Of The Following, Which Are The Most Highly Elaborate Types Of Chant

mode – Plainchant

Plainchant, also known as plainsong, is the foundation of the musical repertory of the Roman Catholic Church. It is also known as Gregorian chant. It is made up of around 3,000 tunes that were gathered and structured over the reigns of numerous popes in the 6th and 7th centuries. Pope Gregory I was the most important figure in the codification of these chants.

The eight modes

Gregorian chants are based on eight distinct modes, which are referred to as “church modes” in terms of their melody. In ancient Greece, seven of the modes had names that were identical to those used today. These were Dorian and Hypodorian; Phrygian and Hypophrygian; Lydian and Hypolydian; and Mixolydian. The Greek term for the eighth mode, Hypomixolydian, was developed from the names of the first seven modes. Each mode is comprised of an adiatonic scale with a compass of one octave in length.

An “genuine” mode is defined by the finalis of each of the four notes of the tetrachordD–E–F–G (D–E–F–G) (see chart below).

A B C D are the letters of the alphabet.

If the finalisfalls on the lowest note of its pentachord, it is considered successful.

The finalis is denoted by a capital letter in the following chart of the eight church modes: thefinalis.

1.D e f g a b c d Dorian
2.D e f g a Hypodorian a b c
3.E f g a b c d e Phrygian
4.E f g a b Hypophrygian b c d
5.F g a b c d e f Lydian
6.F g a b c Hypolydian c d e
7.G a b c d e f g Mixolydian
8.G a b c d Hypomixolydian d e f

The tones of the Hypomixolydian mode are identical to those of the Dorian mode, however the finalis of the two modes is located in a different part of the scale. The nature of the church modes was further defined by a variety of specific melodic formulae, and the individual modes were sometimes associated with a particular ethos. While the Byzantine classification specifies first the four authentic modes and subsequently the four plagal modes, the Roman classification alternates between the authentic and plagal modes, resulting in modes with the same finalisfollowing each other in the order of appearance.

The Dorian and Hypodorian modes are represented by the first pair, orprotus maneria; the Phrygian and Hypophrygian modes are represented by the second pair, ordeuterus; the Lydian and Hypolydian modes are represented by the third pair, ortritus; and the Mixolydian and Hypomixolydian modes are represented by the fourth pair, ortrardus.

Perhaps the most noticeable difference is the distinct meanings assigned to the names of the Greek Octave species and the names of the church modes.

This resulted in dorian (D–D), phrygian (E–E), lydian (C–c), and mixolydian (B–b) appearing in the church modes, respectively, in place of the Greek octave species Dorian, phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian (B–b).

Gradual emergence of major and minor tonality

Despite the fact that the two notes B and B never appeared in sequence, the rigorous coherence of the system of church modes was progressively eroded by the occurrence of B as an additional note to the B. Because medieval musicians were attempting to avoid the tritone F–B, they used a tone not included in the basicscalepattern as a primary rationale for using this tone. Because it contains three whole tones, the tritone (also known as the tritone interval) was seen as an unpleasant interval, especially when compared to the perfect fourth F–B.

For example, theLydian mode with a flattened B was identical to the modern major mode, specifically with the F–major scale (F G A B C D E F); and theDorian mode with a flattened B generated a minor mode corresponding to the natural D minor scale (D E F G A B C D); and the Dorian mode with a flattened B generated a minor mode corresponding to the natural D minor scale (D E F G A B C D).

A manifestation of this unwillingness to recognise the presence of extra modes is found in the so-called musica ficta genre.

It was a result of two distinct developments that took place between the 12th and 16th centuries that led to the radical transformation of modal theory: the infiltration of folk music into the ecclesiasticaand secular art forms, and the gradual development of a fabric of harmony that was intended to unify the growing complexity of polyphonic (many-voiced) musical texture.

Adding the following four modes to the system of eight church modes in hisDodecachordon(1547; from Greekddeka, “twelve,” andchorda, “string”), possibly the most important musical treatise of the day, Glareanus expanded the system of eight church modes by adding the following four: Major and minor modes are represented by Ionian and Hypoionian modes, respectively, whereas Aeolian and Hypoaeolian modes correspond to the “natural” minor mode.

The 12 modes of the Dodecachordoncomprising authentic and plagal structures with tonal centers on the notes C, D, E, F, G, and A, without resort to sharpened or flatted tones, are composed of authentic and plagal structures with tonal centers on the notes C, D, E, F, G, and A.

However, because the fifth degree above it, F, and the fifth degree above it, B, constitute a “false” (i.e., reduced, or flattened) fifth (another version of the banned tritone), Glareanus claims that there are only 12 modes usable for practical purposes.

Throughout the Western Hemisphere, the further evolution of art music is marked by the progressive rejection of the ancient religious modes in favor of the dual major-minor system that dominated harmony in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, respectively.

Major and minor scale patterns, on the other hand, possess all of the key properties of modes and should be treated as such in their evaluation.

A brief history of Gregorian chant

A Gregorian chant rehearsal at the school’s St. Vincent Chapel was conducted on October 10 by Timothy S. McDonnell, director of music ministries at The Catholic University of America’s Institute of Sacred Music, Benjamin T. Rome School of Music in Washington. Gregorian chant is the chanting of the liturgy, and the texts are nearly completely drawn from the Bible. (CNS photo courtesy of Chaz Muth) (CNS) – Washington, D.C. – Whenever Erin Bullock walks in front of the altar at Washington’s Cathedral of St.

  1. During an October Mass at the church, her function as cantor is as obvious as the priest’s, and much of the music she intones with her powerful soprano – together with the choir and those in the seats – is the unadorned resonances of Gregorian chant.
  2. In their performance by a choir, the chants are normally chanted in unison and unaccompanied by any kind of rhythmic or melodic accompaniment, with the tones rising and falling in an ad libitum way.
  3. McDonnell, director of the Institute of Sacred Music at The Catholic University of America in Washington, the history of sung prayer extends back to the first millennium, with Gregorian chant being the suitable music of the mature Roman rite.
  4. Despite its resurgence in popularity in recent decades, the chant is not the primary musical accompaniment in most Catholic parishes in the United States, according to McDonnell of Catholic News Service.
  5. According to Elizabeth Black, assistant music director at St.
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As an example, when the priest sings, “the Lord be with you,” and the congregation responds in song, “and with your spirit,” they are participating in Gregorian chant because those holy texts are an essential part of the Mass, according to Black, who spoke to Catholic News Service in a recent interview about the practice.

  • When you sing a component of the liturgy that is fundamental to the Mass, you’re singing Gregorian chant, according to Lang, who is an expert on the subject.
  • Despite the fact that hymns, which are typically layered in rich harmonies, are liturgical in character, such melodies are intended to beautify the Mass with meditative spirituality rather than serving as a key component of the liturgy, according to Black.
  • However, there are several exceptions to this unofficial chant rule, and certain choirs embellish their chants with harmonies and musical accompaniment on occasion.
  • But, according to theologian John Paul II, it is only recently that Gregorian chant, which began to take shape in the ninth century, has been written down and kept for historical preservation.

The development of Gregorian chant is unlikely to have been a direct result of Pope Gregory I’s efforts, according to McDonnell, who described him as a “building pope” who helped reorder the liturgy in a more practical way, creating the artistic environment necessary for the establishment of some form of plainchant.

  1. Gregory the Great’s death that the music we know today as Gregorian chant began to develop, according to Dr.
  2. “In fact, most historians believe it was Pope Gregory II (715-731), who reigned about 100 years later, who was the Pope Gregory who actually had more of a hand in formulating this body of chants that we know today as Gregorian chant,” he said.
  3. Matthew the Apostle.
  4. John the Beloved, has made the chant a natural component of the liturgy.

McDonnell stated that “Gregorian chant has the potential to be extremely sophisticated, intricate, and convoluted, as well as possessing a high level of artistic merit.” However, much of its beauty may be found in the simplicity of the design and the fact that most of it is accessible to members of the congregation and children.” According to him, “everyone can learn to sing some amount of Gregorian chant,” and the church has organized the chants into categories based on their accessibility over the years.

  • There are numerous chants that are intended to be sung by the faithful as part of their participation in the liturgy, and those chants are every bit as much Gregorian chant as the more florid and complex ones,” says the author.
  • St.
  • The chant is more effective because of this technique, in some ways,” says the author.
  • According to him, the causes of these waves are unpredictable.
  • “When the popes returned from Avignon (a period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven popes resided in Avignon, France, rather than in Rome), the city was in utter disarray, and the culture of Rome had to be reconstructed,” he explained.

As a result, we witnessed the resurgence of Gregorian chant.” The Renaissance polyphony of the 16th century, with its intricate texturized harmonies, became the dominant music in the church and for a time superseded Gregorian chant, according to McDonnell, who believes that the Renaissance was a period of cultural restoration.

Then, in 1947, Pope Pius XII released his encyclical “Mediator Dei” (“On the Sacred Liturgy”), which encouraged active involvement by the laity in the liturgy while also strengthening the use of Gregorian chant, according to historian Black.

The use of Gregorian chant was advocated for in papers produced during Vatican II in the 1960s; but, as the Latin Mass was replaced by the vernacular, most parishes opted for music that was more in tune with popular culture, such as praise and worship and folk genres, according to McDonnell.

When “Chant,” an incredibly successful CD produced by the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos, Spain, was published in the 1990s, interest in the practice was once again piqued, according to him.

Gregorian chant is no longer the dominant force in parish life as it once was, but according to McDonnell, if history repeats itself, it is in the process of regaining its former prominence and might once again become a mainstay of church music.

Chapter 2: Chant and Secular Song in the Middle Ages

There are two main collections of song that have survived from the Middle Ages: sacredplainchant(orchant), which was used in community ritual, and secular monophony, which was employed in secular settings. Both repertories are mostly monophonic and were passed down from generation to generation from memory prior to the introduction of musical notation. In the course of history, the chant repertoire has been altered, increased, and diversified. Even though there were many other types and genres of medieval song, the most artistically expressive songs performed outside of the Church were written bytroubadoursandtrouvères,poet-composers who lived in the twelfth and thirteenth century, respectively.

I. Western Christian Chant and Liturgy (CHWM 29–34, NAWM 3)

Music for religious services, chant was a source of inspiration and a source of information for later music in the Western artistic heritage. The form of each chant is defined by its function throughout the ceremony.

  1. Liturgy The Office and the Mass were the two primary forms of liturgies in the early Christian church, and they were both performed on Sundays. Prescribed texts for the liturgy are based on the church calendar
  2. The Office of Readings is prescribed according to the church calendar
  3. TheOffice is comprised of eight services that are held at specific times throughout the day. The singing of psalms, each with an accompanying chant called anantiphon, is a part of the offices
  4. The Mass is a feature of the Mass. The Mass, the most important service of the Catholic Church, begins with introductory prayers and chants, continues with the Liturgy of the Word, and ends in the Liturgy of the Eucharist, which is the culmination of the entire service (a reenactment of the Last Supper). On a daily basis, the texts for The Proper of the Mass are updated. The words of theOrdinary of the Mass are always the same, despite the fact that the tunes may change from year to year. Music: NAWM 3
  5. Transmission through oral tradition Initially, chant melodies were taught by oral transmission and were prone to change and fluctuation throughout time. Taking a Closer Look: The Masses’s Perception of the World For medieval Christians, many of whom were illiterate, the Mass served as an instructive and motivating tool. With the help of music performed by a priest, a chorus, and soloists, messages were carried across huge, echoing worship halls, evoking reverence and evoking awe. An introduction portion is included in the Mass’s first section (which includes the Introit, the Kyrie, and the Gloria). This is followed by the Liturgy of the Word (which includes the Gradual, the Alleluia or Tract, sometimes a sequence, and the Credo) and the Liturgy of the Eucharist (which includes the Offertory, the Sanctus, the Agnus Dei, and the Communion)
  6. And finally, the Liturgy of the Hours (which includes the Gradual, the Alleluia or Tract, sometimes a sequence, and the Credo).
  1. Chant notation in notational notation Notation aided in the standardization of chant melodies and the promotion of homogeneity. For over 1,000 years, all of the most significant advances in European music took occurred north of the Alps
  2. This was the case until the end of the Middle Ages.
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II. Genres and Forms of Chant (CHWM 34–42, NAWM 3 and 4)

Chants can be classed in a variety of ways, including:

  1. In general, there are three types of chants:

While the vast majority (if not all) of the Mass and the Office are performed to recitation formulae, some passages are sung to fully formed melodies.

  1. Chant melodies frequently reflect both the intonation and rhythm of the words they are intended to accompany as well as their function in the liturgy. Melodic structure is defined as follows: Each tune is divided into phrases and periods, which correspond to the punctuation in the accompanying text. Phrases have a tendency to be archlike in shape, rising, holding, and then dropping. In the Context of: In the Monastic Scriptorium, manuscripts of music were kept by the monasteries. A scriptorium was a group of monks or nuns who were involved in the production of manuscripts throughout the Middle Ages. Scriptoria were responsible for the copying of text and music, the decoration and illustration of pages, and the binding of books. The entire process was time-consuming and quite expensive.
  1. Forms of chant In general, chants may be divided into three types of structures: two balanced phrases, such as in a psalm verse
  2. Strophic form, such as in hymns (NAWM 4b)
  3. And free form. NAWM 4b is the music.
  1. Tones from the Psalms Psalm tones are musical formulae that are used to sing psalms. a psalm tone is made up of the following elements: anintonation, a recitation on the reciting tone or the tenor, amedianto indicate that you have reached the middle of the verse, a continuation of the reciting tone, and atermination. Doxology At the conclusion of each psalm, the Lesser Doxology is sung, which is an expression of praise to the Trinity. NAWM 4a is the music. Psalmody with antiphons If two choirs are singing the same psalm verse, the first choir sings the first half of the verse, while the second chorus sings the second half
  2. This is known as antiphonalpsalm singing. Antiphons Each psalm is preceded and followed by an antiphon, which is chanted before and after the psalm, respectively. In the office, responsories begin with a choralrespond, are followed by a soloist singing the psalm verse, and are concluded with the response.
  1. Introit and Communion are two important parts of the service. The antiphonal chants of the Introit and the Communion are used in the Mass. NAWM 3a and 3j
  2. Gradual and Alleluia
  3. NAWM 3a and 3j They are both response chants that are very melismatic in nature, with a single verse introduced or framed by a reply at the beginning of each stanza. Many Alleluias feature matching sentences at the end of sections, which is a common occurrence. NAWM 3d and 3e are the music used. Performance in the face of adversity Offerings are melismatic, similar to Graduals, but only include the response. A soloist and choir alternate in responsorial performance
  4. OffertoryOffertories are melismatic, similar to Graduals, but only include the respond. NAWM 3g is the music used.
  1. Vocalizations from the Ordinary TheGloria and the Credohave lengthy sentences that are primarily syllabic in nature. The Kyrie, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei are all three-part sectional arrangements
  2. The Sanctus and Agnus Dei are two-part sectional arrangements. The Kyrie is frequently sung in an antiphonal fashion. Between the ninth and twelfth centuries, new antiphons were added to the repertoire. The music is NAWM 3b, and the tropes are Expansions were made to pre-existing chants in three different ways: by including new words and music, by including new music alone, or by including new words just. Tropes were popular in the tenth and eleventh centuries, but they were subsequently outlawed by the Council of Trent (1545–1563) in the fifteenth century. The music is by NAWM 6
  3. The sequences are by Beginning as motifs in the ninth century, sequences evolved into autonomous compositions in the twentieth century. The Council of Trent abolished all but a few sequences from the liturgy, leaving just the essentials. Music: NAWM 5
  4. Dramatization of the liturgy The troping tradition also gave rise to liturgical plays. Naumburg Academy of Music (NAWM) 6
  5. Hildegard of Bingen Hildegard of Bingen (c. 1098–1179) composed both the lyrics and the music for the religious music play The Last Supper. Virtutum et virtutum et virtutum (The Virtues, ca. 1151). Her stay in a convent provided her with artistic outlets and leadership opportunities that were not available to her outside of the convent’s walls. NAWM 7 is the composer’s seventh studio album. Hildegard of Bingen (Hildegard of Bingen) Hildegard of Bingen entered a monastery when she was fourteen years old, and she later created her own convent in 1150. She communicated with a slew of influential individuals who were intrigued by her forecasts, and she composed music for her own religious poems, which she published. This is the oldest known music play that is not associated with the liturgy
  6. It is called HerOrdo virtutum.

III. Medieval Music Theory and Practice (CHWM 42–44)

Practical issues such as how to sing intervals, learn chants, and read notes at a glance were addressed in subsequent Middle Ages treatises, but Boethius did not.

  1. Modes of worship According to medieval theory, there are eight modes, each determined by the arrangement of whole tones and semitones in relation to afinal (Latin,finalis), which is generally the final note of the piece, as well as arange. Authentic modes have a range that extends up an octave from the final
  2. Plagaric modes have a range that extends from a fourth below the final to a fifth above it, and so on. Each mode also has a tenor, which is the tone used when reciting the mode. Solmization During the time of Guido of Arezzo (ca. 991–after 1033), solmizationsyllables were developed to assist vocalists in remembering when full tones and semitones occur. A guide to the Guidonian hand Guiding notes to each joint of the left hand served as a method for teaching notes and intervals, according to the Guidonian. The musical staff allowed for exact pitch notation
  3. This was made possible by the musical staff.
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IV. Medieval Song (CHWM 44–50, NAWM 8, 9, 11, and 12)

  1. Songs by Goliard Goliard songs, songs with Latin verses glorifying the vagrant lives of students and itinerant clergy known as goliards, were among the first types of secular music to be recorded (dating back to the eleventh and twelfth centuries). Jongleurs Orminstrels, often known as jongleurs, made their living as roaming musicians and performers on the periphery of society. It was in the eleventh century that they founded brotherhoods, which subsequently developed into guilds. Troubadours and trouvères are those who entertain others. A group of poet-composers known as troubadours (feminine:trobairitz) who lived in southern France during the twelfth century and spoke Provençal (orlangue d’ocor Occitan) were known as troubadours. Their northern French equivalents, the astrouvères, spoke the d’o l language, which is considered to be the origin of modern French, and were still active in the thirteenth century. While trovadours and trouvères flourished in castles and courts, they hailed from a diverse range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Various types of musical compositions The songs of both troubadours and trouvères have a wide range of formats and subjects to choose from. Arefrains are a common feature of trouvère songs, which is a section of text that returns in each stanza with the same melody. An ancient Occitan lyric Many Old Occitan songs are about exquisite amour, a type of love in which a subtle, unreachable lady is worshipped from a distance
  2. Bernart de Ventadorn’s poem is an example of this type of love. Bernart de Ventadorn (ca. 1150–ca. 1180), one of the most prominent poets of his day, climbed from obscurity to associate with the aristocracy after marrying into a noble family. His songCan vei la lauzeta mover epitomizes the essence of good amour. Music: NAWM 8
  3. A typical song structure may be found here. Poetry in the style of a troubadour or trouvère is strophic, and melody is typically syllabic with a range of an octave or less in pitch. Because of the way troubadour tunes are written, it is difficult to determine their rhythm. The melody for each line of the acanso (love song) is composed of a single melodic phrase, with certain phrases repeating to create formal patterns
  4. Beatriz de Da Her songA chantar depicts the perspective of a woman on courtly love, and it was written about 1212 by Comtessa Beatriz de Da, who was both a countess and a trobairitz. Music composed by NAWM 9 and Minnesinger Between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, the Minnesingerwere knightly poet-composers in German nations who lived in the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. In their songs, they frequently sung about idealized love (Minne) and used the bar form: AAB. (A is referred to as theStollen, while B is referred to as theAbgesang.) Minnesinger was also a composer of Crusade songs. NAWM 11 is the music. Eleanor of Aquitaine and Her Courts of Love: A Historical Overview (CHWM 48) A member of an aristocratic family, Eleanor of Aquitaine (ca. 1122–1204) was a wife and mother of kings as well as a patron of troubadours and trouvères
  5. She was the granddaughter of a troubadour and the wife and mother of a troubadour.
  1. CantigasCantigaswere Spanish monophonic melodies with repeated refrains that were popular in the 19th century. The most well-known collection, Cantigas de Santa Mara, has almost four hundred cantigas in praise of the Virgin Mary, and is the most widely read. NAWM 12 is the music.

No. 2855: Gregorian Chant

Today, plain and simple. The University of Houston�s College of Engineering presents this series about the machines that make our civilization run, and the people whose ingenuity created them.I t�s easy to take the rich textures of today�s music for granted. Whether listening to a symphony or a rock band, the many layers of instruments and vocals create complex, captivating harmonies. How boring music would be if everything we listened to was mere melody — a lone voice floating on the wind.Yet for much of history that�s exactly what music consisted of.

Plainchant could be sung by one or many voices, but always consisted of a single, unaccompanied melody.Many different plainchant traditions developed, but central to Church history, and by extension to the history of western music, wasGregorian chant.

It led to the development of an early form of musical notation that bears many similarities to our present notation.

However, its actual origins remain open to debate.Much of what is popularly considered Gregorian chant is actuallyorganum.

The harmonies are often quite simple, but organum proved an important milestone on the road to modern music.The use of Gregorian chant waned in the late Middle Ages as it was supplanted by ever more elaborate musical forms.

Gregorian chant is no longer required as part of Roman Catholic liturgy, but its use is still encouraged.And it has a following beyond church walls.

Marketed as a remedy for stress, it went triple platinum in the U.S.

A similar feat was achieved by Austrian monks in 2008, who also sold millions of recordings, mostly in Europe.I for one am glad music�s evolved beyond the limited structures found in plainchant.

Accessed January 15, 2013.Gregorian Chant.

Accessed January 15, 2013.The Gregorian Chant: An examination of the ancient musical and spiritual tradition.

Accessed January 15, 2013.Plain Chant.

From the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, taken from thisWikisource website. Accessed January 15, 2013.All pictures are from Wikimedia Commons.This episode was first aired on January 17, 2013.The Engines of Our Ingenuity is Copyright © 1988-2013 by John H. Lienhard.

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