Plainsong Or Gregorian Chant (which Only Has One Line Of Music) Is Which Of The Following Textures

Monophony – Wikipedia

Amelody (or “song”), often sung by a single voice or played by a single instrument player (e.g., a fluteplayer), without accompanying harmony or chords, is the most basic of musical textures in the world of music. There are many monophonic folk tunes and traditional songs. Monophonic melodies are also regarded to be monophonic when they are performed by a group of singers (for example, an achoir) in unison (at exactly the same pitch) or with the same melody notes replicated at the octave (for example, in a choral setting) (such as when men and women sing together).

If different components are employed in a song or musical work, such as an accompaniment part or polyphonic melody lines, the musical texture of the piece will be established by this assessment (two or more independent lines).

Singers and instrumentalists often use monophony, heterophony (two singers or instrumentalists performing different versions of the same melody together), polyphony (two or more singers or instrumentalists performing independent melodic lines at the same time), homophony (a melody accompanied by chords), and monody (a single melodic line with instrumental accompaniment) elements throughout the melody to create different atmospheres and styles.

According to Ardis Butterfield (1997), monophony is a type of communication “is the main style of expression in European vernacular genres, as well as in Latin musical composition.

This is the plainchant version (mode iii) of Pange Lingua sung to its traditional Latin text.

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Erik Satie The Four Ogives. Their calm, slow melodies are built up from paired phrases reminiscent of plainchant.

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Western singing

Plainchant or plainsong (of which one well-known variety was referred to asGregorian chant) was the oldest documented Christian monophony, consisting of a single unaccompanied vocal melody chanted by monks. Despite the fact that this music is sung by numerous voices in unison (i.e., with the same pitch and beat), it is nevertheless termed monophonic. It was plainsong that was the first and most popular musical style in countries like Italy, Ireland, Spain, and France. Theorganumtradition arose in the early 9th century as a result of the addition of voices in tandem with plainchant tunes.

Plainchant styles

Plainchant or plainsong (of which one well-known variety was known as Gregorian chant) was the oldest documented Christian monophony, consisting of a single unaccompanied vocal melody chanted by monks. Multi-part harmony (i.e., the same pitch and rhythm) is nevertheless regarded monophonic even when it is sung by numerous voices in unison. Throughout Italy, Ireland, Spain, and France, plainsong was the primary musical style to be heard. As a result of the addition of voices to plainchant melodies in tandem with the development of theorganumtradition during the early 9th century, In its earliest forms, the organum simply added a second voice in parallel octaves or parallel fifths, which could be considered monophonic; however, by the 11th century the organum had developed a style known as “free organum,” in which the voices were more independent, eventually evolving into a polyphonic tradition; however, by the 12th century it had developed a style known as “free organum,” in which the voices were more independent, eventually evolving into a polyphonic tradition.

Kiri Te Kanawa’s Kyrie is sung in the Gregorian tradition (plainsong)

Troubador song monophony

The majority of troubadour songs were monophonic in nature. Troubadour songs were produced between 1100 and 1350, and they were mainly lyrics about chivalry or courtly love, with the verses arranged to a melodic accompaniment by the composer. Troubadours and trouvères were aristocratic musicians who performed in courtly settings for kings, queens, and countesses. Poets and composers in the 14th century created a large number of songs that might be considered extensions of the Provençal-Troubador heritage, such as secular monophonic lais and virelais, which are still performed today.

He was born in the town of Lescurel and lived in the town of Trouvère.

Geisslerlieder or Flagellant songs

A tradition ofLauda, or religious songs in the form of Troubador songs, was promoted in the 13th and 14th centuries byGeisslerlieder, or Flagellant songs, which were popularized in the 13th and 14th centuries by Geisslerlieder, or Flagellant songs. Foliellan songs such as these monophonicLaude spirituale songs were employed byflagellants between the 13th and 17th centuries, according to the medieval chronicleChronicon Hugonis sacerdotis de Rutelinga (1349).

Lutheran church chorale

In the Lutheran Church, monophony was the first sort of texture to be introduced. For example, Martin Luther’s hymn “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (“A Mighty Fortress Is Our God”), written as a monophonic melody between 1527 and 1529, is a well-known example of this. The hymns of Martin Luther were arranged for multiple voices by other composers and were also utilized in other polyphonic works, such as the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach.

Monophony with instrumental doubling

SeeVoicing for further information (music) Doubling DeLonemore describes monophony as “passages, movements, or sections in which notes sound alone, notwithstanding the presence of instrumental doubling,” even if “such passages may comprise a number of instruments or voices,” according to him.

Music of India

Classical Indian music is an ancient musical genre in which monophonic melodies known as ragas are performed overdrones, occasionally accompanied by percussion and other supplementary instruments.

  • Classical Indian music is an ancient musical genre in which monophonic melodies known as ragas are performed overdrones, occasionally accompanied by percussion and other forms of accompaniment.

See also

  • Drone (music)
  • Duophonic
  • Polyphony
  • Voicing (music)
  • Doubling
  • Drone (music)

Sources

  1. Vernon Kliewer’s etymology (1975). Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music”, Melody: Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music, Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music Gary Wittlich’s full name is Gary Wittlich (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-049346-5
  2. Ardis Butterfield, ed (1997). In “Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music,” “Monophonic song: issues of category,” and other places. It is published by Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-816540-4)
  3. Template for a Crusades article
  4. Music from the Crusades
  5. Introduction to a secular song from the Middle Ages Archived from the original on 2007-03-15 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Richard DeLone is a professor of English at the University of California, Los Angeles (1975). In “Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music,” on page 99, the author discusses “Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Music.” Gary Wittlich’s full name is Gary Wittlich (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-049346-5.

Further reading

  • Aaron Copland’s “What to Listen for in Music” was published in 1999. MentorLCCN98-53893
  • New York: MentorLCCN98-53893

External links

  • What is the difference between monophony, polyphony, homophony, monody, and so on
  • 3Early Music: monophony
  • Music Texture Monophony
  • Music Texture Monophony Polyphony
  • In the first chapter of the Ratio Representation Project, plainchant and secular monophony are discussed.

Texture

This article discusses the three types of musical textures that we will meet during our studies: monophony, polyphony, and homophony, and how they differ from one another. Texture is an aspect that you will utilize while recognizing compositions from all periods of music history, therefore you will want to pay close attention to the information in this section. You’ll find links to three pieces you may listen to at the end of the reading assignment; try to identify the textures of the pieces based on what you’ve learned in the reading assignment.

Introduction

Throughout our studies, we will meet three different types of musical textures: monophony, polyphony, and homophony. When recognizing compositions from all periods of music history, texture will be an important factor to consider; thus, you should spend considerable time studying this material.

You’ll find links to three pieces you may listen to at the conclusion of the reading assignment; try to identify the textures of the pieces based on the textures you’ve learned in the reading.

Terms that Describe Texture

Many colloquial phrases can be used to describe the texture of a piece of music (thick, thin, bass-heavy, rhythmically complicated) but the formal terminology that are used to describe texture all reflect the connections between melodies and, if present, harmonies in the piece of music. You will face three primary textures throughout our lesson, and the following are definitions and samples of each.

Monophonic

When it comes to monophonic music, there is just one melody line and no harmony or counterpoint. Even though there may be a rhythmic accompaniment, there will only be one line with precise pitches. Monophonic music is also referred to as monophony in some circles. After the Middle Ages, this texture is only seldom heard in Western European music of the tradition that began in the Mediterranean.

Examples of Monophony

  • There is only one melody line in monophonic music, with no harmony or counterpoint. Even if there may be a rhythmic accompaniment, there is only one line with distinct pitches. It is also possible to refer to monophonic music as monophonic. In music of the Western European style composed after the Middle Ages, this texture is utilized only infrequently.

Polyphonic

When it comes to monophonic music, there is just one melodic line and no harmony or counterpoint. Even if there may be a rhythmic accompaniment, there is only one line with specific pitches. Monophonic music is sometimes referred to as monophony. After the Middle Ages, this texture is almost seldom heard in music of the Western European heritage.

Examples of Polyphony

  • Rounds, canons, and fugues are all examples of polyphonic composition. If multiple persons sing or play the melody at different times, the sections sound independent, even if there is only one melody. Much of the late Baroque period’s music, notably the compositions of J.S. Bach, is contrapuntal. In most cases, at least some of the time, the music for big instrumental ensembles such as bands or orchestras is contrapuntal. Music that is mostly homophonic can be momentarily transformed into polyphonic music by the addition of an independent countermelody. For example, consider a beloved pop or gospel song where the soloist “improvises” at the conclusion as the backing singers repeat the chorus

Homophonic

Homophonic music is also referred to as homophony in some circles. People who are describing homophonic music may use terms such as chords, accompaniment, harmony, or harmonies to describe it more formally. Homophony is distinguished by a single distinct melodic line, which is the line that naturally catches your attention. All of the other components serve as accompaniment or fill in the gaps between the chords. When it comes to well-written homophony, even the portions that are not melodically significant can nevertheless have a great deal of melodic appeal.

In contrast, when they are sung or performed in conjunction with the melody, it is evident that they are not separate melodic parts, either because they have the same rhythm as the melody (i.e., are not independent), or because their primary function is to fill in the chords or harmony gaps (i.e.

Examples of Homophony

  • Homophonic music is a type of choral music in which all of the parts have primarily the same rhythms at the same time. This category includes the majority of traditional Protestant hymns as well as the majority of “barbershop quartet” music. A vocalist who is accompanied by a guitarist who picks or strummings chords on the instrument An improvised trumpet solo is performed by a small jazz combo consisting of a bass, a piano, and drums, which serves as the “rhythm” background for the performance. A solo bagpiper or accordion musician who performs a song accompanied by drones or chords

Suggested Listening

  • Any singer that is performing on their own
  • Any orchestral woodwind or brass instrument (flute, clarinet, trumpet, trombone, etc.) performed solo, including the oboe, clarinet, horn, and trumpet. As an illustration, consider the following excerpt from James Romig’s Sonnet 2, performed by John McMurtery: A suite for solo cello by Bach
  • Choral chants in the Gregorian style
  • The majority of fife and drum music
  • Long portions of Handel’s “Messiah” aria “The People Who Walked in Darkness” are performed in a monophonic style (the instruments are playing the same line as the voice). It has been suggested that Handel equates monophony with “walking in the dark.” Monophony is uncommon in modern popular genres, although may be heard in Queen’s “We Will Rock You.”

Polyphony

  • Anyone who is a solo performer When a solo woodwind or brass instrument (such as a flute or clarinet) performs as part of an orchestra, it is known as a solo woodwind or brass instrument. For example, consider the following excerpt from James Romig’s Sonnet 2, which was performed by John McMurtery: Cello suite in the style of Bach performed without accompaniment. Vocalizations in the style of Gregory of Nyssa most of the song with fife and drums Long passages of Handel’s “Messiah” aria “The People Who Walked in Darkness” are performed in monophony (the instruments are playing the same line as the voice). It has been suggested that Handel equates monophony with “walking in the dark.” Monophony is uncommon in current popular music, although may be heard in Queen’s “We Will Rock You.”

Homophony

  • The “Maple Leaf Rag” or “The Entertainer” are examples of classic Scott Joplin rags. The section of Edward Elgar’s “Pomp and Circumstance No. 1” known as the “graduation march”
  • The “March of the Toreadors” from Bizet’s Carmen
  • No. 1 (“Granada”) from Albeniz’s Suite Espanola for guitar
  • And the “March of the Toreadors” from Bizet’s Carmen. In general, homophonic textures are strongly preferred in most popular music genres, whether the music is performed by a single vocalist, rapper, guitar solo, or a group of vocalists singing in harmony. The first section of Handel’s “Messiah” overture (the second section of the overture is polyphonic)
  • The first section of Handel’s “Messiah” overture (the second section of the overture is polyphonic)

Assignment

Choose one of the pieces from the list below and listen to it on YouTube once you have finished reading about musical texture in the text. Please respond to the questions below when you have finished listening to your pick.

Two-Part Invention in C Major by Johann Sebastian Bach

For the first 20 seconds, the texture is the most noticeable.)

Questions

  1. Which component did you decide to go with? (It is sufficient to copy and paste the title)
  2. The music you picked represents which of the three textures listed above
  3. What was it that you heard that allowed you to recognize the texture? 1) Write one or two phrases in which you allude to but do not replicate the explanations on the preceding page. I’m interested in hearing how you put this into your own words.)

Textures

Examine the three pieces provided in the reading assignment on musical texture to determine whether you properly recognized the textures in each of the works.

  • Johann Sebastian Bach’s Polyphony in C Major
  • Deum Verum by an unnamed composer: Monophony
  • Rondo Alla Turca by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Homophony

How Plainchant Started and Where It Is Now

Plainchant is a type of medieval church music that is characterized by the use of chanting or the singing of lyrics without the use of any musical accompaniment. Plainsong is another name for this type of music. You may be more familiar with the name Gregorian Chant, which you may have come across when reading about early music forms or heard about it during a church service or concert.

Even though the phrases are sometimes used improperly as synonyms, Gregorian Chant is a type of plainchant that is derived from the Latin language.

Christian Tradition

Plainchant, a primitive style of music, first appeared about the year 100 C.E. Early on, it was the only sort of music that was permitted in Christian churches. A common belief among Christians is that music should make the listener more open to spiritual ideas and reflections. This belief is supported by research. As a result, the melody was maintained clean and unaccompanied throughout. This was especially true because the same tune would be replayed throughout the plainsong. There are no harmonies or chords to enhance the melody in this song.

Why Is it Also Called Gregorian Chant?

There were numerous various types of plainchant in use during the early centuries, and there was no standardization. A collection of chants was envisioned by Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) about the year 600, and it was completed by Pope Gregory the First in the year 600. This collection of music was known as Gregorian Chant since it was named after him. Later, the word Gregorian Chant was adopted to denote this type of music in general. Prayer, reading, psalm, canticle, hymn, prose, antiphon, responsory, introit, alleluia, and many more varieties of Gregorian Chant are among the many types of Gregorian Chant.

Musical Notation of Plainchant

Ordinarily, modern music notation is written on five lines, whereas plainchant is written on four lines. It was also common to employ a sign known as “neumes” to express pitch and syllable phrasing. When it comes to the earliest types of plainchant, there is no trace of any notation.

Plainchant Today

Gregorian chants are still chanted in Roman Catholic churches all throughout the world today, despite the passage of time. In this version, it is adapted to Latin text and performed either by a soloist or by a chorus. Listen to the Gregorian Chants from Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris to get a sense of what plainchant sounds like. Plainchant has had a cultural renaissance outside of the church and has even made its way into mainstream culture in recent decades. An unexpected international hit was achieved by the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos in Spain when they published their CD named, Chant, in 1994.

During their interviews on The Tonight Show and Good Morning America, the monks expressed their gratitude.

The Cistercian Monks of Austria’s Heiligenkreuz Abbey recorded another popular Gregorian Chant album in 2008, titled Chant – Music for Paradise, which became a hit in the United States.

MUSIC APPRECIATION – ASSIGNMENTS

THE MIDDLE AGESAn age spanning the years from the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 to around 1400. Medieval society was conservative and oriented toward God. The church (the Roman Catholic church) was the primary patron of art and education and the single greatest safe guarder of culture. All music, architecture, poetry and learning was cultivated by the church. Composers were churchmen and musicians got their training as church choirboys. The role of music in the medieval church was to embellish or accompany prayer. It was intended to create a mood of peace, contemplation and spirituality. The exception of music made in the church were the popular musicians called troubadours who held the reputation as wandering musicians. These wandering entertainers called troubadours or jongleurs sang their songs and played their instruments wherever they could find a paying gig. But it was still the church that preserved culture and stood against many of the barbaric conditions that prevailed during the Medieval Period. Many of the surviving music was composed anonymously.
Illumination from the Cantigas de Santa Maria medieval-era manuscripts.

Feudalism is the term used to describe the political system that existed in Europe throughout the Middle Ages. Land was provided by rulers to select individuals who came under their jurisdiction. The landowners who held these titles were referred to as vassals. They swore to assist their kings in times of war in exchange for the land they received. Serfs were the individuals who remained on the land and lived and worked on it after the abolition of slavery. Nobles were those who held land and were considered to be nobles.

  • The church was the only thing that stood between the people and these difficult surroundings, as well as the threat of sickness and other religious incursions from the North and the East.
  • Around the year 500, the Gregorian chant, also known as plainsong, was created.
  • It was around the year 1000 that singers began to practice singing the right pitches of Gregorian chant, while others practiced singing it a fourth, fifth, or octave higher, and by the conclusion of the period, beautiful polyphony was being produced.
  • Chant Sheet Music on a single page.
  • Plainchant and plainsong are other names for this kind of music.
  • Plainchant has a monophonic texture and only one melodic line, with no defined beat.
  • Because it is named after Pope Gregory (540-607), who was in charge of collecting and codifying the chant, it is referred to as Gregorian chant.

Gregorian Chant was chanted at significant church services, particularly during the celebration of the Mass. Aside from the Latin text, the modal scale and the lack of explicit phrase linkages, chant is known for its calm, through-composed, contemplative, meditative, restful, and prayerful traits.

To download, simply right-click on the image. Van Eyk is a group of musicians. The oldest kind of notated polyphony to be discovered. An old Gregorian Chant has been enhanced by the addition of a new note. The singing was frequently accompanied by an organ, thus the term organum. Gregorian Chant in an organum was a slower moving voice, and the second additional part was an enhanced quicker moving element, which together made up the whole piece. There was a particular decision made by the composer about the new note that would be added to the current chant since it was regarded to be consonant and non-offensive to the church.

During the Middle Ages, it was thought to be magical.

In Gregorian Chant, a religious (and sometimes secular) vocal composition is created by combining two or more parts in polyphonic texture with one or more separate rhythmic sections.

A motet is also distinguished by its highly developed polyphony.

Nature présentant à Machaut ses enfants,Bibliothèque nationale de France © BNF

Guillaume de Machaut’s Motet is a piece of music composed in the French language. In the 15th century, Machaut was the first composer to think of composing music for each of the five sections of the Mass.

Troubadours, 13th CenturyTirés du manuscrit des Miracles de saint Louis.

A medieval poet, composer, and musician who wrote love songs and laments for the people of his day. They were originally from Southern France, but they traveled throughout Europe, from manor to manor or pub to tavern, in search of profitable and well-paying performances. These kind of roaming musicians were known as Trovieres if they originated in Northern France, Minnesingers if they originated in Germany, and Minstrels if they originated in England.

AndreaDa Firenze,The Church Militant and Triumphant (detail)1365-68, Florence .

Poet, composer, and musician of the Middle Ages who wrote love songs and laments for the people of Europe. It is believed that they originated in Southern France and traveled throughout Europe, performing for profit and well-being at manors and in taverns alike. Minnesingers from Germany and Minsters from England were all terms used to describe these sort of travelling musicians if they arrived from Northern France.

musical performance – The Middle Ages

The history of sung prayers and psalms may be traced back to the dawn of civilisation itself. It was common for such sacredsinging to be accompanied by instruments, and its rhythmic aspect was noticeable. The sung prayers, on the other hand, were frequently unaccompanied in the synagogue. Due to the rhythmic nature of holy music, ritual dance was forbidden in the synagogue, and the synagogue lost its more sensuous qualities as a result. So much so that rhythmic poetry was replaced by prose in the prayers themselves.

  • The liturgical heritage of Judaism served as the foundation for the Christian practice of musical performance and worship.
  • More Information on This Subject may be found here.
  • The majority of the music in the RomanCatholic liturgy was performed for the congregation.
  • In the ancient Christian Church, women had an active role in musical performances until 578, when former Hebraic norms that barred them from participating were reinstated.
  • Pope Gregory I, during his papacy (590–604), is credited with creating the first code of early church music.
  • These chants were allocated to certain services in the liturgical calendar as a result of his codification.
  • Even in the twenty-first century, the music in this collection continues to serve as a model of melodic design, and it is considered as one of the great monuments of Western musical literature.
  • Specifics about the way in which the chant was sung have been lost to history.
  • It is impossible to determine the actual rhythmic style of chant.
  • There appeared to be some variation in pitch levels and tempos depending on the situation.

Even though modern Western musical traditions are based to a large extent on the principles of antiquity preserved in the notated music of the early church, secular musical practice did exist; however, due to the pervasive influence of the church, the dividing line between sacred and secular aspects was thin for much of the medieval period.

In most cases, musical notations are inadequate to provide a proper picture of the music, although it is clear that the core monophonic nature of liturgical music was kept.

However, it was intended to be performed during religious plays or processions, and did not use any traditional liturgical melodies or themes.

Thegoliardsongs, which date back to the 11th century, are considered to be among the first instances of secular music.

Thejongleurs, a group of traveling entertainers in western Europe who sang, performed tricks, and danced for a living; the troubadours in the south of France and thetrouvères in the north; and theminnesingers, a class of artist-knights who wrote and sang love songs tinged with religious fervor, were just a few of the groups of medieval performers who developed literary and musical genres based on vernacular texts.

  • During the Middle Ages, instruments like as thevielle, harp, psaltery, flute, shawm, bagpipe, and drums were all employed to accompany dancing and singing, as were other types of music.
  • The existence of secular instrumental music before to the 13th century is, on the whole, poorly documented.
  • Modern experts, on the other hand, do not rule out the prospect of accompanying liturgical music in the future.
  • The advances in rhythmic notation that were required to make separate melody lines synchronized were possibly the most significant advancements in the wake of polyphony for performers and for performance as a whole.
  • The environment for new advances in music migrated from the holy field to the secular field, from the church to the court, in part as a result of the church’s waning political power in the 14th century.
  • Already, the lower voices were being played on instruments, both because their lengthy notes made it impossible to sing them and because their words (which were only a few syllables in length) were meaningless when sung outside of their intended liturgical contexts.
  • It was during this time period that the polyphonic music of the church blended with the poetic art of the troubadours.

The majority of the music by these composers appears to have been written for a combination of vocal and instrumental performance, despite the fact that this is rarely explicitly stated in the manuscripts.

From the 17th century onwards, and even into the 19th century in the case of home performance, the choice of instruments was likely to be influenced as much by the availability of performers as it was by any other factor.

Loud instruments (shawm, bombard, trombone, organ) would be used for outside or ceremonial music, whereas delicate instruments would be used for indoor music (lute, viol, recorder, harp).

The parts for these instruments are never discovered in the musical sources and must be recreated in order to be performed in the present day.

Accidentals (sharps and flats, which were previously referred to as “musica ficta”) were frequently removed since they were assumed to be understood.

A technique calledfauxbourdon was used to enhance sections of some 15th-century two-part vocal music; the notation of the 15th-centurybasse danseconsisted of only a single line of unmeasured long notes, which was evidently used by the performing group of three instrumentalists for improvisation, much like a modern jazz combo’s chart.

The Renaissance

In the shadows of early civilization, there is a history of singing prayers and psalms. Such sacredsingingwas frequently accompanied by instruments, and its rhythmic quality was clearly discernible in the performance. On the other hand, the sung prayers were frequently unaccompanied in the synagogue. It was decided that ritual dancing should not be performed in synagogues due to the fact that the rhythmic nature of sacred music was sacrificing its more sensuous qualities. So much so that rhythmic poetry was replaced by text inside the prayers themselves.

  • In the Jewish liturgical tradition, the tradition of musical performance in the Christian Church developed.
  • Find out more about this subject by reading the following articles: dance: Music Most dance is either accompanied by music or has phrases derived from music that are used in connection to dance rhythm, such as pace, dynamics, and beat.
  • Originally, the music was sung by the priest and the congregation, but over time, a specific group of singers, known as thechoir, evolved from the congregation to fill the function of musical counterpoint and contrast to the solo singing of the priest.
  • In the years 590–604, Pope Gregory I is said to have created the first code of early church music..
  • He allocated specific services in the liturgical calendar to these chants through his codification.
  • Even in the twenty-first century, the music in this collection continues to serve as a model of melodic design, and it is considered as one of the great monuments of Western musical history.
  • Specifics about the way in which the chant was sung have been lost to history.
  • It is impossible to determine the exact rhythmic style of the chant.
  • There appeared to be some variation in pitch levels and tempos depending on the circumstances.

Even though modern Western musical traditions are based to a large extent on the principles of antiquity preserved in the notated music of the early church, secular musical practice did exist; however, because of the pervasive influence of the church, the dividing line between sacred and secular aspects was thin for a good part of the Medieval period.

Musical notations are, for the most part, insufficient to provide an authentic picture of the music, although it is known that it kept the fundamental monophonic nature of liturgical music.

However, it was intended to be performed during religious plays or processions, and did not use any conventional liturgical melodies or text.

Thegoliardsongs, which date back to the 11th century, are considered to be among the first instances of secular music in existence.

Thejongleurs, a group of traveling entertainers in western Europe who sang, performed tricks, and danced for a living; the troubadours in the south of France and thetrouvères in the north; and theminnesingers, a class of artist-knights who wrote and sang love songs tinged with religious fervor, were just a few of the groups of medieval performers who created literary and musical genres based on vernacular texts.

  • In the Middle Ages, dancing and singing were accompanied by various instruments such as thevielle (a type of harp), psaltery (a type of flute), shawm (a type of bagpipe), and drums.
  • Most secular instrumental music before the 13th century is unknown, and this is especially true of early music from Europe.
  • Modern experts, on the other hand, do not rule out the possibility of accompanying liturgical music.
  • The innovations in rhythmic notation required to make separate melody lines synchronized were possibly the most significant advancements in the aftermath of polyphony for performers and performance.
  • Partly as a result of the church’s waning political power, the setting for new advances in music changed from the holy field to the secular field, and thus from the church to the court, beginning in the 14th century.
  • Already, the lower voices were being played on instruments, both because their lengthy notes made it impossible to sing them and because their words (which were only a few syllables in length) rendered meaningless when sung outside of their intended liturgical context.
  • It was during this time period that the polyphonic music of the church blended with the lyrical art of the troubadours; the two most prominent composers of the period were the blind Florentine organist Francesco Landini and the French poet Guillaume de Machaut, canon of Reims, respectively.

Most medieval composers were unlikely to have had preconceived notions regarding the medium in which their works were to be performed.

But many sources show that medieval musicians tended to divide their instruments into two categories: loud and soft (hautandbas, or, to put it another way, wind and string), and to prefer opposing sonorities within those groups in order to maximize difference between the individual sections.

In the time shown in paintings and manuscript illuminations, a broad range of percussion instruments (bells, drums, and other percussion instruments) as well as drone instruments (bagpipes, fiddles, double recorders and hurdy-gurdies) were used in secular performances.

A modern performer may be misled by the notation used in medieval music since it is often ambiguous.

It is probable that aspects such as variety, ornamentation, and improvisation were major components of medieval performance.

Exam #1 (Chs 1-11) Flashcards

MUS 204 is a music theory course. The Comprehension of Musical Notation Hillsdale College is a private liberal arts college in Hillsdale, Michigan. Middle Ages (also known as the Middle Ages of Europe) (Medieval) Characterists -Modes That Have Been Used (not major and minor scales). -predominantly church-related -completely vocal (no instruments) -the text has to be comprehended (focus on words not music) worship services are conducted according to a predefined order (arrange according to the calendar) chanting in the open (Gregorian Chant) -Music that is unaccompanied and monophonic (has only one line) -Repetition of a single fundamental tone with slight variations The RECITING TONE is a tone that is repeated over and over again.

  1. There is no specific rhythm.
  2. The Middle Ages (medieval) were a time when there were no extended melismas since the words would be readily forgotten if they were dragged out.
  3. In this section, you will find information on crusades, wars, knight and maiden love stories, and other topics of interest to courtly people.
  4. As a result of the fact that boys sung with men, this song was created.
  5. Composers used pieces of a gregorian chant and repeated them numerous times over the bottom voice to create this motet.

After 1300.Ars Nova: New artistic expression In the twentieth century, polyphonic music became increasingly secular, complicated, and even confusing (isorhythm: equal rhythm) Music as entertainment for courts and kinds, as well as a celebration of rulers, was performed at the world’s first concert hall (music becomes more generally available) The basic progression of music across time (as opposed to the specific arrangement or durations) A given melody or some other musical section may have both long and short notes.

  • Regular pulse that underpins musical compositions METER is the smallest unit of measurement.
  • one or more lesser beats interspersed between a principal strong beat and one or more weaker beats The primary beats have been separated into two sections.
  • Accentuation refers to the highlighting of particular beats of meter that are normally unaccented Music’s tempo is defined as the pace at which the accented and unaccented beats of the meter follow one another.
  • the “highness” or “lowness” of a musical composition The level of sounds, the loudness or softness of music are all important considerations.
  • sonorous character of a specific instrument, voice, or combination of instruments and voices A secondary vibration in a sound-producing body that contributes to the tone color is referred to as a “tone color” in acoustics.
  • the collection of seven pitches represented by the white notes of the piano, all of which are within one octave of each other within one octavethe gap between any two consecutive notes of the chromatic scale, the set of 12 pitches represented by all of the white and black keys of the piano.

the interval of two half steps (semitones) the component of music that has to do with the sequence of pitches the interval of two half steps (semitones) any specific sequence of pitches that you want to hear It is a straightforward, readily singable melody that is cohesive and complete a brief piece of melody or rhythm that is employed in the construction of a large portion of musical composition topic matter is the fundamental subject of a piece of music.

A theme can be a phrase, a brief motive, a whole melody, or any combination of these—divided into phrases.

In a melody, a succession of pieces that are identical but for their placement at gradually higher or lower pitch levels is used to create the melody.

compression and refraction in airsimultaneous playing of several pitches or chordsto offer each note of a tune with its own chord a collection of pitches that are played and heard at the same time intervals or chords that sound reasonably stable and devoid of strain are considered to be stable.

a solitary, solo piece of music a musical structure in which just one melody of genuine interest is used in conjunction with chords or other auxiliary sounds The use of two or more melodic lines performed or sung at the same time is referred to as texture in music.

counterpount/contrapuntal 9a polyphonic music structure in which the numerous melodic lines employ themes that are almost identical to one another Since the Renaissance, the impression of centrality of a single note (and its chord) to a section of music has been expressed through one of two forms of tonality: major mode or minor mode.

Music with the letter “do” (C) as the centermusic with the letter “la” (A) as the orientation Changing the key of a composition inside a piece The arrangement of materials in a musical piece refers to one of numerous predefined formal patterns that composers have employed throughout history (ex: ABA) There are two fundamental components of shape.

  • Nonmetrical; based on medieval modes (rather than the major/minor system); notably in chant, a single note is utilized for musical “recitation,” with short melodic formulae at the beginning and finish of each chant line.
  • A sort of plainchant in which successive phrases of text receive almost identical melodic treatment (A A’ B B’ C C’) throughout the Middle Ages; antiphones were a more intricate and difficult genre for the average individual to participate in during the Middle Ages.
  • Middle-eighteenth-century naristocratic poet-musicians Middle-eighteenth-century instrumental dance.
  • They no longer felt obligated to use plainchant (when they did, they embellished them with extra notes, set them in graceful rhythms, and smoothed passages) and instead focused on man rather than God.
  • The sonorous and sensual quality of chantrenaissance was frequently stressed.
  • Following a number of years spent at the Carribean cathedral in France, the “ave maris stella” primary roman catholic ceremony, or the music composed for it, was harmonized.
  • Gloria is a lengthy hymn.

Another Agnus Dei, this one a little shorter.

By the end of the century, the majority of music was imitative and relied on a carefully maintained balance among several vocal parts.

Roland de Lassus is a fictional character created by author Roland de Lassus.

William Byrd was an American politician.

a brief piece composed to a poem with only one stanza In most cases, a love poetry with fast turnover of thoughts and imagery is written.

The period 1600-1750 was characterized by a desire for organization, clarity, and simplicity.

Recitative singing and speaking by an individual performer What methods do they use to get more clarity in Baroque music?

Despite the fact that composers made music more free, they also made it more structured (clarity and control) When was the first time that bar restrictions were employed?

anonymous.plainchant A group of chords that are played continually in the background of a song on an organ, harpsichord, or other chord instrument.

The amount of music diminishes as emotion grows.

The amount of accompaniment is typically limited to a bare minimum to ensure that all words be heard clearly.

A solo singer’s lengthy work that has far more melodic development and coherence than a single recitative section is utilized for narrative action, conversation, and crucial words more lyrical, with a more consistent beat, and with an accompaniment that typically involves the full orchestra

Sonic Glossary: Monophony

MUS 204 is an introductory course in music theory and composition. What It Means To Understand Music It is possible to attend Hillsdale College without having to pay a hefty tuition bill. The Middle Ages were a period of time in which people lived (Medieval) Characterists The Modes That Have Been Utilized (not major and minor scales). -dominated by the church -everyone singing (no instruments) A clear understanding of the text was required (focus on words not music) sequence of worship as specified (arrange according to the calendar) Uncomplicated prayer (Gregorian Chant) Monophonic (one-line) music performed without an accompaniment A fundamental tone is repeated again and over again, with tiny variations.

  1. There is no set rhythm.
  2. The Middle Ages (medieval) were a time when there were no protracted melismas since words were readily forgotten if they were prolonged out.
  3. a period in the Middle Ages or the Medieval period Royalty was the target audience for secular music.
  4. 2- or more melodies combined in a single arrangement Polyphony dates back thousands of years.
  5. Later than the year 1200CE Composers used pieces of a gregorian chant and repeated them numerous times over the bottom voice to create a motet.

A new era of art begins after 1300.Ars Nova: In the twentieth century, polyphonic music became more secular, complicated, and even confusing (isorhythm: equal rhythm) In the earliest concert hall, music was performed for the enjoyment of courts and types, as well as a celebration of rulers (music becomes more generally available) (The particular arrangement or durations are not included in this definition.) The basic method in which music unfolds in time A specific tune or other musical phrase may have both long and short notes.

Regular pulse that underpins musical performances A METER is the smallest unit of measurement.

one or several weaker beats interspersed between a fundamentally strong beat and a principle weak beat broken into two parts: the major beats three divisions of the major beats the highlighting of specific beats of meter that are normally left unemphasized beats per minute: the pace at which the accented and unaccented beats of the meter follow one another in time.

  • the sonorous quality of a specific instrument, voice, or combination of instruments and voices A secondary vibration in a sound-producing body that contributes to the tone color is referred to as a “tone color” in acoustics.
  • a set of arranged pitches that serves as the basis for musical composition the distance between two pitches, or the gap between their high and low pitches the interval between a pair of notes that are identical; on the diatonic scale, eight notes are separated by an interval of eight.
  • In music, a semitone is sometimes referred as as Music’s component that has to do with the succession of pitches is represented by the interval of two half steps (semitones).
  • A piece of music’s primary subject matter is defined as An example of a theme is a phrase, a brief motive, a whole song, or any combination of these—divided into phrases -equilibrium in terms of phrase length The use of contrast and parallelism, as well as climax and cadence, are essential.

compression and refraction in airsimultaneous sounding of several pitches or chords to create each note of a tune with its own chorda pitch clusters that are performed and heard at the same time It is a set of intervals or chords that sound generally steady and free of stress periods or chords that sound tight and unsteady in their progression Mixture is defined as the combination of diverse sound and melodic lines that occur concurrently in a piece of music.

interplay between and blending of several musical styles The most basic texture is a smooth surface.

The melodies are seen to be independent of one another and to be of roughly equal importance.

Another option was to use one of the several orientations or the diatonic scale with the tonics D E F and G, which was popular in former times.

The arrangement of components in a musical piece refers to one of a number of predefined formal patterns that composers have employed throughout history (ex: ABA) In terms of shape, there are two fundamental components: musical genre characterized by a combination of musical characteristics that distinguishes it Plainchant’s distinctive features Nonmetrical; arranged on medieval modes (rather than the major/minor system); notably in chant, a single note is utilized for musical “recitation,” with short melodic formulae marking the beginning and end of each phrase.

The entire congregation might join in on tones, which is a type of plainchant performed in a straightforward melodic manner with minimal melismas.

the A’ of a soloist, the A’ of a chorus, etc.

Middle-eighteenth-century naristocratic poets and musicians Middle-eighteenth-century instrumental dance unimpressive one-line works in which the same or similar melodic lines are repeated several times in a variety of musical styles (marked by lively and insistent rhythms in triple meter) Renaissance attitudes towards music were influenced by the rediscovery of Greco-Roman culture in the 14th-16th centuries in Italy.

They no longer felt obligated to use plainchant (when they did, they embellished them with extra notes, set them in graceful rhythms, and smoothed passages) and instead chose to focus on man rather than God.

harmonization of plainchant (emphasis on sensuous effect) 1400-1474 Born in France, but raised in Italy, the Renaissance artist Following a number of years spent at the Carribean cathedral in France, the “ave maris stella” primary roman catholic ceremony, or the music composed for it, was harmonized..

  • An incredibly lengthy hymn called Gloria.
  • Sanctus.
  • high renaissance color with the perfect tone tone color Only voicesthe manner in which words are put to music, whether in terms of rhythm, accent, or any other characteristic A musical explanation of the meaning of a word or a brief spoken phrase is referred to as a musical illustration.
  • Roland de Lassus is a fictional character created by the author Roland de Lassus around the year 1580.
  • Byrd, William brief composition of latin words, made composed of small portions in the homophony and imitative polyphony styles of composition.

set to a one-stanza poem a brief composition usually a love poetry with a lot of thoughts and imagery that change quickly It is as important to the Renaissance as the _is to the nineteenth century to place emphasis on meaning and value of words_ Aiming for organization, clarity, and simplicity, the period 1600-1750 idea that authentic emotion could only be communicated by a single person with a single voice Recitative singing and speaking by an individual soloist.

What methods do they use to make Baroque music more clear?

Despite the fact that composers made music more free, they also made it more ordered (clarity and control) For the first time, bar limitations were implemented.

anonymous.plainchant When an organ, harpsichord, or other chord instrument plays a melody, it is considered to be a continuous collection of chords.

music diminishes in intensity as emotion rises 1567-1643 “The last great madrigalist and the first great opera composer” debuted his first public opera in VENICER, which was hailed as “the last great madrigalist and first great opera composer.” instrumental music is categorized as follows: Dance Virtuosity Musik en Vocal This is a system in which all chords have a specific connection and purpose in regard to the tonicdeclaring phrases in an exaggerated, dramatic way Because it is important that all words are heard clearly, the accompaniment is typically limited to a minimum.

used for story action, conversation, and crucial wordsextended composition for a solo performer that has far more musical complexity and coherence than a period of recitative It is generally the full orchestra that provides a more melodious, consistent beat, and accompaniment.

Middle Ages: plainchant

Monophony is largely a characteristic associated with the Middle Ages in Western music. It is plainchant, often known as plainsong or Gregorian chant, that has been the most popular and influential type of monophonic music for the longest period of time. From the 4th century to the end of the Middle Ages, this was the primary music of the Catholic Church, and it was still in use until the late twentieth century. It is from the Christmas Day liturgy that this chant, with the lyrics “A boy has been born, and a son has been given to us,” is performed.

That is, it is not accompanied by any other musical sound – it is unaccompanied.

Middle Ages: troubadours

Historically, monophony in Western music has been associated predominantly with the Middle Ages and Renaissance periods. Plainchant, also known as plainsong or Gregorian chant, is the monophonic music that has survived the longest and has had the most influence. In use from the 4th century and continuing to be used until the late 20th century, this style of music was the primary musical expression of the Catholic Church. It is from the Christmas Day liturgy that this chant, with the lyrics “A boy has been born, and a son has been given to us,” is sung.

It is unaccompanied, in the sense that it is not accompanied by any other musical sound.

Percussion: medieval dances

In manuscripts, all of the Middle Ages’ monophony survives, either as a collection of melodies with or without words, or as a collection of exclusively melodic pieces. Monophony for instruments is characterized by the fact that not even the instrument to be performed is specified. Pictures of medieval music-making, on the other hand, usually contain additional instruments such as drums, clappers, and hand-cymbals in addition to the traditional instruments. As a result, contemporary performers frequently incorporate percussion instruments.

It is critical to understand that the addition of percussion does not alter the music’s standing as a monophonic composition.

Drones: medieval dances

Medieval paintings occasionally depict an instrument that can only play a single, sustained note or pair of notes – what we call a “drone,” or, as in this example, a piper with drone – in addition to other instruments. A drone of this nature is never recommended in medieval manuscripts. Modern performers have incorporated it into their performances. The importance of understanding that the inclusion of a drone does not modify the status of the music as a monophony cannot be overemphasized. It does not transform it into either polyphony or homophony in any way (the two other principal textures of Western music).

A same statement may be made about some renditions of plainchant, notably lateplainchant, which was composed in the 12th and 13th centuries.

Hildegard of Bingen’s rendition of “O Ecclessia” in the 12th century, for example, makes use of a quiet drone consisting of three notes performed on a string instrument to create an ethereal atmosphere of contemplation.

Monophony: found in all musical traditions

Monophony is the most common musical texture found across the world. It may be found in all musical traditions, and in all corners of the world, including the United States. This ballad by an American vocalist, recorded in the 1940s, tells the tragic narrative of Edward, who murdered his father and then committed himself.

Fig. 3: North Indian musicians: bansuri, tambura, tabla

Drones are widely heard in the music of the Middle East and South Asia, whether or not they are accompanied by percussion. Using this example from Northern India, a bamboo flute is used to play the melody, which was improvised, while another string instrument called the tambura is used to play the drone, and a pair of drums known as tablas are used to play the percussion.

  • Monophony is one of the most fundamental musical textures. It consists of a single line of musical tones – a melody, or intonation, or cantillation – repeated again and over again. It might have a rhythmic or non-rhythmic feel to it. In addition to being played by one or more voices, it can also be performed on one or more instruments, or a mix of both vocal and instrument. It is possible to add a drone or drones, as well as percussion, to this single line. These changes have no effect on the music’s position as monophonic
  • Rather, they enhance it. Monophonic music may be found in all musical traditions, all throughout the world.

Ian Bent composed a monophonic piece. Bradford Garton was in charge of the recording and mixing. Thomas Payne provides the narration. Ian Bent and Maurice Matiz are the producers.

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