How Plainchant Started and Where It Is Now
Plainchant is a type of medieval church music that is characterized by the use of chanting or the singing of lyrics without the use of any musical accompaniment. Plainsong is another name for this type of music. You may be more familiar with the name Gregorian Chant, which you may have come across when reading about early music forms or heard about it during a church service or concert. Even though the phrases are sometimes used improperly as synonyms, Gregorian Chant is a type of plainchant that is derived from the Latin language.
Plainchant, a primitive style of music, first appeared about the year 100 C.E. Early on, it was the only sort of music that was permitted in Christian churches. A common belief among Christians is that music should make the listener more open to spiritual ideas and reflections. This belief is supported by research. As a result, the melody was maintained clean and unaccompanied throughout. This was especially true because the same tune would be replayed throughout the plainsong. There are no harmonies or chords to enhance the melody in this song.
Why Is it Also Called Gregorian Chant?
There were numerous various types of plainchant in use during the early centuries, and there was no standardization. A collection of chants was envisioned by Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) about the year 600, and it was completed by Pope Gregory the First in the year 600. This collection of music was known as Gregorian Chant since it was named after him. Later, the word Gregorian Chant was adopted to denote this type of music in general. Prayer, reading, psalm, canticle, hymn, prose, antiphon, responsory, introit, alleluia, and many more varieties of Gregorian Chant are among the many types of Gregorian Chant.
Musical Notation of Plainchant
Ordinarily, modern music notation is written on five lines, whereas plainchant is written on four lines. It was also common to employ a sign known as “neumes” to express pitch and syllable phrasing. When it comes to the earliest types of plainchant, there is no trace of any notation.
Gregorian chants are still chanted in Roman Catholic churches all throughout the world today, despite the passage of time. In this version, it is adapted to Latin text and performed either by a soloist or by a chorus. Listen to the Gregorian Chants from Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris to get a sense of what plainchant sounds like. Plainchant has had a cultural renaissance outside of the church and has even made its way into mainstream culture in recent decades. An unexpected international hit was achieved by the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos in Spain when they published their CD named, Chant, in 1994.
During their interviews on The Tonight Show and Good Morning America, the monks expressed their gratitude.
The Cistercian Monks of Austria’s Heiligenkreuz Abbey made another popular Gregorian Chant CD in 2008, titled Chant – Music for Paradise, which became a bestseller in the United States.
It peaked at number 7 on the UK charts, number 4 on the Billboard classical music charts in the United States, and was the best-selling album on the Austrian pop music charts.
Why was the Gregorian chant sung in Latin?
Asked in the following category: General The most recent update was made on June 9th, 2020. The song has been sung as pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment for hundreds of years, and it is still the ideal way to singchantif it is feasible. Due to the fact that it was written entirely inLatin, and since its melodies are so tightly related to Latinaccents and word meanings, it is recommended that you sing it in Latin. Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music used in the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the text of the mass and the canonical hours, often known as the divine office.
- A collection of Gregorian chants named after St.
- As a result, the question is, what does the term Gregorian chant signify in terms of music?
- In the worship of the Roman Catholic Church, traditional music is used to accompany Latin readings.
- Thechantsoften are songs in which a single phrase is sung throughout a range of pitches.
- The Best Gregorian Chants Ever Composed
- Hymns at 8:25
- Requiem mass at 9:15 4:41 p.m. is the time of the day’s Mass. 2:59
- Psalm 90: “He who stays in the house” 5:00 pm
- Midnight mass. 5:00 pm Celebrations of the holy virgin’s immaculate conception are held on 4:23. 3:03
- sResponsories. 12:32
- 5:28 p.m., requiem mass
What was the significance of the Gregorian chant in the medieval period, and why? The significance of Gregorian chant throughout the Medieval period lies in the fact that it served as the accompaniment to the text employed in the Roman Catholic Church during that time period. It is a holy, Latin song that is monophonic (contains only a single melody) and unaccompanied (by instruments), but has a flexible rhythm.
Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.
- The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.
- The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.
- The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.
- TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
- Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
- The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
- During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.
As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.
Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.
Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.
Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.
By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.
The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.
The song has a neumatic feel to it.
Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.
Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.
Music In The Middle Ages
Classical Gregorian chant is the holy melody of the medieval Roman Catholic Church. It is also known as plainsong, plainchant, and cantus planus (Latin). Music for the religious Latin text was performed entirely by hand in unison to a monophonic melodic line, with a free flowing pulse and rhythm that was characteristic of the time period. Music from the Middle Ages that was deemed perfect for Christian devotion was used during mass and several other Church ceremonies. Men who have had extensive training as priest musicians would generally perform Gregorian chant.
Giovanni da Milano, 1346-1369 |Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Musicians, singers, students, and teachers are all patronized by Pope Gregory I (reign 590-604), who is also known as the “Patron Saint of Music and Singing.” According to tradition, Pope Gregory is credited for bringing the plainchant repertoire into standardization and enacting important modifications to the Church’s liturgy.
- Instead, Gregorian Chant emerged during the first decades of Christianity, influenced by the music of Jewish synagogues and early Christian churches throughout the Middle East, Asia Minor and Europe.
- Plainchant tunes were passed down orally for centuries before the advent of music notation was made possible.
- Antiphonary of Hartker, Monastery of Saint Gall (c.
- E-codices of Pope Gregory I (c.
- Gregorydictates to a scribe with a singing dove at his ear Latin was the official language of ancient Rome and its empire, but it fell out of favor with the general public throughout the Middle Ages.
- The majority of Europe’s people was unable to read or comprehend Latin.
- Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral|
- Seil Frary Male clergy were primarily responsible for the performance of Gregorian chant.
When it comes to Gregorian chant, its otherworldly tone, repressed emotions, and separation from popular style and worldly connections are among the most significant stylistic traits to be found in it.
In the secular world, this otherworldly character served to identify and separate church music from more emotional and metrical music from the secular world. The following are the primary characteristics of this unearthly nature of chant:
- Its otherworldly quality, for example, detaches it from popular culture and its ties with the material world. This is one of the most noticeable stylistic aspects of Gregorian chant. In the secular world, this otherworldly character served to identify and separate church music from more emotional and metrical music of the time period. The following characteristics of chant distinguish it as having an unearthly quality:
Its otherworldly quality, for example, detaches it from popular culture and its associations with the world, is one of the most conspicuous stylistic qualities of Gregorian chant. In the secular world, this otherworldly character served to identify and separate church music from more emotional and metrical music of the secular world. This unearthly aspect of chant is primarily characterized by the following characteristics:
Gregorian chant is performed in three main textural styles: plainchant, polyphonic, and polyrhythmic.
- Direct: a soloist or a choir in unison Alternation of soloist and unison chorus in the responsorial section
- Antiphonal: alternating two unison choirs in a rhythmic pattern
Single soloist or unison chorus as a guide Respondentiale: alternating between a soloist and a unison chorus Two unison choirs alternate in a counterpoint style called antiphonal harmony.
- Directions for a soloist or a unison choir Responsorial: alternating between a soloist and a unison chorus
- Antiphonal: alternating two unison choirs in an alternating pattern
Direct a soloist or a unison chorus. Responsorial: alternating of soloist and unison chorus; Antiphonal: the alternating of two unison choirs;
All the Ends of the Earth
All the Ends of the Earth (Viderunt omnes), written in the fifth century, is a Christmas carol performed on December 25, the Feast of the Epiphany (Mass of Christ). As a result,Viderunt omnesis is included in the proper of the Mass. In the Mass, the answer Viderunt omnesis agradual is sung between the Epistle and the Gospel, between the Epistle and the Gospel. There are three major sections to this document (symbolized as A B A). The opening section, A, is performed by a chorus in unison. Amelisma is the term used to describe the expanded phrase on the initial syllable ofomnes, “o.” Amelisma is a florid treatment of a single phrase sung to a lengthy sequence of notes that is accompanied by a long series of notes.
Last but not least, the third piece has a repetition of the words and music from the first section.
Viderunt omnesfines terr (melismatic “o”) salutare Dei nostri, chant of the choir All of creation rejoices in the Lord. The salvation of our God has been seen from every corner of the land. All peoples of the earth should rejoice in the Lord.
Solo: Notum fecit Dominus (melisma on “do”) salutare suum; ante conspectum gentium revelavit justitiam suam (Notum fecit Dominus, salutare suum, salutare suum). Among the peoples, the Lord has made known his salvation, and in the eyes of the nations, he has demonstrated his righteousness.
Viderunt omens, says the choir. (This is a repetition of A above) Viderunt Omnes|Anonymous |The Benedictine monks of St. Martin Beuron performed a Christmas Gradual for the community (4:27) In addition to being a Benedictine abbess, Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) was a writer, musician, philosopher, mystic, and visionary, as well as the founder of the Rupertsberg and Eibingen monasteries in Germany. She experienced incredible visions, which she documented in her theological writings. She drew inspiration for her musical compositions from her thoughts of the future.
Furthermore, she authored botanical and medical writings, liturgical chants and poetry, and other literary works. Liber Divinorum Operum (1165) | Hildegard von Bingen | Biblioteca Statale di Lucca | Universal Man from Liber Divinorum Operum (1165) | Hildegard von Bingen | Biblioteca statale di Lucca
Compared to normal plainsong of this period, Hildegard’s chant, O successores(You Successors), is more emotive and musically distinctive. In addition, the composer’s name is well-known! Because Hildegard was a woman, she was unable to play her music at mass; only men were permitted to sing and lead the congregation in worship. As the abbess of a convent, her music was almost definitely utilized for private devotion and prayer among her sisters, despite the fact that she was not married. O successoresis is notated as a single monophonic line, as is the case with all medieval plainsong.
A drone is a note or interval that repeats itself continually.
|O successores fortissimi leonis||You successors of the greatest lion|
|inter templum et altare||betweentemple andaltar|
|dominantes in ministratione eius||you the masters in his household|
|sicut angeli sonant in laudibus,||as the angels soundpraises|
|et sicut adsunt populis in adiutorio,||and are here to help the nations,|
|vos estis inter illos,||you are among those|
|qui haec faciunt,||who accomplish this,|
|sempter curam habentes||forever showing your care|
|in officio agni.||in the service of the lamb.|
Medieval Church Music: Gregorian Chant & Plainchant – Video & Lesson Transcript
The arts were associated with the liturgy during the Middle Ages (500-1450), according to the church. They were powerful and wealthy, and they were in charge of the majority of choices, including dictating the job and paying musicians.
The church established a set of standards that everyone must adhere to. This music, which was termed plainchant, had a hollow tone to it. It was only slightly different from one location to the next when it came to unaccompanied church music (sang in unison). Despite this, holy music was the most popular, and it is said that the music regulations were delivered from above.
According to legend, the standardizing components It came from a dove who spoke in hushed tones to Pope Gregory. This may seem absurd, but it is the only record available, and as a result, the probable myth has endured for years. We’ll never know where it originates from in its true form. As a result, the tale continues to exist as status quo, with the belief that he is the one who established the cans and can’ts, which is why we refer to it as Gregorian Chant. Plainchant is a style of song that is sung in unison.
There was no harmony or instrumental accompaniment; they all sang the same song.
It was derived from other ancient religions, and perhaps simply a few inflections were borrowed from them.
Long, free-flowing rhythms were created from such a little quotation.
Organum and Interval Definitions
As time went on, the music became monotonous. One melody has missing notes, but they wanted it to be complete. Their hopes and ambitions came fulfilled in the year 900. Rather than simply one note, they might have two notes instead. The organum was composed of two melodic lines. Songs are sung at parallel intervals that have been properly defined The distance between two pitches on a football team’s field. You just read the notes as if they were a graph on a computer screen. It is possible to calculate the interval by counting the number of lines and spaces, which includes both notes and empty spaces.
- The clergy conferred at three different intervals: the fourth, fifth, and octave were all deserving of the title.
- It makes no difference whether you begin with a space or a line.
- Thefifthis is another one that’s regularly encountered.
- Both of the pitches lie on lines or spaces, which makes it easier to distinguish the fifth from the other pitches.
Finally, the octave is the longest span that has been seen. In between, there is a pitch range of eight different pitches. It’s a great choice for men’s and boys’ choruses. This wonderful sound is produced by an octave.
A brief history of Gregorian chant
The music became monotonous as time went on. There is one melody that is completely vacant, but they wanted it to be completely filled up. Their fantasies came true around the year 900. Perhaps two notes would be preferable to just one. Each of the two melodic lines comprised the Organum. Sung at parallel intervals—as determined by the composer Distance between two pitches on a football field. You just read the notes as if they were a graph on the screen. Finding the interval may be accomplished by counting the number of lines and spaces, including both notes and unfilled space between them.
- The clergy conferred at three intervals: the fourth, fifth, and octave were all deserving of the title.
- The fact that you begin with a space or a line does not make a difference to me.
- From the bottom, stacked to five, and this is how it sounds, comes thefifthis another one that’s frequently encountered.
- Finally, the octave is the span with the greatest length.
- It’s ideal for men’s and boys’ choruses alike.
Who created plainchant?
The time between Pope Gregory I590 and Pope Gregory I604 is widely regarded as the period of origin. Pope Gregory was responsible for the creation of the Gregorian Chant, which was also known as plainchant, plainsong, or plainsong-chant. It consisted of a single line of melody with a flexible rhythm that was sung to Latin lines by unaccompanied male voices, and it was composed in the style of the Renaissance. Plainsong and Medieval Music Society was established in 1888 with the mission of promoting the performance and study of liturgical chant and medieval polyphony.
There are 25 cards in this set.
|music with more than one line sounding at a time||polyphony|
|What language was the majority of plainchant written in?||Latin|
|How was early music transferred from generation to generation?||by ear|
|Why is plainchant often called “Gregorian Chant”?||Pope Gregory I|
It is reasonable to wonder whether Plainsong and Gregorian Chant are the same thing. Plainchantis a type of medieval church music that consists solely of chanting or words that are sung, without the use of any musical accompaniment. Plainsong is another name for this type of music. Gregorian Chant is a kind of plainchant, despite the fact that the phrases are sometimes used improperly as synonyms. When was the invention of Organum made? Organum can be found in its oldest documented form in the treatise Musica enchiriadis (c.
900; “Musical Handbook”), where it is composed of two melodic lines that move concurrently note for note against one another. A second, or organal, voice might sometimes double the chant, or primary voice, a fourth or a fifth below the principal voice (as G or F below c, etc.).
Gregorian Chant, A Beginner’s Guide
The music of the Middle Ages is often classified into two primary categories: secular music and religious music. Anyone who has delved into the complicated world of medieval music has almost certainly come across religious chants, which are also known as Gregorian Chants in some circles. While it may appear that all chants are essentially the same (particularly to those who are unfamiliar with medieval liturgical music), there is a broad range of genres, subjects, and purposes to be found within the genre.
Medieval Church Music
Strictly speaking, medieval music may be separated into two broad categories: secular music and religious music. If you’ve spent any time researching the intricate world of medieval music, you’ve almost certainly come across religious chants, which are also known as Gregorian Chants. While it may appear that all chants are essentially the same (particularly to those who are unfamiliar with medieval religious music), there is a broad range of genres, subjects, and purposes to be found in medieval religious music.
Are you confused? Keep reading!
As a result, the usual Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Bendictus, and Agnus Dei would be included in the ordinary Mass. (Ordinary). It would also be necessary to conduct a feast-specific Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offering, and Communion depending on whatever day of the liturgical calendar it was and which feast cycle it was during (Proper). As part of the Divine Office, specific prayers, canticles, psalms, and hymns would be performed throughout the day, distinct from Mass, as part of the daily routine.
- Psalmodic and non-psalmodic religious/liturgical music may be distinguished in the Middle Ages (with traditions extending into the Modern era) and can be divided into two categories: psalmodic and non-psalmodic.
- They are as follows: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, Agnus Dei, Introit, Gradual, Offertory, Communion, Alleluia, Canticle, Antiphon, Responsory, Psalm, or Hymn, Introit, Gradual, Offertory, Communion, Alleluia, Canticle, Antiphon, Responsory, Psalm, or Hymn.
- Some forms of chants have been in use from the beginning of Christian chant, while others were introduced into the liturgy over time.
- For example, the Kyrie (a prayer from the Ordinary of the Mass) can be performed in a variety of styles.
- “Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison,” the choir sings.
- Every piece of religious Medieval music that fits under the umbrella term “Gregorian chant” is often referred to as such by the general public.
- Remember that the texts themselves have significant religious importance as you learn more about Gregorian chants and how they came to be canonized as you progress through your studies.
Not to mention the fact that there is an enormous range of chants, and that many liturgical melodies of the Middle Ages are not genuinely chants in the traditional sense. As you go more into the realm of Gregorian chant, you’ll come to appreciate how distinctive and lovely they truly are.
Gregorian Chant, a Brief History
In religious rituals, early Christians were already practicing unaccompanied singing and chanting even before Christianity was officially authorized in the 4th century AD. Plainchant and Plainsong are two terms used to describe these chants. As Christianity expanded across the Roman Empire, a number of musical traditions and plainchant repertories arose on their own, independently of one another. Mozarabic (Roman Spain), the Gallicanchants of Gaul (France), Ambrosianchant (Milan, Italy), Beneventan (Italy), Anglo-Saxon and subsequently theSarum (England), Old Roman, and Gregoryian were among the Western traditions that were known to scholars (Rome).
- Other liturgical variants, such as the Celtic rite in Ireland and the Slavonic rite in Scandinavia, existed in other parts of the world.
- There is a great deal of controversy about Pope Gregory’s role in the establishment and development of the Gregorian tradition in Rome.
- Regardless of who originated this liturgical practice, it gained widespread acceptance throughout the empire in a very short period of time.
- Charlemagne, in particular, was a staunch proponent of the abolition of all non-Roman customs and the replacement of such practices with Roman ceremonies.
- A papal edict had effectively outlawed the use of Gallican and Slavonic languages by the 9th century.
- Local customs were eventually displaced by Gregorian calendars, or they had evolved to the point where they could co-exist with Roman rituals, at least to some extent.
- Ambrosian chant, along with Gregorian chant, is the only kind of chant that has been officially sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church.
What makes a Gregorian chant a Gregorian chant?
Gregorian chants are free-form, which means that they are not metered and do not have a time signature like other types of music. They are modal, which means that composers have the choice of writing a tune in one of eight different scales. Most will use a method known as melisma, which is the singing of a number of notes for each syllable of text in a sentence. The vast majority of them are written and performed entirely in Latin. For centuries, Gregorian chants were performed a cappella, with only the tune as the accompaniment.
- The majority of chants were monophonic (one voice), which means that just one tune was chanted in unison by all participants.
- At most, a portative organ might play a single note as a type of drone, but practically all of the time, there was nothing but voices playing on the instrument.
- Only instruments of the spirit, sometimes known as “alive strings,” were worthy of being used to honor the Almighty.
- The organum, which is a group of several “voices” singing the same tune in unison but at different intervals, was first developed in the 9th century.
- The goal here was not to create harmony in the sense that most current music does (chords, blending of tones that are distinct from the song’s melody and rhythm), but rather to “enliven” the melody by adding depth to it.
- ‘Parallel Organum’ is an abbreviation for Parallel Organum.
- 5 “Deum Verum” is an Invitatory to the Holy Trinity (7th century).
This chant begins with a monophonic tune, which is subsequently followed by an organum section.
Pay attention to the second line, which is sung at a 4th interval higher.
The text is not from scripture, but rather is prose authored by Hildegard herself.
It is a monophonic chant with a lot of melisma in the melody.
With the hope that everyday musicians such as me may have the opportunity to perform at home, I’ve provided the following ink to a piano version of the Gregorian chant “O Ignee Spiritus” as an extra gift for my musically-inclined readers.
Thanks for your consideration!
However, my passion for Medieval music has prompted me to transcribe this chant into a manner that remains loyal to the original melody while altering it with additional harmony to make it playable and delightful on the piano, which you can hear below.
In order to capture the otherworldly character of this hymn while also making it enjoyable to listen to and play, I set out to create a new arrangement. Here’s an audio sample (in MIDI format) to get you started:
Sources and Further Reading
In that they are not metered and do not have a time signature, Gregorian chants are considered free-form music. Due to the fact that they are modal, they allow composers to produce a melody in any of eight different scales. Almost all singers will use a method known as melisma, which involves singing a series of notes for each word of text. The vast majority of them are composed and performed entirely in Latin language. Sung a cappella as pure melody for hundreds of years, Gregorian chants are still performed today.
- When I say monophonic, I mean that just one tune was sung in unison by all of the participants in the chant.
- At most, a portative organ might play a single note as a kind of drone, but practically all of the time, there was nothing but vocals playing on the instrument.
- In order to properly thank God, only instruments of the spirit, often known as “alive strings,” were acceptable.
- The organum, which is a collection of several “voices” singing the same tune in unison but at different intervals, was first heard in the 9th century and has been around ever since.
- Rather than adding harmony in the sense that most current music does (chords, blending of tones that are distinct from the song’s melody and rhythm), the goal here was to “enliven” the melody by giving it greater depth and variety of tones.
- It is possible to have two Organums running concurrently in a single space.
- 5: “Deum Verum” is a trinitarian invitation (7th century).
Beginning with a monophonic tune, this chant gradually progresses to organum.
Pay attention to the second line, which is sung at a 4th interval higher than the first.
Instead of using scripture, Hildegard wrote a prose piece that was included in the collection.
In this monophonic chant, melisma is used extensively.
A special gift for my musically oriented readers, I’ve included the following ink to a piano version of the Gregorian chant “O Ignee Spiritus,” with the hope that everyday musicians like myself will have the opportunity to play along with it.
Sheet music for O Ignee Spiritus.
Although I adore Medieval music, it was my passion for it that prompted me to transcribe this chant into a manner that is loyal to the original melody while also altering it with additional harmony to make it playable and delightful on the piano.
Ultimately, I wanted to convey the ethereal character of this hymn while also making it enjoyable for listeners and musicians to enjoy playing and listening to. Here’s an audio sample (in MIDI format) to demonstrate the concept:
- Breviary Hymns, Fides Quaerens Intellectum, Chantblog, and GIA Publications, Inc. are some of the resources available. Music for the Church
- National Association of Pastoral Musicians
- Schola Cantorum Bogotensis
- Gregorian Chant Resources and History: Music Outfitters
- Gregorian Chant Resources and History: Encyclopaedia Britannica
- Mark Everist is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Music is a reference work on medieval music. Randel, Don Michael, et al., eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2011. The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a concise reference work on music and musicians. The President and Fellows of Harvard College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 1999. Print
The main image for this piece is an illuminated manuscript from a 14th-century choir book, which is worth mentioning in its own right. The picture is a carving of St. Lawrence in the letter “C,” which is seen in the letter “C.” The Introit to the Mass for the Feast of St. Lawrence begins with this opening syllable.
The Book of Gregorian Chant
The main image for this piece is an illuminated manuscript from a 14th-century choir book, which is worth mentioning. It is a cutting of St. Lawrence in the letter “C,” which is seen in the image. The Introit to the Mass for the Feast of St. Lawrence begins with this initial spelled out.
An acclamation that is sung immediately after the Introit in the Latin Mass is known as the Kyrie. Lord, have mercy on us,’ says the fundamental text, which is in Greek, which is composed of the phrases ‘Kyrie, eleison’ (three times), ‘Christe, eleison’ (three times), and ‘Kyrie, eleison’ (three times): ‘Lord, have mercy on us,’ says the text. Please, Christ, have mercy on me. ‘Lord, take compassion on me.’ After becoming popularized as part of pagan civic and religious events throughout the Roman Empire, the phrase ‘kyrie eleison’ continued to be employed in Christian rites, eventually becoming a staple of many Christian liturgies beginning in the 6th century and continuing today.
(This information comes from the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians Online.) The audio element cannot be played because your browser does not support it.
Kraybill’s performance of the Kyrie eleison is available on CD.
An acclamation that is sung immediately after the Introit during the Latin Mass is known as the Kyrie. Lord, have pity on us,’ says the core text, which is in Greek, which is composed of the phrases ‘Kyrie, eleison’ (three times), ‘Christe, eleison’ (three times), and ‘Kyrie, eleison’ (three times). Thank you, Jesus for your kindness. Have mercy on me, O Lord. ” After becoming popularized as part of pagan civic and religious events throughout the Roman Empire, the phrase ‘kyrie eleison’ continued to be employed in Christian rites, eventually becoming a staple of many Christian liturgies beginning in the sixth century.
This information is derived from the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians Online.
Recording of the Kyrie by Dr.
This form of liturgical chant was common to the Gregorian and other Western chant repertoires and was connected mostly with antiphonal psalmody, although it was also used in other contexts. When a Psalm or canticle is being sang, it is customary for the refrain to be composed in basic syllabic manner, and it is usually only a few measures in length. There were, on the other hand, several sorts of Antiphons that were not related with psalmody at all. In the processional Antiphons, which were first preserved in graduals and later in separate books and sung at processions on such occassions as the Feast of the Purification (Candlemas), the Greater Litanies, and Palm Sunday, there were verses after the fasion of responsories that were sometimes included in a processional.
It is still used in processionals at modern services, which is a testament to its longevity.
The UMKC text has just a few chants from the Office. This one, from the Office of “Terce,” would have been at the church at 9 a.m. for worship. This information is derived from the New Harvard Dictionary of Music.
According to an examination of the peculiarities of the notation, it appears that six scribes worked on the UMKC’s Book of Gregorian Chant. ‘Scribe 1’ is responsible for the majority of the manuscript’s work, which includes the biggest illumination in the text, a capital “P,” which occurs on folio 82r and takes up more than half of the page (left). In addition to the initial notation, other scribes “fixed” the work of prior scribes, which was done in a variety of ways. On the right is a page from the manuscript (folio 8r), which was written by another scribe and features an illumination of the letter “P,” but this illumination is much different from the previous one.
Kraybill, “the illuminations distinguish and enhance the beauty of this book, as is true of many medieval instances.” Many various colors of pen were used to produce these text decorations, including black, red, teal blue, dark blue, green and orange.
As a result, a wide variety of techniques were employed, yielding results that ranged from extremely ornate and colorful decorations that filled the margins from top to bottom with beautiful filigree to very crude, “colored-in” letters that appeared to be a clumsy attempt by an unskilled hand to imitate the beauty of the former.
Folio 8r has the final section of the Asperges Antiphon with Psalm, as well as the first section of an unnamed Credo, among other things (which also begins with an illuminated “P”).
Although we have three Latin Creeds (the ‘Apostles’, the ‘Nicene, and the ‘Athanasian’), the history of the texts is complicated; nonetheless, the one used at Mass is the one often referred to as the ‘Nicene.’ Early in the 6th century, the Credo was introduced into the eucharistic liturgy in the eastern church in the form known as the ‘Nicene’ (or ‘Nicea-Constantinople’) version (so named because it summarizes the doctrines agreed upon at the Councils of Nicea, 325, and Constantinople, 381), and soon after that, it was introduced into the Visigothic rite by the Council of Toledo (589).
In both cases, it was instituted in the wake of theological disputes, with the goal of defining the conviction that all those who participate in the Eucharist should hold in common.
Baptismal usage of the Credo (or Symbolum, as it was known in this capacity) persisted throughout the Middle Ages, and it is thought to have been responsible for the maintenance of a Greek text in Latin manuscripts depicting customs in northern France and Germany during this period.
(Image courtesy of the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians on the Internet.)