This Gregorian Chant Best Fits Into Which Category

Gregorian chant

Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.

The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.

The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.

The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.

  • TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
  • Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
  • The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
  • During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.
  • As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.
  • Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.
  • Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.
  • Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.
  • By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.
  • The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.
  • The song has a neumatic feel to it.

Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.

Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.

7 Traits That Make a Music Track a Deep Cut

I’ve chosen to produce this article in order to compile all of the potential solutions to the following terminological question: what does “deep cut” entail in the context of musical composition. After conducting some online research and speaking with colleagues, students, and acquaintances, I’ve discovered that there is a wide range of viewpoints on what a deep cut truly means or should imply in practice. According to the information gathered, a deep cut is a lesser known piece of music that has one or more of the following characteristics: 1.

The fact that it is not a hit means that it is not regularly heard on the radio, and as a result, it does not fit into most of the conventional and commercially appealing playlists.

Any of the album songs that have not been released as a single can be given the designation “deep cut.” a song that is considered particularly brilliant but that the majority of a band’s ordinary fans are generally unaware of6.

any of an artist’s older songs that are no longer performed live or broadcast as frequently as they once were Deep cuts are sometimes referred to by a variety of synonyms, such as b-side, rarity, real gem, and so on, which are all used interchangeably.

Etymology of the phrase Deep Cut

It appears that the phrase “deep cut” originated within radio stations. When a DJ chose to play an album track that wasn’t branded or marketed as a hit, that piece of music was referred to as a “deep cut” to indicate that it was a lesser-known composition that would not have otherwise been afforded the pleasure of being broadcast on the radio in the first place. A song or a recording was identified by the term “cut,” which has since become an informal phrase. Probably because of this “mechanical” reason, we have developed the habit of associating the word “cut” with a particular album track.

The term “deep” may have originated from the practice of placing the finest songs on an album’s first track and the remainder of the tracks, which were considered “deep,” on the album’s last track, because they did not fit into the category of prospective “singles.” ‘Deep cuts,’ in my opinion, are simply outstanding songs that emerge after delving further into an album or an artist’s back catalogue, a song that was not developed and recorded with the intention of being released as a single and with the promotional goal of becoming a single.

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If you want to get a sense of the 100 Best Deep Cuts by 21st Century Pop Stars, have a look at this article published by Billboard.

Gregorian Chant, A Beginner’s Guide

The music of the Middle Ages is often classified into two primary categories: secular music and religious music. Anyone who has delved into the complicated world of medieval music has almost certainly come across religious chants, which are also known as Gregorian Chants in some circles. While it may appear that all chants are essentially the same (particularly to those who are unfamiliar with medieval liturgical music), there is a broad range of genres, subjects, and purposes to be found within the genre.

It is not for everyone to learn and appreciate the principles of Gregorian Chants, but learning and respecting the fundamentals is undoubtedly worthwhile for any musician, historian, or music enthusiast.

Medieval Church Music

It is nearly hard to comprehend what Gregorian chants are without at least a passing familiarity with the Catholic Church. rather than attempt to describe theology and millennia of religious ceremonies and traditions, I will just clarify some basic terms that will be useful in the future…. Remember that the definitions and descriptions in this section are specific to Western Christianity (Roman Catholicism) and may not have the same meaning in the Eastern Orthodox Church (or vice versa). The Cantate Domino is an illustration for Psalm 97, composed in 1380.

  1. The Mass/Holy Eucharist and the Divine Office are the two most important services offered by the Roman Catholic Church.
  2. The overall structure of these services remains rather consistent, although the precise content varies based on the time of year and the season.
  3. Observances of religious festivals, which are religious celebrations or commemorations of events and/or persons, include Festivities are a time for feasting.
  4. The first is referred to as Proper of the Time, Temporale, or Feasts of the Lord in some circles.
  5. The second feast cycle is known as theProper of the Saintssorthe Sanctorale, and it is devoted to the lives of specific saints and their sanctified properties.
  6. A number of feasts are held on the same day each year.
  7. Mass is the most important liturgy in the Roman Catholic Church, and it is held every Sunday.

During the Mass, there are musical and nonmusical portions, some of which are taken from the Proper and others which are taken from the Ordinary.

These eight sets of prayers and services (referred to as “canonical hours”) are performed on a daily basis and are distinct and separate from the celebration of the Mass.

Hymns, psalms, canticles, responsories, and antiphons are some of the musical genres that are employed in the Office/Liturgy of the Hours.

Even though the melodies may alter according on the preferences of the local clergy, the text remain consistent.

There are no changes to these songs and chants because they are permanent aspects of the Mass and do not vary with the seasons.

In the Mass and the Office services, the Proper are the texts, chants, and music that vary from one feast to the next, and they are made up of the Proper.

There are several forms of music in the Proper that are used during Mass, including the introit, the Gradual, the Alleluia, the Offertory, and the Communion Song. Tropes, sequences, and processionals are some of the other types of chants that are utilized for special events.

Are you confused? Keep reading!

As a result, the usual Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Bendictus, and Agnus Dei would be included in the ordinary Mass. (Ordinary). It would also be necessary to conduct a feast-specific Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offering, and Communion depending on whatever day of the liturgical calendar it was and which feast cycle it was during (Proper). As part of the Divine Office, specific prayers, canticles, psalms, and hymns would be performed throughout the day, distinct from Mass, as part of the daily routine.

  1. Psalmodic and non-psalmodic religious/liturgical music may be distinguished in the Middle Ages (with traditions extending into the Modern era) and can be divided into two categories: psalmodic and non-psalmodic.
  2. They are as follows: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, Agnus Dei, Introit, Gradual, Offertory, Communion, Alleluia, Canticle, Antiphon, Responsory, Psalm, or Hymn, Introit, Gradual, Offertory, Communion, Alleluia, Canticle, Antiphon, Responsory, Psalm, or Hymn.
  3. Some forms of chants have been in use from the beginning of Christian chant, while others were introduced into the liturgy over time.
  4. For example, the Kyrie (a prayer from the Ordinary of the Mass) can be performed in a variety of styles.
  5. “Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison,” the choir sings.
  6. Every piece of religious Medieval music that fits under the umbrella term “Gregorian chant” is often referred to as such by the general public.
  7. Remember that the texts themselves have significant religious importance as you learn more about Gregorian chants and how they came to be canonized as you progress through your studies.

Not to mention the fact that there is an enormous range of chants, and that many liturgical melodies of the Middle Ages are not genuinely chants in the traditional sense. As you go more into the realm of Gregorian chant, you’ll come to appreciate how distinctive and lovely they truly are.

Gregorian Chant, a Brief History

In religious rituals, early Christians were already practicing unaccompanied singing and chanting even before Christianity was officially authorized in the 4th century AD. Plainchant and Plainsong are two terms used to describe these chants. As Christianity expanded across the Roman Empire, a number of musical traditions and plainchant repertories arose on their own, independently of one another. Mozarabic (Roman Spain), the Gallicanchants of Gaul (France), Ambrosianchant (Milan, Italy), Beneventan (Italy), Anglo-Saxon and subsequently theSarum (England), Old Roman, and Gregoryian were among the Western traditions that were known to scholars (Rome).

  • Other liturgical variants, such as the Celtic rite in Ireland and the Slavonic rite in Scandinavia, existed in other parts of the world.
  • There is a great deal of controversy about Pope Gregory’s role in the establishment and development of the Gregorian tradition in Rome.
  • Regardless of who originated this liturgical practice, it gained widespread acceptance throughout the empire in a very short period of time.
  • Charlemagne, in particular, was a staunch proponent of the abolition of all non-Roman customs and the replacement of such practices with Roman ceremonies.
  • A papal edict had effectively outlawed the use of Gallican and Slavonic languages by the 9th century.
  • Local customs were eventually displaced by Gregorian calendars, or they had evolved to the point where they could co-exist with Roman rituals, at least to some extent.
  • Ambrosian chant, along with Gregorian chant, is the only kind of chant that has been officially sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church.
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What makes a Gregorian chant a Gregorian chant?

Gregorian chants are free-form, which means that they are not metered and do not have a time signature like other types of music. They are modal, which means that composers have the choice of writing a tune in one of eight different scales. Most will use a method known as melisma, which is the singing of a number of notes for each syllable of text in a sentence. The vast majority of them are written and performed entirely in Latin. For centuries, Gregorian chants were performed a cappella, with only the tune as the accompaniment.

  1. The majority of chants were monophonic (one voice), which means that just one tune was chanted in unison by all participants.
  2. At most, a portative organ might play a single note as a type of drone, but practically all of the time, there was nothing but voices playing on the instrument.
  3. Only instruments of the spirit, sometimes known as “alive strings,” were worthy of being used to honor the Almighty.
  4. The organum, which is a group of several “voices” singing the same tune in unison but at different intervals, was first developed in the 9th century.
  5. The goal here was not to create harmony in the sense that most current music does (chords, blending of tones that are distinct from the song’s melody and rhythm), but rather to “enliven” the melody by adding depth to it.
  6. ‘Parallel Organum’ is an abbreviation for Parallel Organum.
  7. 5 “Deum Verum” is an Invitatory to the Holy Trinity (7th century).

This chant begins with a monophonic tune, which is subsequently followed by an organum section.

Pay attention to the second line, which is sung at a 4th interval higher.

The text is not from scripture, but rather is prose authored by Hildegard herself.

It is a monophonic chant with a lot of melisma in the melody.

With the hope that everyday musicians such as me may have the opportunity to perform at home, I’ve provided the following ink to a piano version of the Gregorian chant “O Ignee Spiritus” as an extra gift for my musically-inclined readers.

Thanks for your consideration!

However, my passion for Medieval music has prompted me to transcribe this chant into a manner that remains loyal to the original melody while altering it with additional harmony to make it playable and delightful on the piano, which you can hear below.

In order to capture the otherworldly character of this hymn while also making it enjoyable to listen to and play, I set out to create a new arrangement. Here’s an audio sample (in MIDI format) to get you started:

Sources and Further Reading

Because I am not a Catholic, I relied on information obtained from the following sources to guarantee that the material was accurate:

  • Breviary Hymns, Fides Quaerens Intellectum, Chantblog, and GIA Publications, Inc. are some of the resources available. Music for the Church
  • National Association of Pastoral Musicians
  • Schola Cantorum Bogotensis
  • Gregorian Chant Resources and History: Music Outfitters
  • Gregorian Chant Resources and History: Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • Mark Everist is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Music is a reference work on medieval music. Randel, Don Michael, et al., eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2011. The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a concise reference work on music and musicians. The President and Fellows of Harvard College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 1999. Print
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The main image for this piece is an illuminated manuscript from a 14th-century choir book, which is worth mentioning in its own right. The picture is a carving of St. Lawrence in the letter “C,” which is seen in the letter “C.” The Introit to the Mass for the Feast of St. Lawrence begins with this opening syllable.

Modulating the Silence: The Magic of Gregorian Chant

The main image for this piece is an illuminated manuscript from a 14th-century choir book, which is worth mentioning. It is a cutting of St. Lawrence in the letter “C,” which is seen in the image. The Introit to the Mass for the Feast of St. Lawrence begins with this initial spelled out. The first time I came across ghazals from the greatest Urdu poets was when I was in the tenth grade. The book was an old high-school textbook on Urdu poetry, with yellowed pages that had been partially destroyed by termites.

  1. For the previous several years, I had only studied English poets: King Lear; William Wordsworth; William Blake; Carroll; Clough; Housman; and Rudyard Kipling.
  2. Since these ghazals have competed for my attention with English poetry, I have read very little of English poetry.
  3. When I was in college, I tried my hand at translating Ghalib for the first time.
  4. Sufia Sadullah’s translation of Ghalib’s best-loved esh’aar (plural of she’r, couplet) inspired me to begin translating a few of the poet’s most popular esh’aar into a form that may be loosely referred to as quatrains.
  5. After nearly a quarter century, I was once again gripped by an unquenchable need to translate Ghalib’s works.
  6. The only modest benefit I saw over these translators was that I had access to Ghalib’s original Urdu text, which I was persuaded was a significant advantage.
  7. Inadequate acquaintance with the culture and art of Urdu ghazals hampered my attempts to write them.

Not being able to express some of the ghazal’s literary norms and complexity as well as melody, insinuations and many meanings as well as the absence of gendered pronouns and the purposeful use of ambiguity would constitute “treachery.” Ghalib, in instance, frequently infused his ghazals with additional levels of humor, wit, sarcasm, playfulness, ambiguity, complicated wordplay, petulance, and even tomfoolery to make them more engaging and entertaining.

I had to make an effort to capture the essence of Ghalib’s style.

By juxtaposing an archive of Urdu ghazals with an archive of English poetry, you have two completely distinct universes, each with its own prosody, symbols and pictures as well as its own history and culture, as well as its own sensibility: two worlds that are as different as one can imagine.

There are five or more paired lines (she’r) in each stanza, each of which may stand on its own but is related to the others by the meter, line length, and a repeated pattern of rhymes and refrains.

An enigma, paradox, or broad thesis is proposed in the opening line; the method in which this is conveyed produces an anticipation, if not suspense, in the listener.

In this case, the second sentence serves as a denouement and brings the suspense established by the first line to a close.

It can be difficult to translate ghazals into English in a way that adheres to all of these standards at the same time.

Like other translators, I elected to maintain the paired lines, but I was only able to keep one of the rhymes or the refrains, not both, so I occasionally dispensed with both.

The literary norms of the ghazal are remnants of a world that is on the verge of extinction.

The she’r allows people to fully immerse themselves in this bygone society, reliving and relishing its culture and rites, aesthetics and politics, the conflicts between Sufi and Sheikh, legal and libertine, believer and skeptic, and so forth. More information may be found here.

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