What Age Is The Gregorian Chant From

Gregorian chant

Ms. Amrita Srivastava has eight years of substantial expertise in the field of education management. Nichiren Daishonin’s Buddhism, as well as chanting, has been a part of her life for the past twelve years. Click here to subscribe to our E-paper via Whatsapp, which is sent daily.) WhatsApp and other social media sites are permitted to share the paper’s PDF file. on July 29, 2018 at 4:45 a.m. in the Indian Standard Time

How Gregorian chant was born

This is a type of monophonic solo religious music performed in Latin (although it may also include Greek) and related to the Western, Roman Christian heritage. It is sung in Latin (although it may also include Greek). Early medieval and early Renaissance periods saw significant development in western and central Europe, with minor alterations occurring in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance periods. Despite the fact that tradition attributes the invention of Gregorian chant (hence the name “Gregorian”) to Pope Gregory I, most scholars today believe that this type of monophonic psalmody is rather a musical development derived from Carolingian, Roman, and Gallican liturgical chants rather than a new invention.

Gregory was elected, his first instinct was to flee the country.

Even the Gospel of Matthew indicates that hymns were sung during the Last Supper, according to the text (Cf.

However, despite claims that the origins of Christian liturgical chant can be traced back to ancient Jewish psalmodies (possibly as a result of this passage), contemporary biblical scholars explain that, on the one hand, most early Christian hymns did not use the Psalms as texts and, on the other, psalms were not sung in synagogues for centuries after the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans in the year 70, the Psalm However, historical Christian sources (such as Pope Clement I, Tertullian, St.

  1. Athanasius, and Egeria) reveal that Christians sang during liturgy throughout those early days of the church.
  2. Anthony into the desert began singing the entire cycle of 150 psalms every week, a practice that is being practiced today.
  3. Ambrose first introduced antiphonal psalmody in the late 4th century, it was already popular both in the Christian East and in the West, where it remained popular for centuries.
  4. By the 5th century, a singing school (the Schola Cantorum) had already been established in the capital city of Italy.
  5. Gregory intended to systematize and unite the numerous distinct chanting traditions of the Catholic church (from Mozarabic and Visigothic to Ambrosian chant), according to some researchers, so that they might be recognized across the world as one unified chanting tradition.
  6. However, there is still disagreement as to how the chanting style that we now refer to as “Gregorian” arose between the 5th and 9th centuries.

That the repertoire consolidated by Pope Gregory I was subsequently systematized and employed in the Roman Rite is a fact that we know for a fact, since it is still alive and well today as an intrinsic part of the Western monastic heritage.

What is Gregorian Chant – GIA Publications

Before reviewing the main Gregorian chant books and resources, perhaps it is good to state what Gregorian chant is.Gregorian chant is the church’s own music, born in the church’s liturgy. Its texts are almost entirely scriptural, coming for the most part from the Psalter. For centuries it was sung as pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment, and this is still the best way to sing chant if possible. It was composed entirely in Latin; and because its melodies are so closely tied to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best to sing it in Latin. (Among possible exceptions are chant hymns, since the melodies are formulaic and are not intrinsically tied to the Latin text.) Gregorian chant is in free rhythm, without meter or time signature.Because the liturgy was sung almost entirely in Gregorian chant in the Middle Ages (with polyphony saved for special occasions), every type of liturgical text has been set in chant: readings, prayers, dialogs, Mass propers, Mass ordinaries, office hymns, office psalms and antiphons, responsories, and versicles. Although Pope St. Gregory the Great (590–604) certainly did not play a role in the creation or compilation of our chant melodies, popular legend led the church to name Gregorian chant after this great leader.Many other types and styles of music are similar to Gregorian chant or inspired by it, but one should distinguish them from Gregorian chant. Taizé chants, for example, are generally in Latin, similar to Gregorian chant antiphons. But the musical style is quite different: metered and with choral harmonies and/or instrumental accompaniments.Many psalm tones have been written since the Second Vatican Council. They are much like Gregorian chant psalm tones with their free rhythm and their repeatable melodic formulas. By Gregorian psalm tones, however, we mean a set of particular melodies, one for each of the Gregorian modes, always in the form of two measures. The Gregorian psalm tones are well suited to the Latin language, but do not work very well with English accents, unless one takes freedom in adapting them. For English psalm verses, it is probably wiser to use psalm tones written for the English language. Back to Gregorian Chant Resources

How old is Gregorian chant?

When you listen to or sing the ethereal chant of the Western Catholic liturgy, you are immersing yourself in a tradition that has been passed down from generation to generation for centuries. A short reminder of how ancient Gregorian Chant is: it was called after Pope St. Gregory the Great, who died in 604 AD, and is the oldest continuous musical tradition in the world. The event occurred more than 1,400 years ago. Singing at Mass dates back considerably deeper, to the very first decades of the Church’s history.

  • Different regional chant traditions had emerged by the sixth century, including Celtic chant in the British Isles, Gallican chant in Gaul, Mozarabic song in Spain, and Old Roman chant.
  • Part of this reform included the organization and revision of the many chant traditions, as well as the assignment of certain chants to particular portions of the Mass at various times during the liturgical year.
  • This is when Roman chant was introduced to Gaul and melded with the indigenous Gallican chant traditions.
  • During the 10th and 11th centuries, the first written notation was created.
  • Solesmes is the author of theLiber Usalis, which is the most widely used collection of Gregorian chants in existence today.
  • While allowing for the use of other genres of liturgical music, both Tra le sollecitudini and Vatican II emphasized that Gregorian chant is “particularly adapted to the Roman liturgy” and should thus be given “pride of place” (Sacrosanctum Concilium).
  • It is also possible to introduce the old chants of the Church into your own residence.
  • Take advantage of this offer immediately!

A brief history of Gregorian chant from King David to the present

One might imagine that something as simple as “plainchant” or “plainsong” would not provide much to write about; after all, the mere name implies that it is plain and that it is chant. However, this is not the case. In actuality, Gregorian chant is anything from plain, save in the sense that its lovely melodies are intended to be sung unaccompanied and unharmonized, as befits the old monastic culture from which they came, as befits the ancient monastic culture from which they sprang. In Western music, what we term “Gregorian chant” is one of the richest and most delicate art forms available — in fact, it is one of the richest and most subtle art forms available in any civilization.

  1. Different books of the Old Testament, particularly the Psalms and the Chronicles, provide witness to the significant role that music played in temple worship.
  2. Considering that the Psalter of David was prepared specifically for the sake of divine worship and was widely regarded as the Messianic literature par excellence, we find that Peter, Paul, and the Apostolic Fathers make frequent use of it in their preaching and teaching.
  3. In this way, the Christian ritual as a whole emerged from the union of the Psalter and the Sacrifice.
  4. Our absolute submission to God is represented by the gory sacrifice of an animal, which results in the death and destruction of the animal.
  5. During the first millennium of the Christian era, the art of chant flourished.
  6. Gregory the Great, who reigned from 590 to 604, a body of chant for the Mass and the daily circle of prayer had already been established (Divine Office).
  7. Gregory ordered the musical repertory, as a consequence of which the chant has been known as “Gregorian” ever since, a tribute to his memory.

Before the year 800, the core of the Gregorian chant repertory had been assembled, and the vast majority of it had been finished by the year 1200.

No one could have imagined divorcing the texts of the liturgy from their accompanying music; they were like a body-soul composite or a happily married pair to each other.

Once the chasuble, stole, alb, amice, and maniple became established, no one in their right mind would consider doing away with them.

In the same way, the chants are the clothing that the liturgical texts are dressed in.

No one could have imagined divorcing the texts of the liturgy from their accompanying music; they were like a body-soul composite or a happily married pair to each other.

By the beginning of the nineteenth century, chant had fallen into a condition of significant ruin and neglect due to a lack of maintenance.

— would have to take place sooner or later.

Dom Prosper Guéranger (1805–1875) founded Solesmes Abbey in 1833 and developed it into a center of monastic practice, including the complete chanting of the Divine Office and the celebration of the Mass.

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After his election as Pope in 1903, St.

As a result, the monks completed their work, and Pius X gave his blessing to it.

From Solesmes and Pius X to the Vatican II’s Constitution on the Sacred LiturgySacrosanctum Conciliumis a direct and logical connection.

The holy music heritage must be carefully safeguarded and nurtured in order to be passed on to future generations.

..

However, other types of holy music, particularly polyphony, are by no means barred from liturgical celebrations, as long as they are in keeping with the spirit of the liturgical act.

Unfortunately, an explosive mix of fake antiquarianism and novelty-seeking modernism put a huge wrench into the works, resulting in a battle zone of clashing views in which we are currently stuck — and in which chant has almost completely disappeared.

However, there are signs that the tide is beginning to turn in a few locations. Chant will never perish since it is the most ideal form of liturgical music there is.

Acknowledgement

“A short history of Gregorian chant from the time of King David to the present,” by Peter Kwasniewski. LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym (November 5, 2018).

With permission from LifeSite and Peter Kwasniewski, this article has been reprinted.

The Author

Peter Kwasniewski has a B.A. in Liberal Arts from Thomas Aquinas College, as well as an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Philosophy from The Catholic University of America. He is a member of the American Philosophical Association. In addition to teaching at the International Theological Institute in Austria and the Franciscan University of Steubenville’s Austrian Program, he was a member of the founding team of Wyoming Catholic College in Lander, Wyoming. He was in charge of the choir and schola, and he also served as the college’s dean of academics.

His books include Resurgent in the Midst of Crisis: Sacred Liturgy, the Traditional Latin Mass, and Renewal in the Church, A Missal for Young Catholics, and Noble Beauty, Transcendent Holiness: Why the Modern Age Needs the Mass of the Ages.

His webpage may be found here.

Medieval Music: Introduction to Gregorian Chant

Sonja Maurer-Dass contributed to this article. Gregorian chant is one of the most famous musical legacies of medieval Europe, distinguished by its free-flowing melodies, holy Latin lyrics, and distinctive monophonic texture. Gregorian chant, which was developed and propagated during the Carolingian dynasty, appears to be a world away from the much more contemporary epochs of Western music to which many of our ears are accustomed; however, it is from this ages-old liturgical tradition that our current understanding of Western music and its accompanying system of musical notation derives from.

This section will look at how Gregorian chant came to be and how it spread throughout the world.

Many medieval music fans nowadays are aware with Gregorian chant (also known as Frankish-Roman chant), which is the most well-known of the liturgical chant traditions; nevertheless, throughout early medieval Europe, there were numerous distinct styles of holy chant that differed according to area.

  1. When one considers the several diverse Western liturgical chant traditions that have existed throughout the centuries, one would wonder why Gregorian chant has become the most generally recognized and maintained of them all.
  2. The development of Gregorian chant took place between the seventh and ninth centuries CE, during a period in which Frankish monarchs, most notably Charlemagne, tried to bring liturgical consistency to their kingdoms.
  3. Charlemagne declared in 789 that all of his kingdoms would be consolidated under a single Roman liturgy and chant, which became known as the Roman Rite.
  4. In essence, Gregorian chant was, as Margot Fassler puts it, “the revised song of the Franks,” which arose from a fusion of Old Roman chant with the Gallican chant of the Franks, according to Fassler.
  5. So far, we’ve looked at how the Carolingians had a crucial part in the spreading and development of Gregorian chant, but what about the popular tale that claims that Pope Saint Gregory I (“Gregory the Great”) is responsible for the spread of Gregorian chant?
  6. Because it was sung to Gregory I by the Holy Spirit, who came to him in the guise of a white dove, it was considered the most sacred and true type of liturgical chant.
  7. Some musicologists, on the other hand, have speculated that Gregory may have had a role in the codification and consolidation of previous chants, which eventually served as the foundation for later Gregorian chant.

A common depiction of the dove is that it is singing its sacred songs to Gregory, while Gregory is concurrently dictating the dove’s melodies to a nearby scribe.

Gregorian Chant’s Texture and Melody are both beautiful.

“Monophonic” is a musical word that refers to the performance of a single tune with no accompaniment (that is, there is no harmony played with a melody).

In the opening minute of the following chant sample, which was produced by the twelfth-century abbess, philosopher, mystic, and composer Hildegard of Bingen, you can hear a drone that is repeated several times.

For those who have heard different recordings of Gregorian chant, you may have noticed that its melodies are quite flowing in comparison to many modern types of Western art music and popular music.

Gregorian melodies were produced using the notes of an ordered pitch system called modes (these were distinct from the major and minor keys that are now employed in Western music) and were put to sacred Latin texts of the Mass and the Divine Office.

Gregorian Chant and Early Types of Medieval Musical Notation are two examples of medieval musical notation.

This necessitated the development of a method of recording tunes that could be correctly taught and conveyed without the limitations of human memory.

Instead, it made use of symbols known as “neumes,” which served as a kind of trigger for melodies that had previously been acquired and retained as part of an oral culture.

They reflect the relative rising and descending melodic motion of the text.

The St.

Gall in Switzerland, is one of the earliest existing sources of this notation (which was copied in the tenth century).

Sang.

Sang.

Sang.

Guido d’Arezzo, a prominent music theorist who lived in Arezzo in the eleventh century, continued to create the framework for modern music notation by developing a four-line musical staff divided by intervals of thirds (an interval is the distance between two pitches).

Guido described the manner in which his employees worked in the preface to his antiphoner (of which only the prologue has been preserved): As a result, the notes are organized in such a manner that any sound, no matter how many times it appears in a song, can always be located in the same row.

–Margot Fassler provided the translation.

As a singer or member of a chorus, you may be acquainted with the syllable pattern Do-Re-Mi-Fa Sol, etc., in which each syllable corresponds to a written note (Guido’s syllable pattern differed somewhat in that the first syllable he used was “Ut” instead of “Do”).

Square notation allowed for the inclusion of more melodic elements that may be interpreted by vocalists who were unfamiliar with the source material.

It’s possible that you’ve already seen some square notation in medieval chant manuscripts, such as punctum (a single note sung to a single syllable); podatus (two notes—one is written on top of the other and the lowest of the two notes is sung first followed by the second note which moves in ascending motion); clivis (contains two notes that are sung in descending motion); and torculus (three notes sung consecutively When compared to our modern experiences of melody and notation, the notation and melodies of Gregorian chant may appear to be foreign and unfamiliar at first glance and listen; however, upon closer examination, it is fascinating and possible to see how the earliest attempts to record and accurately transmit sacred chant evolved over many centuries and eventually matured into the comprehensive system that is widely used and understood in the modern day.

  1. Sonja Maurer-Dass is a Canadian musicologist and harpsichordist who specializes in Baroque music.
  2. In addition, she possesses a Master’s degree on Musicology from York University, where she specialized in late medieval English choral music and the Old Hall Manuscript, among other things (Toronto, Canada).
  3. The paper was presented at the 9th International Medieval Meeting.
  4. Read on for more information: Willi Apel is the author of this work.
  5. Western Music in Context: Western Music in the Medieval West is a book on music in the Medieval West (W.W.
  6. Carolingians and Gregorian Chant are two examples of medieval music (Princeton University Press, 1998) Richard Taruskin is the author of this work.

From the earliest notations through the sixteenth century, there has been music (Oxford University Press, 2010) Adiastematic gregorian aquitanian notation is seen in the top image. Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

What is Gregorian Chant? History, Characteristics and Composers

Since the 9th and 10th centuries, Gregorian chant has played an important role in the development of religious music. Despite its mournful beauty, its chorus could be heard throughout the immense worship halls of large early European cathedrals, and its echoes may still be heard in current music in classical forms that somehow yet seem authentic. In this piece, we’ll make an attempt to provide a thorough assessment of the history and qualities that have defined Gregorian chant throughout history and into the present day.

See also:  Why Is Plainchant Gregorian Chant

Background and History

St. Gregory the Great It is generally believed that Pope Gregory I, who is often credited with developing Gregorian Chant, was the first to use it in the 9th century following his death. Gregorian style chant as holy music may have been affected by Pope Gregory I (715-731 AD), who may have been the first to influence the establishment of the style after the music began as prayer enriched by art in song and read like poetry put to music. In the words of St. Augustine, transforming prayer into music “adds such strength that it is like praying twice.” Gregorian chant, on the other hand, began to lose popularity when secular values began to take precedence over religious beliefs throughout the first part of the first century.

As the Holy Roman Empire’s strength and influence diminished in the 15th century, the seat of the pope was restored to Rome after several generations spent at Avignon, France, as the empire’s power and influence fell.

The resurgence of the clergy in Roman society resulted in the reintroduction of Gregorian chant to the general populace.

Characteristics and Style

Gregorian chant is a amonophonic type of music, which means that there is just one melodic line in the piece of music. Because there are no polyphonic harmonies, all of the vocalists sing in unison to the same single tune. Especially when performed in acoustically ideal places of worship such as St. Paul’s Cathedral in London or the Basilicas of Rome, the impact may be breathtaking and even eerie in places of devotion like these. Today, Gregorian chant is used in both Catholic and Protestant rituals, particularly in the call and answer liturgy of sermons.

In addition, current solfege singing has its roots in old Gregorian chant.

Instrumentation

Gregorian chant was traditionally sung only by human voices, according to tradition. This time, the choir sang without accompaniment, with a strong emphasis on the often sad, sometimes soaring melodic intonation of religious texts or vowel sounds as a key focus of the performance. Stringed or wind instruments, primarily flutes, harpsichords, organs, and violins, as well as electronic instruments like as keyboards and synthesizers, may be used to accompany modern versions of Gregorian chant, depending on the style.

Even current Gregorian chant does not include drums or bass instruments, due to the lack of an established rhythm section in Gregorian chant.

Form and Texture

The single melodic line is frequently performed by a group of voices singing in unison. Rhythmically, it ranges from Largo (slow) to Andante (“walking speed”), with a smooth and velvety texture, as well as being sluggish and flowing. Each note flows into the next like a river, with minimal pauses and no short or staccato notes in between. When performing Gregorian chant, breathing is an important aspect of the performance, and singers frequently purposefully alternate breaths with one another in order to keep the melodic flow uninterrupted.

Boys’ and all-female choirs perform Gregorian chant in a variety of tonalities ranging from alto to soprano, and, on occasion, falsetto, among other things.

Mixed choirs have the greatest range of adaptability, since they include members from all voice ranges in a single group.

Famous Composers

Most of the most famous medieval composers of Gregorian chant were males, and the majority of them held positions of authority within the clergy. It is possible that some of these composers inspired subsequent Renaissance composers, and several of their pieces are still popular among classical music enthusiasts today.

1. Stephen of Liège (850-920)

Stephen of Liege is one of the earliest known composers of Gregorian chant and is regarded as one of the greatest of all time. He served a number of lower roles in the church before being appointed Bishop of Liege in 901 AD and remained there until 920 AD. Aside from that, Stephen has written biographies of saints and other notable religious individuals.

2. Fulbert of Chartres (960-1028)

The intriguing beginnings of the French teacher and future Bishop of Chartres are still a mystery to this day. But some of Fulbert’s works have endured, notably many hymns praising the Virgin Mary and the still-popular Easter song “Chorus Novae Jerusalem,” which is dedicated to the city of Jerusalem.

3. Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179)

Hildegard von Bingen was a medieval nun who lived in Germany. Her name was Hildegard von Bingen, and she lived in the early second millennium. She was a philosopher, mystic, writer, and composer. In 2012, the Catholic Church canonized Mary in recognition of the miracles she accomplished and her amazing dedication. In a spiritually induced trance-like state of divine ecstasy, the prophetess wrote extensive works that are still read today. Many of her writings are still in print today. Despite the fact that she was the only known female composer of her day, St.

4. Peter Abelard (1079-1142)

Peter Abelard was a theologian and scholar who was one of the most scandalous and well-known religious personalities of the medieval period. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time. But he was also a gifted composer of Gregorian chant, well known for his melancholy songs of lamentation for the loss of loved ones, which frequently made reference to Biblical and theological characters. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time.

It’s possible that we’ve discovered further proof of Abelard’s musical talent, which was ahead of its day in terms of musical structure and melodic simplicity, in this work.

Famous Pieces

Despite the fact that it appears to be straightforward, the sacred subject matter and distinct melodic lines of Gregorian chant have continued to influence religious composers throughout the ages. The impact of the great composers may be seen and heard in subsequent works by legends such as Mozart, Beethoven, Handel, and Bach, as well as in works by lesser-known artists. In this century, classical artists continue to reinterpret, record, and present these and other ancient works on the stage in new ways, as well as in previous centuries.

1. Ordo Virtutum

While the sacred subject matter and clear melodic lines of Gregorian chant appear to be straightforward, they have had an impact on religious composers for hundreds of years. Mozart, Beethoven, Handel, and Bach, among others, have all benefited from the mastery of the art’s top composers as seen by their effect on later works. In this century, classical artists continue to reinterpret, record, and present these and other old works on the stage in new ways, as well as in previous generations.

2. “Chorus Novae Jerusalem”

Later recordings have re-interpreted several of Saint Fulbert’s holy songs, notably “Ye Choirs of New Jerusalem,” composed by English composer Henry John Gauntlettin the 19th century and still performed at Easter masses throughout the western world today.

3. “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha”

King Saul and his son, Prince Jonathan, were killed in Abelard’s “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha,” which was written to grieve Israel’s defeat at the hands of the Philistines and to lament the deaths of the two kings.

Conclusion

Because of its origins in the early medieval era, Gregorian chant has had ups and downs in popularity throughout the centuries. In the same way that artists return to any great art form, they return to a genre, and even the same old compositions, time and time again, re-imagining its material to suit the tastes of the period and re-mastering them to suit the latest technical developments. During the early days of Gregorian chant, the music was only heard by a small group of people, and then only at very irregular intervals.

I’m curious what these great composers would have to say about it.

Middle Ages :: Musical Instruments

Gregorian chant is also known as plainchant or plainsong, and is a form of monophonic, unaccompanied singing, which was developed in the Catholic church, mainly during the period 800-1000. It takes its name from Pope St. Gregory the Great.This music was traditionally sung by monks or other male clerics, and was used during religious services. It is the music of the Roman Rite of the Mass, also known as the Gregorian rite or Tridentine rite. Other rites of the mass, such as the Assyrian or Coptic use different melodies but share the unaccompanied and monophonic nature of the Gregorian, which allude to a common source.

Guitars

With the fingers or with a plectrum, a guitar is a stringed musical instrument that may be played (guitar pick). Since at least 5,000 years, instruments like the guitar have been popular. Murals from the time of the Pharaohs depict women playing instruments like the guitar, although the term “guitar” first appears in print in Spain around the 13th century. It was most likely derived from the Arabic term qitara, which was the name of an instrument that was brought to Spain by the Moors sometime after the 10th Century, according to historical evidence.

On a guitar’s fingerboard are frets that are used to establish the places of the notes, or a scale that gives them equal temperament, on the instrument.

Four strings is the most common configuration for the ukulele, and the bass guitar, which usually has four strings but can also be found in five, six, and twelve-string configurations.

There are several different tunings that are employed.

Standard tuning has evolved to be a good balance between the ease with which numerous chords may be played with basic fingering and the ability to perform popular scales with minimum left hand movement.

The Shawm

The shawm was a Renaissance musical instrument of the woodwind family, made in Europe from the late 13th century until the 17th century. It was ancestral to the modern oboe.It had a long bore which started straight but widened into a conical end, and had a double reed. It produced a loud shrill tone, and was used by military bands during the Crusades, as well as in ordinary life for dancing.The oboe developed from the shawm in the mid-17th century when the French musicians Jean Hotteterre and Michel Danican Philidor modified it, producing an instrument with a narrower bore and a reed which is held by the player’s lips near the end.
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The Cittern

In its current form, the cittern is a stringed instrument that dates back to the Renaissance but has seen significant development since then. In appearance, it is comparable to a number of other instruments, most prominently the bouzouki, with which it is sometimes mistaken. The Renaissance cittern was one of the few plectrum-plucked instruments from the time that was strung with metal wire. When playing the cittern, which typically has four courses (pairs) of strings, the instrument’s range is limited to a major 6th between its lowest and highest strings, and it is tuned in a “re-entrant” manner.

Bandore (also known as bandora) is a bass instrument that is similar to the cittern in appearance.

Mandolins and citterns are members of a family of instruments distinguished by the fact that they are strung in two string courses with metal strings (usually in unisons but sometimes in octaves), are made of wood, have a floating bridge and tailpiece arrangement, and are tuned in 5ths or open tunings.

As a 10-string instrument of this family with a small scale length, often less than 22 inches, a cittern has come to be denoted.

He selected the term “cittern” to describe his instruments after viewing photographs of Renaissance citterns and noticing the connection between them and his own design.

The Recorder

The recorder is a flute-like woodwind musical instrument. Contrariwise, the flute is a recorder-like woodwind musical instrument. In German it is called the Blockflöte, in French the flûte à bec, and in Italian the flauto dolce. It is held vertically from the lips (rather than horizontally like the ‘transverse’ flute). The player’s breath is directed by a wooden ‘fipple’ or ‘block’ in the mouthpiece of the instrument along a duct called the ‘windway’, hence its membership in the family of “fipple flutes”, which also includes such instruments as the tin whistle. Exiting from the windway, the breath is directed against a hard edge called the labium, which agitates a column of air, the length of which (and the pitch of the note produced) is modified by finger holes in the front and back of the instrument. Because of the fixed position of the windway with respect to the labium, there is no need to form an embouchure with the lips. On the other hand the shape and size of the recorder player’s mouth cavity has a discernable effect on the timbre, tone and response of the recorder – but we could hardly call this an “embouchure”. This is similar to the functioning of the ancestors of the recorder, early folk whistles.Recorders are most often tuned in C and F, though instruments in D, G, Eb were not uncommon historically and are still found today especially the Tenor in D known as a voice flute. The normal, school instrument, recorder is the soprano in C (in Britain also known as the descant) which has a lowest note of c’. Above this are the sopranino in F and the gar klein Flötlein (“really small flute”) in C, with a lowest note of c”. An experimental ‘piccolino’ has also been produced in f”. Below the soprano are the alto in F (in Britain also known as the treble), tenor in C and basset in F (in Britain known as the bass). Lower instruments in C and F exist (bass in C – in Britain also known as the Great Bass, contrabass in F, subcontrabass in C, and sub-subcontrabass or octo-contrabass in F) but are more rare. They are also difficult to handle: the contrabass in F is about 2 meters tall. The soprano and the alto are the most common solo instruments in the recorder family.The range of a recorder is about 2 octaves, chromatically. The instrument can be played chromatically over two octaves and a fifth by a skilled player, except for the augmented prime, two octaves and one semitone above the base note. This note is either absent or can only be played by covering the end of the instrument, typically by using one’s upper leg or a special bell key. Basically, a recorder is a diatonic instrument, with one hole for each note of the scale of its lowest note, although the upper half of the second octave requires irregular fingerings. Two versions exist, one using the major scale and an older one using the lydian scale.Learn aboutComposers of the Middle Ages
Related Links: The Middle AgesThe Black Plague The Violin

The Middle Ages

Historically, the traditions of Western music may be traced back to the social and theological changes that occurred in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, which corresponded to the period roughly spanning 500 to 1400 years before the present. Because of the dominance of the early Christian Church during this time period, religious music was the most common type of music heard. The development of church music began with Gregorian Chant and progressed to a polyphonic melody known asorganum, which was sung at Notre Dame in Paris around the eleventh century.

Before the Middle Ages, music had been a part of the world’s civilizations for hundreds of years, if not thousands of years.

The term music stems from the ancient Greek muses, who were nine goddesses of art and knowledge who were worshipped in ancient Greece.

Pythagoras and others were responsible for establishing the Greekmodes, which are scales composed of entire tones and halfsteps.

The early Church was able to assert ultimate control over these feudal lords primarily via the use of superstitious terror.

In these days and times, western music was almost the exclusive property of the Christian Church.

Christianplainchant, like all music in the Western culture until to this point, was monophonic: that is, it consisted of a single melody with no harmonic support or accompaniment.

The melodies are loose and appear to roam, as if they are being guided by the Latin liturgical texts to which they have been composed.

In the sixth century, it was claimed that Pope Gregory I (reigned 590-604) standardized them, ensuring universal usage across the Western Church.

In the Easter hymn, Victimae paschali laudes, you may get a sense of the clear, floating melody that it has.

(Insert audio clip) The Ars Antiqua and Notre Dame are two of the most famous buildings in the world.

Organum was the name given to the hollow-sounding music that resulted as a result of this process during the following hundred years.

This was followed by a slow singing of the original chant tune in the tenor voice, with additional melodies weaving around and embellishing the resultant drone.

Leonin (fl.

1163-1190), who produced organa for two voices, and his successor Pérotin (fl.

Pérotin’s work is an exceptional example of this extremely early type of polyphony (music for two or more voices that sound at the same time), as may be heard in his arrangement of Sederunt principes (Sederunt principles) (sound clip).

The Trouvères and the Troubadours are two types of street performers.

There were no restrictions on this music because it did not follow the traditions of the Church, and it was not even written down until sometime after the tenthcentury.

Even so, hundreds of these songs were written and performed (and much later recorded) by bands of musicians that flourished across Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, the most renowned of whom were the French trouvères and troubadours, who were the most famous of all.

It is love, in all its incarnations of joy and agony, that is the theme of the vast majority of these songs.

1286).

Additionally, he has been recognized as the author of a large number of songs and verses, someof which take the form of themotet, a musical composition in which two or more separate lines are stitched together at the same time, without regard to what we now consider normal harmonies.

(sound clip) is an example of such a work.

Guillaume de Machaut and the Ars Nova Guillaume de Machaut was born in the Champagne area of France about 1300 and died in Rheims in 1377.

He remained at the court of John until the monarch’s death in battle at Crécy in 1346, during which time he worked as the king’s secretary.

Several significant patrons, including the future Charles V of France, sought out his talents as a composer and conductor.

Machautis is arguably most known for being the first composer to construct a polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Catholic Mass, which he did in 1845.

The “Gloria” from Machaut’s Messe de Notre Dame exemplifies the new style of the fourteenthcentury, which was dubbed theArs Nova by composers of the time (sound clip).

Despite the fact that the Mass is perhaps his most well-known work today, Machaut also penned scores of secular love songs, many of which were in the manner of the polyphonic Ars Nova or “new art,” which he admired.

The secular motets of the Middle Ages eventually developed into the massive quantity and outpouring of music produced by the great RenaissanceMadrigalists of the Renaissance period. Jason R. Ogan conducted research in 2001.

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