modes, and he was widely regarded as the best composer of organ music. In accordance with tradition, he is credited with the composition of the “Magnus Liber,” which was based on the Gradual and Antiphonal. With Leonin’s work, the process of eliminating the tenor’s melodic role was brought to a successful conclusion. Leonin’s organum, with its arrangement of voices and the rhythmically ordered quality of the duplum, disguised the original goal of the chant to such an extent that it is now only useful as a starting point for the insertion of a second voice.

Leonin used two different strategies.

  • In one, the plainsong melody is composed of very lengthy notes, while the organ part is loose and unmeasured in rhythm, with a complicated melismata throughout. It is more common to use this free melismatic style when the original plainsong melody is syllabic
  • In the other, which was once known as thediscantusstyle, the two sections move from note to note in rhythmic modes or patterns originating from troubadourmusic. In cases where the plainchant is lyrically sophisticated, the discantus approach is employed.
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During the Mass and the Offices, Leonin’s organa transformed the soloistic elements of responsorial chants into polyphony, but the choral material remained in plainchant style. Old and modern components were contrasted in his composition, with stretches of florid organum interspersed with more lively discant clausulae.

Perotin

At Notre Dame, he took over for Leonin. In addition to introducing greater rhythmic correctness into the organum from the Leonin style, he made additions and alterations to the “Magnus Liber Organi” (Great Book of Organs). In his tenor voices, he used a succession of rhythmic motives that were the forerunners of the therhythmic modes in his compositions. The organum has been enlarged to three and four voices. With Perotin, the three-voice organum became the de facto standard. He also employs canonic mimicry in his music, which is evident in his work.

Conductus

While a participant in a Mass or liturgical performance was being “conducted” or transferred from one location to another in the altar area of the church, the monophonic conductus was most likely being sung for the first time. The text was metric rather than ecclesiastical in style. The tune was not borrowed from a chant collection, but rather was produced entirely on its own. When it initially appeared, this form was linked with the church, but it quickly became a secular form, and the label was attached to nearly any Latin song of a serious tone after that.

Organum

Organum was a term used to describe the practice of singing in parallel fourths and fifths that occurred as early as the 9th century.

There were several other varieties that were produced and given different names. They all shared the common feature of incorporating a previous chant (vox principalis) into which one or more melodic lines were inserted and arranged.

  • A second voice (vox organalis), placed at an interval of a fifth or a fourth below the vox principalis, was added to the parallel organum
  • In the vox organalis, the free organum utilized opposing and oblique motion, whilst a later type employed a later type
  • To contrast the extremely slow-moving values of the vox principalis, melismatic organum employed intricately ornamented ornamental note groups in the vox organalis.

a second voice (vox organalis), placed at an interval of a fifth or a fourth below the vox principalis, was added to the parallel organum. When it comes to the vox organalis, the free organum employs opposing and oblique motion, but the latter variety does not. To contrast the relatively slow-moving values of the vox principalis, melismatic organum employed intricately ornamented ornamental note groups in the vox organalis.

Clausula

A substantial body of polyphonic works from the late 12th and early 13th centuries (the school of Notre Dame) that are based on a brief fragment of Gregorian chant are referred to as theorgana, which are compositions that are based on the complete chant are referred to as theorgana. They are very brief works that are typically built on the amelisma of a responsorial chant as their foundation. As a result, in the tenor of a clausula, there is no whole text, but just one or two words (incipit), or sometimes only a syllable, to designate from which chant the tenor is derived.

This group of parts was most likely meant to act as stand-ins for their equivalent sections in the Leonin organa.

Discantus

A phrase used to describe some styles of polyphonic music from the 12th to the 15th centuries in which a part was created against the plainsong, or in certain circumstances, improvised, was used. When comparing discant and organum, the former refers to two-voice polyphony in the note-against-note manner, whilst the latter refers to a more intricate arrangement that employs (or at the very least includes) melismas in the top section. The term “discant” was originally used to refer to simply the top portion of the voice, with the bottom part being referred to as “cantus” (where “cantus” refers to voice and “discantus” refers to second, or counter, voice).

Theconductus, in terms of stylistics, is likewise included in the discant group.

MUS 101 – Elliott Jones

Despite the fact that the mass as a genre of medieval music is well-covered on our page introducing the music of the Middle Ages and in our slideshow study guide, the compositional approach that was utilized to produce all masses throughout this time period is worth further investigation. However, while this content delves a little deeper into the cantus firmusmethod of creation than is essential for this course, it helps to demonstrate the extent to which Medieval musicians believed it necessary to build on the work of earlier composers.

It’s possible that medieval musicians did not have our notion of a composer who develops something completely original since it simply did not exist in their brains.

As we progress through the later Renaissance, you’ll notice that this mindset begins to shift. A “cantus firmus” was the name given to this existing tune.

Introduction

Acantus firmus (also known as “fixed song”) is a pre-existing melody that serves as the foundation for a polyphonic composition.

History

It is virtually usually the case that the earliest polyphonic works have an acantus firmus, which is often a Gregorian chant, although the phrase “acantus firmus” was not used until the 14th century. Polyphonic compositions date back to circa AD 900, when the Musica enchiriadis was produced, and contain the chant in the top voice and the freshly composed portion beneath; however, this practice altered around 1100, when thecantus firmus began to emerge in the lowest-sounding voice. It was not until later that thecantus firmusappeared in the tenor voice (derived from the Latin verbtenere, meaning “to hold”), singing notes of greater length around which more florid lines, both instrumental and vocal, were written.

  1. Martial and Notre Dame schools, as well as the vast majority of thirteenth-century motets, are composed in this style of composition.
  2. In the fourteenth century, the approach was still commonly adopted for the majority of religious vocal music, but there was substantial regional diversity in use.
  3. At first, thecantus firmus was nearly always derived from plainchant, but over time, the range of sources expanded to include other religious texts as well as popular melodies and popular music.
  4. While still in use in the 16th century, the technique of cantus firmus was gradually phased out and replaced by the parody (or imitation) approach, in which several voices from an already-existing source were integrated into a holy composition such as a mass.
  5. There are around 40 documented settings, including two by Josquin des Prez and six by an unidentified composer or group of composers in Naples, which were meant to be performed as a cycle of songs.
  6. There are numerous ideas about the origin of the name: one argues that the “armed man” is a representation of St Michael the Archangel, while another suggests that it is a reference to the name of a prominent pub (Maison L’Homme Armé) located near Dufay’s Cambrai residence.

Many additional secular cantus firmi have been utilized in the composition of masses; some of the most notable are “Se la face ay pale” (Dufay), “Fortuna desperata” (attributed to Antoine Busnois), “Fors seul” (Johannes Ockeghem), “Mille Regretz,” “Pange language” (Josquin), and “Westron Wynde” (anonymous).

The chorale “O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig” comes in the first movement of Bach’s St Matthew Passion in lengthy notes, performed by a distinct choir of boys “in ripieno,” which means “in rapid succession.” In the pedal portion of several of his chorale preludes, he incorporates a chorale theme.

Free Flashcards about music-test2

Question Answer
religious or spiritual music, for church or devotional use Sacred music
nonreligious music; when texted, usually in the vernacular secular music
the set order of religious services and the structure of each service, within a particular denomination liturgy
monophonic melody with a freely flowing, unmeasured vocal line,; liturgical chant of the roman catholic church gregorian chant
early musical notation signs; square notes on a four-line staff neumes
melodic style with one note to each syllable of text syllabic
melodic style with two to four notes set to each syllable neumatic
melodic style characterized my many notes sung to a single text syllable melismatic
singing, especially in gregorian chant, in which a soloist or a group of soloists alternates with the choir responsorial singing
performance style in which an ensemble is divided into two or more groups, performing in alternation and then together antiphonal
cycle of daily services of the roman catholic church, distinct from the mass office
central services of the roman catholic churc mass
sections of the Roman catholic mass that vary from day to day throughout the church year according to the particular liturgical occasion, as distinct from the particular liturgical occasion, as distinct from the Ordinary, in which they remain the same proper
sections of the roman catholic mass that remain the same from day to day throughout the church year, as distinct from the Proper, which changes daily according to the liturgical occasion ordinary
earliest kind of polyphonic music, which developed from the custom of adding voices above a plainchant; they first ran parallel to it at the interval of a fifth or fourth and later moved more freely organum
fixed rhythmic patterns of long and short notes, popular in the thirteenth century rhythmic modes
“fixed Melody”, usually of very long notes, often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant that served as the structural basis for a polyphonic composition, particularly in the renaissance cantus firmus
polyphonic vocal genre, secular in the middle ages but not sacred or devotional thereafter motet
two or more texts set simultaneously in a composition, common in the medieval motet polytextual
medieval poet-musicians in southern france troubadours
medieval poet-musicians in northern france trouveres
medieval wandering entertainers who played instruments, sang and danced, juggled, and performed playes jongleurs
a dance form prevalent in the late medieval France, either with voice or purely instrumental estampie
medieval percussion instruments resembling small kettledrums, played in pairs; of middle easter origin nakirs
medieval bowed-string instrument, often with a pear-shaped body rebec
medieval category of soft instruments, usually principally for indoor occasions, as distinct from haut, or loud instruments bas
medieval category of loud instruments, used mainly for outdoor occasions, as distinct from bas, or soft instruments haut
choral music performed without instrumental accompaniment a cappella
renaissance polyphonic style in which the motives move from line to line within the texture, often overlapping one another continuous imitation
musical pictorialization of words from the text as an expressive device; a prominent feature of the renaissance madrigal word painting
texture in which all voices, or lines, move together in the same rhythm homorhythmic
stately renaissance court dance in duple meter pavane
italian “jumping dance”, often characterized by triplets in a rapid 4/4 time saltarello
lively, triple meter french court dance galliard
German dance in moderate duple time, popular during the renaissance and baroque periods; often the first movement of a baroque suite allemande
lively renaissance “round dance” associated with the outdoors, in which the participants danced in a circle or line ronde
french monophonic or polyphonic song, especially of the middle ages and renaissance, set to either courtly or popular poetry chanson
renaissance secular work originating in Italy for voices, with or without instruments, set to a short, lyric love poem; also popular in england madrigal
family of renaissance bowed-string instruments that had six or more strings, was fretted like a guitar, and was held between the legs like a modern cello viola de gamba
medieval wind instrument, the ancestor of the oboe shawn
early brass instrument, ancestor of the trombone sackbut
early instrument of the brass family with woodwind-like finger holes. it developed from the cow horn but was made of wood cornetto
the tenth child of a noble couple who promised her to the service of the church as a tithe hildegard of bingen
the first composer of polyphonic music whose name is known. he compiled the great book of organum. leonin
expanded the dimensions of organum by increasing the number of voice parts, first to three and then to four Perotin
typifies the tradition of the courtly troubadour. The son of a “poor knight” from Provence, in southern france. As a young man he entered the service of the marquis of Montferrat Raimbaut de Vaqueiras
one of the great masters of the renaissance motet was the northern french composer. His varied career led him to Italy where he served at several courts josquin des prez
a well-known printer, composer, and instrumentalist. Made one of the most popular dance collections of the century published in antwerp in 1551 tielman susato
published 8 books of madrigals that span the transition from renaissance to baroque styles claudio monteverdi
active in the 1590s in Dublin, ireland, where he was an organist and master of the choirboys at Christ Church. Moved to London and published his only collection of four-part madrigals – Fair Phyllis is popular today john farmer
keypoint 11 The middle ages span nearly one thousand years
kepoint 11.2 the early christian church and the state were the centers of powers during this time
keypoint 11.3 much of the surviving music from the middle ages is religious, or sacred, because of the sponsorship (Patronage) of the church
11.4 the later middle ages saw the rise of cities, cathedrals, and great works of art and literature
11.5 the ideals of knighthood and the devotion to the Virgin Mary helped raise the status of women
12.1 many world cultures use a kind of chant, a monophonic melody, in their worship
12.2 the music of the early christian church, called gregorian chant, features monophonic, nonmetric melodies set in one of the church modes, or scales
12.3 chant melodies fall into three categories based on how many notes are set to each syllable of text
12.4 the most solemn ritual of the catholic church is the mass, a daily service with two categories of prayers: the proper and the ordinary
12.5 some chants are sung alternating a soloist and chorus in repsonsorial performance
12.6 the paris cathedral of notre dame was a center for organum, the earliest type of polyphony, with two,three, or four voice parts sung in fixed rhythmic patterns
12.7 preexisting chants formed the basis for early polyphony, including organum and the motet; the latter features multiple texts
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Leonin and Perotin: Musical Contributions, Polyphony & Ars Antiqua – Video & Lesson Transcript

Even though there is no specific date or documentation that demonstrates when polyphony was first used in the Church, two French composers, Leonin and his student Perotin, who worked at Paris’s Notre Dame Cathedral, are widely acknowledged as having composed the first significant polyphonic church music.

Leonin

Leonin is supposed to have lived between 1150 and 1201 and is sometimes referred to as ‘Leoninus.’ He is renowned for being the first composer of polyphonic music to be identified by his own name in the history of music. It was common for Leonin’s music to be composed in two voice parts, with the first portion being the melody and the second half being the harmony.

Perotin

Perotin, also known as ‘Perotinus,’ was a student of Leonin’s who studied under him. He is believed to have lived between 1170 and 1236, and he built on Leonin’s work by producing music for three or four voice parts, which he later performed.

Ars Antiqua

This new polyphony was remarkable because it had never been attempted in church music before, and in medieval logic, everything new had to be built on the foundation of something previously existing. Any new compositions had to be based on an existing composition, such as church chants, in order to be considered valid under the law. Ars Antiqua is the name given to this school of thinking. Leonin and Perotin are sometimes referred to be “old school” representatives because of their appearance.

Organum

Due to the severe music restrictions of the Catholic Church, both composers added extra vocal parts to what had previously been a single line of church chant in order to generate new musical compositions while still following to the laws. Most of the time, an exceedingly slow rendition of the original chant was followed by an incredibly quick rendition with more pitches, all sung in an extremely high register. Organum was the name given to this unique style of multi-part chant. Leonin utilized these approaches to compose music for two voice parts, which he performed live.

Also employing similar approaches, Perotin went one step further and composed for three or four vocal parts, at times as many as five.

Magnus Liber Organi

They were so skilled at creating organum that they were able to compose the first entire annual cycle of chants for the mass in two sections, thanks to their collaboration. The music was assembled into a book known as theMagnus Liber Organi, which translates as ‘Great Book of Organum’ in English. Later, Perotin revised and added new ideas to the original version, which was written by Leonin originally.

By the time it got to the finish, it sounded something like this. Several additional composers from the Notre Dame school are reported to have contributed, although Leonin and Perotin are the only ones who have been specifically credited.

Music Appreciation (Module 2 and Module 3)

Which of the following individuals is considered a Renaissance artist? Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci (the only two who weren’t included were Picasso and Hildegard of Bingen) are two of the most famous artists in the world. Which of the following was the most important European port for the trade of Eastern luxury in terms of culture? Venice Which of the following objectives do historians believe Charlemagne set for himself? government with a centralized administration Education is encouraged by the government.

  1. T or F: true What event marks the beginning of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Christian era?
  2. The Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus T or F: During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the Roman Catholic Church held very little influence in Europe, if any at all.
  3. When it came to music throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance, which of the following positions was open to musicians?
  4. A financial assistance program for medieval and Renaissance musicians was offered by which of the following organizations?
  5. true Which new lands did the Europeans discover during the Renaissance that were previously unknown to them?
  6. true T or F: Hildegard’s hymn Alleluia, O virga mediatrix was written with the intention of being performed on a day dedicated to the Virgin.
  7. syllabic, neumatic, or melismatic are all types of rhythms.
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She WAS well-known for the following: – scientific publications – her works in poetry and music – her dreams and visions The emergence of monastic communities housed in monasteries played a significant role in defining culture during the Middle Ages.

Members of the secular society withdrew their support.

The religious life was quite regimented.

to start their day.

false“modes” The plainchant of the Middle Ages is described by which of the following terms, and which does not?

T or F: Gregorian chant is characterized by melodic lines that are consistently stated and backed by musical accompaniment.

Which of the following statements concerning Gregorian chant (plainchant) melodies is incorrect?

In what language do you refer to music that is performed with exchanges between a soloist and a chorus of people?

False What characteristics do early Christian chants have in common with the Islamic Adhan, and which characteristics do they not have in common?

True Organum is the name given to the first polyphonic music.

Paris Which of the following statements regarding Notre Dame University is not correct?

IS IT ACTUALLY TRUE: Magnus liber organi is the title of the first book that contains pieces by members of this school of composition.

Besides instrumentation, whatever other feature of music developed increased sophistication during the Middle Ages in order to adequately communicate the new polyphony?

False Which of the following voices sung the set melody from the preceding Gregorian chant in the early organum?

False T or F: The lower vocal in organum sings the fixed melody in exceptionally lengthy notes, which is sung by the upper voice in organum.

It’s a tie between Leonin and Perotin.

True T or F: The musical style known as Ars nova initially arose in the early 1300s and has since spread around the world.

true Which of the following was a popular secular music genre in France during the Ars nova period?

false T or F: Pythagoras was a Greek mathematician and musician who was well-known for his musical experiments.

bells Cymbals, bass drums, and other percussion instruments Of the following poetry forms associated with the French Ars nova movement, which is regarded “fixed?” ronde auballadevirelai Machaut’s song Ma fin est mon beginning has musical elements that are described by which of the following statements?

  • an allusion to religion textpalindrome with a twist of mystery Which Arabic import contributed to the flourishing of pattern-related disciplines in the Western world throughout the Middle Ages?
  • clericcourtiercanon What was the name of the time that occurred immediately before the Ars nova?
  • troubadors Which country is credited with the invention of the musical style known as Ars nova?
  • Madrigals from the early Renaissance (c.
  • The texture of the middle madrigal (1550-1580) has been stretched to 5 or 6 voices.
  • Florence True or False: The English madrigal developed around twenty years before the formation of the Italian madrigal.true Which of the following characteristics best describes a Renaissance madrigal composition?
  • Farmer’s madrigal takes place in a rural area.

true T o F: In this madrigal, Arcadelt employs word-painting to depict the pictures that are there in the lyrics.

TEXTST or F: In the madrigal, Arcadelt accentuates the last line of the poem by repeating it several times.

The substance of the song was heightened by the use of madrigalisms.

Martin Luther and John Calvin are two of the most famous Protestant reformers in history.

When the Renaissance was in full swing, the Mass was said and sung in the vernacular.

false Which of the following is considered to be part of the Mass Ordinary?

Kyrie GloriaCredoSanctus Agnus Dei is a Christian hymn.

true In the daily Mass, there are two groups of prayers: the _, which are the same for each service, and the _, which are different depending on the day.

(Page 92) – the ornamentation of Gregorian melodies Inappropriate attitude of church musicians against the use of popular music during the Mass This is how Palestrina’s Gloria from the Pope Marcellus Mass is best described.

true The Latin language is not used in any portion of the Mass Ordinary.

consonant, complete What was it that instrumental music originally became popular in combination with?

true T or F: Prior to the Middle Ages, instrumental music was mostly a verbal transmission of knowledge.

cornetto The Renaissance considered which of the following instruments to be haut (loud and outside) in their classification?

He created and orchestrated secular and holy pieces in a variety of styles, and he was a proficient player of practically all brass and woodwind instruments available at the time.

********* which of the following types of instrumental dance are the Susato Dances examples? ronde According to their intended use, musical instruments in medieval and Renaissance Europe were classified as quiet (bass) or loud (haut). ******

Unit 2: Organum Flashcards by Fanny Lin

Pages 2 and 3 of an essay (474 words) Hildegard of Bingen was a leading figure in the early polyphony of the Notre Dame school. False Alleluia, O virga mediatrix was written by Hildegard of Bingen, who also composed the poem and music. True Organum was created entirely on the fly, with no prior foundation. False For fewer than a hundred years, the modes served as the foundation for European art music composition. False The Proper of the Mass is the section of the service that varies from day to day based on the feast that is being celebrated.

a day set aside to commemorate the Virgin Mary The liturgy refers to the sequence in which church services are held as well as the form of each service.

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The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was a pioneering location for the development of polyphony throughout the Renaissance.

Pope GregoryEarly notation provided melodic contours utilizing tiny ascending and descending indications called:neumes, which were used to indicate ascending and descending notes.

False The Ordinary is the portion of the Mass that is the same in every celebration of the service and is the most important part of the liturgy.

Organum was the first sort of polyphony to be discovered.

True Polyphony necessitated the invention of:rhythmic modes, among other things.

False Hildegard’s Alleluia, O virga mediatrix is dedicated to the veneration of which of the holy figures?

Mass Proper Which of the following statements does not accurately represent life in a medieval cloister?

True Syllabic chant is a setting of Gregorian chant in which there is just one note per syllable.

False “The Mass,” as it is known in the Roman Catholic Church, is the ceremony that symbolically reenacts Christ’s death on the cross.

What is it about Gregorian chant that makes it sound so distinct from other styles of Western music?

Hildegard of Bingen is well-known for a variety of things, including: all of the things listed above.

When it comes to the Mass, what is the predominant language? Latin Identify which of the following women was a religious leader who was also a well-known figure in literature and music. Hildegard of Bingen (Hildegard of Bingen)

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