What Best Describes The Texture Of Chant

Music Midterm Listening Quizzes – Subjecto.com

What is the overall texture of the final couplet ofJosquin’s Ave Maria… virgo serena? homorhythmic
What is the vocal range of the first voice thatsings in this excerpt?(Ave Maria) soprano
What is the meter heard in this section of the work?(AveMaria) triple
Which best describes the texture heard in theopening of Josquin’s Ave Maria?(Ave Maria) imitative polyphony
In what language are the words being sung in thiswork?(Ave Maria) Latin
Singing without instrumental accompaniment, asheard in this example, is called (Ave Maria): a cappella
Which best describes the voices heard in thisexcerpt?(Ave Maria) voice pairs (SA/TB) in close imitation
Which of the following is true in regard to thisexcerpt?(Ave Maria) The melody quotes a chant
What term best describes the meter heard in thisexcerpt?(Ave Maria) duple
Which of the following best describes the excerptheard here? (Ave Maria) It is a personal plea to the Virgin Mary
Which best describes the text setting of theopening word “Alleluia” in Hildegard’s Alleluia, O virgamediatrix?(Hildegard’s Alleluia) melismatic
The alternation between soloist and chorus heard inthis Alleluia is best described as _ singing(Hildegard’s Alleluia) responsorial
Which term best describes the rhythm of thisAlleluia?(Hildegard’s Alleluia) free, or nonmetric
The melodic range in this excerpt is considered(Hildegard’s Alleluia) in a wider range
In the third section of this piece the musicreturns to the original melodic material, making this work an example of whatkind of form?(Hildegard’s Alleluia) ternary
Which term best describes the texture heard in thisAlleluia?(Hildegard’s Alleluia) monophonic
What phrase best describes the movement of themelody in this excerpt?(Hildegard’s Alleluia) mostly conjunct
What best describes the performing forces heard inthis excerpt?(Hildegard’s Alleluia) a cappella soloist
“Rejoice greatly”Which term best describes the elaborate melodies on words like”rejoice?”(Handel’s Messiah) melismatic
What is the vocal range of the singer in thisexcerpt?(Handel’s Messiah) soprano
This middle section of the aria (Handel’s Messiah): makes a shift to a minor tonality.
How does this third section of the aria differ fromthe first section?(Handel’s Messiah) It is highly embellished.
The instrumental music heard here is called a(Handel’s Messiah): ritornello
“Hallelujah Chorus”Which best describes the performing forces in this work?(Handel’s Messiah) full chorus and orchestra
Which best describes the texture when the voicesenter in the opening section singing “hallelujah?”(Handel’sMessiah) homorhythmic
How does the texture in this section differ fromthe first section? (Handel’s Messiah) It is now polyphonic.
Which instrument(s) in this piece serve to add amood of significance and honor?(Handel’s Messiah) trumpets and timpani
Which best describes the tempo of this excerpt?(Handel’s Messiah) allegro
What voice ranges are present in this chorus?(Handel’s Messiah) All answers are correct
What texture is heard in this passage? (Handel’sMessiah) homorhythm
The texture in the opening phrase of this work is:(Palestrina Mass) monophonic
The overall harmony in this work is best describedas (Palestrina Mass) consonant
How is this work sung in this recording?(PalestrinaMass) a cappella
The text setting in each vocal melody is mostly(Palestrina Mass): syllabic
Which of the following most significantly helps tocreate a solemn tone in the piece?(Palestrina Mass) A slow tempo
Which of the following best describes the textureof this excerpt?(Palestrina Mass) predominantly homorhythmic
Which of the following is true in regard to thisexcerpt?(Palestrina Mass) The words are easily heard
What language is heard in this work?(PalestrinaMass) Latin
This opening passage, known as a(n) _, servesto unify the entire concerto movement. (Vivaldi Four Seasons) ritornello
In this episode, Vivaldi evokes the sound ofsinging birds through the use special effects like staccato notes, runningscales, and _. (Vivaldi Four Seasons) trills
In this episode Vivaldi is attempting to depict_. (Vivaldi Four Seasons) thunder and lightning
The tempo of this excerpt is best described as_. (Vivaldi Four Seasons) allegro
In this excerpt a phrase is repeated. What changesin the second statement of the phrase?(Vivaldi Four Seasons) dynamic level
In this episode Vivaldi is attempting to depict _.(VivaldiFour Seasons) murmuring water
How does this statement of the ritornello themecontrast with the others?(Vivaldi Four Seasons) It is in a minor key.
In this episode, what instrument isfeatured?(Vivaldi Four Seasons) violin

Which Term Best Describes The Texture Heard In This Alleluia?

This Alleluia’s texture is best described by which of the following terms? The homophonic texture in the following passage is illustrated. A homophonic texture is present throughout, while a polyphonic texture is present throughout. Purcell is often regarded as England’s first and most famous opera composer. Rejoice a great deal is best described by which of the following? Can you tell me about the general texture of the final couplet of Josquin’s Ave Mariavirgo serena? What term best defines the movement of the melody in this excerpt?Hildegard’s Alleluia is primarily conjunct, which means that it moves in one direction.

What is the vocal range of the first voice that sings in this excerpt.

This Alleluia’s texture is best described by which of the following terms? It’s pronounced KEERee-ay il-AY-iss-on-n, and it’s the first letter in the word. THIS IS EXCITING NEW MUSIC. The homophonic texture in the following passage is illustrated. What is the most accurate description of the performing forces heard in this excerpt? Hildegard’s Alleluia is performed a cappella by a soloist. Be ecstatically happy. When it comes to phrases like rejoiceHandels, what adjective best represents the intricate melodies?

The Alleluia of Hildegard is largely conjunct.

Listening Quiz Docx Listening Quiz Ch 14 Listening Quiz Hildegard Of Bingen Alleluia O Virga Mediatrix Which Best Describes The Text Setting On The Course Hero

Which of the following words best defines the texture heard in this alleluia? It is best defined as singing the alternation between soloist and chorus that can be heard in this Alleluia. This Alleluia’s texture is best described by which of the following terms? THIS IS EXCITING NEW MUSIC. It is a minuet, which was a triple-meter dance that was highly popular in the eighteenth century, that serves as the opening portion of this movement from Mozarts Eine kleine Nachtmusik. In this snippet, what instrument group can be heard playing?

  1. Which of the following terms best characterizes the texture heard in this AlleluiaHildegards Alleluia monophonic choral composition?
  2. Responsorial This Alleluia’s rhythm is best described by which of the following terms?
  3. An Introduction to the Orchestra for Children and Young People 111.
  4. This Alleluia’s texture is best described by which of the following terms?
  5. Which is the most accurate description of the texture heard in the Hallelujah Chorus?
  6. Which of the following statements is NOT correct about the.

A homophonic texture is present throughout, while a polyphonic texture is present throughout. What term best defines the movement of the melody in this excerpt?Hildegard’s Alleluia is primarily conjunct, which means that it moves in one direction.

Listening Quiz Docx Listening Quiz Ch 14 Listening Quiz Hildegard Of Bingen Alleluia O Virga Mediatrix Which Best Describes The Text Setting On The Course Hero

This sample has a phrase that perfectly illustrates the flow of the music. The Alleluia of Hildegard is largely conjunct. It is a minuet, which was a triple-meter dance that was highly popular in the eighteenth century, that serves as the opening portion of this movement from Mozarts Eine kleine Nachtmusik. True or false? A True or false? What is the most accurate description of the performing forces heard in this excerpt? Hildegard’s Alleluia is performed a cappella by a soloist. Be ecstatically happy.

  1. Handels.
  2. This sample has a phrase that perfectly illustrates the flow of the music.
  3. It is only at the beginning of Dido’s aria that you can detect a ground bass.
  4. Munkálkodik a Jókay Alaptvány, a magyar nemzet lelki szellemi gyarapodásának elmozdtása és segtése eldekében elmozdtása és segtése érdekében.
  5. True or false?
  6. Rejoice a great deal is best described by which of the following?
  7. As exemplified by Hildegard’s Alleluia o virga mediatrix, which best depicts the TEXT setting on the opening word “Alleluia.” Which of the following statements is NOT correct about the.

Texture

This article discusses the three types of musical textures that we will meet during our studies: monophony, polyphony, and homophony, and how they differ from one another. Texture is an aspect that you will utilize while recognizing compositions from all periods of music history, therefore you will want to pay close attention to the information in this section. You’ll find links to three pieces you may listen to at the end of the reading assignment; try to identify the textures of the pieces based on what you’ve learned in the reading assignment.

Introduction

Texture is one of the most fundamental components of musical composition. A piece of music’s texture may be described as the connection between its melodic and (in some cases) harmonic parts with respect to the other elements. A musical texture, for example, might be thick or thin, or it could have many or few layers, depending on the context. Rhythmic elements alone, a melody line with chordal accompaniment, or a series of intertwining melodies are all possible compositions. The words listed below are some of the more formal terminology that musicians use to describe texture.

Terms that Describe Texture

Many colloquial phrases can be used to describe the texture of a piece of music (thick, thin, bass-heavy, rhythmically complicated) but the formal terminology that are used to describe texture all reflect the connections between melodies and, if present, harmonies in the piece of music.

You will face three primary textures throughout our lesson, and the following are definitions and samples of each.

Monophonic

When it comes to monophonic music, there is just one melody line and no harmony or counterpoint. Even though there may be a rhythmic accompaniment, there will only be one line with precise pitches. Monophonic music is also referred to as monophony in some circles. After the Middle Ages, this texture is only seldom heard in Western European music of the tradition that began in the Mediterranean.

Examples of Monophony

  • One individual is whistling a song
  • “Taps” is sounded by a single bugle. A group of individuals who are all singing the same tune at the same time, without any harmony or musical accompaniment
  • It was performed by a fife and drum corps, with each fife playing a different tune from the other fifes.

Polyphonic

Polyphonic music is also referred to as polyphony, counterpoint, or contrapuntal music in some circles. Polyphonic music is defined as music in which more than one separate melody is heard at the same time.

Examples of Polyphony

  • Rounds, canons, and fugues are all examples of polyphonic composition. If multiple persons sing or play the melody at different times, the sections sound independent, even if there is only one melody. Much of the late Baroque period’s music, notably the compositions of J.S. Bach, is contrapuntal. In most cases, at least some of the time, the music for big instrumental ensembles such as bands or orchestras is contrapuntal. Music that is mostly homophonic can be momentarily transformed into polyphonic music by the addition of an independent countermelody. For example, consider a beloved pop or gospel song where the soloist “improvises” at the conclusion as the backing singers repeat the chorus

Homophonic

Homophonic music is also referred to as homophony in some circles. People who are describing homophonic music may use terms such as chords, accompaniment, harmony, or harmonies to describe it more formally. Homophony is distinguished by a single distinct melodic line, which is the line that naturally catches your attention. All of the other components serve as accompaniment or fill in the gaps between the chords. When it comes to well-written homophony, even the portions that are not melodically significant can nevertheless have a great deal of melodic appeal.

See also:  Greogorian Chant When Is Fa Clef Used

In contrast, when they are sung or performed in conjunction with the melody, it is evident that they are not separate melodic parts, either because they have the same rhythm as the melody (i.e., are not independent), or because their primary function is to fill in the chords or harmony gaps (i.e.

Examples of Homophony

  • When it comes to homophonic music, the term “homophonic” is used interchangeably. Chords, accompaniment, harmony, and harmonies are all terms that can be used to describe homophonic music informally. When you listen to Homophony, there is one distinct melodic line that catches your attention. All of the other sections serve to provide accompaniment or fill in the gaps between the chord progressions. When it comes to well-written homophony, even the portions that are not melodically significant can nevertheless have a great deal of melodic appeal. Despite the fact that they may adhere to many of the criteria of well-written counterpoint, they can have a distinct sound that is distinct from the melody and that is enjoyable to listen to on its own. Nonetheless, when they are sung or performed in conjunction with the melody, it is evident that they are not separate melodic parts, either because they have the same rhythm as the melody (i.e., are not independent) or because their primary function is to fill in the chords or harmony gaps (i.e. they are not really melodies).

Suggested Listening

  • Any singer that is performing on their own
  • Any orchestral woodwind or brass instrument (flute, clarinet, trumpet, trombone, etc.) performed solo, including the oboe, clarinet, horn, and trumpet. As an illustration, consider the following excerpt from James Romig’s Sonnet 2, performed by John McMurtery: A suite for solo cello by Bach
  • Choral chants in the Gregorian style
  • The majority of fife and drum music
  • Long portions of Handel’s “Messiah” aria “The People Who Walked in Darkness” are performed in a monophonic style (the instruments are playing the same line as the voice). It has been suggested that Handel equates monophony with “walking in the dark.” Monophony is uncommon in modern popular genres, although may be heard in Queen’s “We Will Rock You.”

Polyphony

  • Anything from Pachelbel’s Canon
  • Anything with the words “fugue” or “invention” in the title
  • A section of Handel’s Messiah that ends with a final “Amen” chorus
  • With the renowned piccolo countermelody, the trio strain of John Philip Sousa’s “Stars and Stripes Forever” is performed. The “One Day More” chorus from the musical “Les Miserables”
  • The “One Day More” chorus from the musical “Annie”
  • The first movement of Holst’s 1st Suite for Military Band
  • The opening movement of Holst’s First Suite for Military Band
  • Contemporary popular styles are devoid of polyphony, but counterpoint can be heard in a number of songs, including the Beach Boys’ “Good Vibrations,” the second through fourth verses of Simon and Garfunkel’s “Scarborough Fair/Canticle,” the final refrain of Jason Mraz’s “I’m Yours,” and the horn counterpoint in Ghost of a Saber Tooth Tiger’s “Lavender Road.”

Homophony

  • The “Maple Leaf Rag” or “The Entertainer” are examples of famous Scott Joplin rags. The portion of Edward Elgar’s “Pomp and Circumstance No. 1” known as the “graduate march”
  • The “March of the Toreadors” from Bizet’s Carmen
  • No. 1 (“Granada”) from Albeniz’s Suite Espanola for guitar
  • And the “March of the Toreadors” from Bizet’s Carmen. In general, homophonic textures are strongly preferred in most popular music genres, whether the music is performed by a single vocalist, rapper, guitar solo, or a group of vocalists singing in harmony. The first portion of Handel’s “Messiah” overture (the second section of the overture is polyphonic)
  • The first section of Handel’s “Messiah” overture (the second section of the overture is polyphonic)

Assignment

Choose one of the pieces from the list below and listen to it on YouTube once you have finished reading about musical texture in the text. Please respond to the questions below when you have finished listening to your pick.

Two-Part Invention in C Major by Johann Sebastian Bach

For the first 20 seconds, the texture is the most noticeable.)

Questions

  1. Which component did you decide to go with? (It is sufficient to copy and paste the title)
  2. The music you picked represents which of the three textures listed above
  3. What was it that you heard that allowed you to recognize the texture? 1) Write one or two phrases in which you allude to but do not replicate the explanations on the preceding page. I’m interested in hearing how you put this into your own words.)

Textures

Examine the three pieces provided in the reading assignment on musical texture to determine whether you properly recognized the textures in each of the works.

  • Johann Sebastian Bach’s Polyphony in C Major
  • Deum Verum by an unnamed composer: Monophony
  • Rondo Alla Turca by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Homophony

Monophony – Wikipedia

Amelody (or “song”), often sung by a single voice or played by a single instrument player (e.g., a fluteplayer), without accompanying harmony or chords, is the most basic of musical textures in the world of music. There are many monophonic folk tunes and traditional songs. Monophonic melodies are also regarded to be monophonic when they are performed by a group of singers (for example, an achoir) in unison (at exactly the same pitch) or with the same melody notes replicated at the octave (for example, in a choral setting) (such as when men and women sing together).

If different components are employed in a song or musical work, such as an accompaniment part or polyphonic melody lines, the musical texture of the piece will be established by this assessment (two or more independent lines).

Singers and instrumentalists often use monophony, heterophony (two singers or instrumentalists performing different versions of the same melody together), polyphony (two or more singers or instrumentalists performing independent melodic lines at the same time), homophony (a melody accompanied by chords), and monody (a single melodic line with instrumental accompaniment) elements throughout the melody to create different atmospheres and styles.

According to Ardis Butterfield (1997), monophony is a type of communication “is the main style of expression in European vernacular genres, as well as in Latin musical composition. It continues to be a fundamental compositional idea in polyphonic compositions.”

This is the plainchant version (mode iii) of Pange Lingua sung to its traditional Latin text.

Problems playing this file? Seemedia help.

Erik Satie The Four Ogives. Their calm, slow melodies are built up from paired phrases reminiscent of plainchant.

Problems playing this file? Seemedia help.

Western singing

Plainchant or plainsong (of which one well-known variety was referred to asGregorian chant) was the oldest documented Christian monophony, consisting of a single unaccompanied vocal melody chanted by monks. Despite the fact that this music is sung by numerous voices in unison (i.e., with the same pitch and beat), it is nevertheless termed monophonic. It was plainsong that was the first and most popular musical style in countries like Italy, Ireland, Spain, and France. Theorganumtradition arose in the early 9th century as a result of the addition of voices in tandem with plainchant tunes.

Plainchant styles

Plainsongs such as Mozarabic chant, Byzantine chant, Armenian chant, Beneventan chant, Ambrosian chant, Gregorian chant, and others were all monophonic, and they included Armenian chant, Beneventan chant, Ambrosian chant, Gregorian chant, and others. As a result, several of these monophonic chants have been preserved in writing, and they contain some of the first examples of music notation developed following the loss of the old Greek system. For example, the Swiss Renaissance composer Heinrich Glarean(also known as Glareanus) created a work called Dodecachordon, which contained plainsong, Gregorian chant, and monophony.

Troubador song monophony

The majority of troubadour songs were monophonic in nature. Troubadour songs were produced between 1100 and 1350, and they were mainly lyrics about chivalry or courtly love, with the verses arranged to a melodic accompaniment by the composer. Troubadours and trouvères were aristocratic musicians who performed in courtly settings for kings, queens, and countesses. Poets and composers in the 14th century created a large number of songs that might be considered extensions of the Provençal-Troubador heritage, such as secular monophonic lais and virelais, which are still performed today.

He was born in the town of Lescurel and lived in the town of Trouvère.

Geisslerlieder or Flagellant songs

A tradition ofLauda, or religious songs in the form of Troubador songs, was promoted in the 13th and 14th centuries byGeisslerlieder, or Flagellant songs, which were popularized in the 13th and 14th centuries by Geisslerlieder, or Flagellant songs.

Foliellan songs such as these monophonicLaude spirituale songs were employed byflagellants between the 13th and 17th centuries, according to the medieval chronicleChronicon Hugonis sacerdotis de Rutelinga (1349).

Lutheran church chorale

In the Lutheran Church, monophony was the first sort of texture to be introduced. For example, Martin Luther’s hymn “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (“A Mighty Fortress Is Our God”), written as a monophonic melody between 1527 and 1529, is a well-known example of this. The hymns of Martin Luther were arranged for multiple voices by other composers and were also utilized in other polyphonic works, such as the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach.

Monophony with instrumental doubling

SeeVoicing for further information (music) Doubling DeLonemore describes monophony as “passages, movements, or sections in which notes sound alone, notwithstanding the presence of instrumental doubling,” even if “such passages may comprise a number of instruments or voices,” according to him.

Music of India

Classical Indian music is an ancient musical genre in which monophonic melodies known as ragas are performed overdrones, occasionally accompanied by percussion and other supplementary instruments.

  • Hindustani music from the northern part of India
  • Carnatic music from the southern part of India, which includes works in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, Sanskrit, and Malayalam
  • And other forms of Indian music.

See also

  • Drone (music)
  • Duophonic
  • Polyphony
  • Voicing (music)
  • Doubling
  • Drone (music)

Sources

  1. Vernon Kliewer’s etymology (1975). Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music”, Melody: Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music, Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music Gary Wittlich’s full name is Gary Wittlich (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-049346-5
  2. Ardis Butterfield, ed (1997). In “Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music,” “Monophonic song: issues of category,” and other places. It is published by Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-816540-4)
  3. Template for a Crusades article
  4. Music from the Crusades
  5. Introduction to a secular song from the Middle Ages Archived from the original on 2007-03-15 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Richard DeLone is a professor of English at the University of California, Los Angeles (1975). In “Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music,” on page 99, the author discusses “Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Music.” Gary Wittlich’s full name is Gary Wittlich (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-049346-5.

Further reading

  • Aaron Copland’s “What to Listen for in Music” was published in 1999. MentorLCCN98-53893
  • New York: MentorLCCN98-53893

External links

  • What is the difference between monophony, polyphony, homophony, monody, and so on
  • 3Early Music: monophony
  • Music Texture Monophony
  • Music Texture Monophony Polyphony
  • In the first chapter of the Ratio Representation Project, plainchant and secular monophony are discussed.

music exam #2 Example For Students

In music, what is the difference between monophony and polyphony, homophony and monody, and so on; The early music of monophony; the texture of music in the early music of monophony Polyphony; Chapter 1: Plainchant and Secular Monophony; Chapter 2: Ratio Representation Project

Music Texture – Polyphony & Monophony

What is the difference between monophony and polyphony, homophony and monody, and so on; 3EarlyMusic: monophony; Music Texture Monophony; Music Texture Monophony Polyphony; Plainchant and Secular Monophony; Chapter 1 of the Ratio Representation Project;

Terms that describe texture

Many colloquial phrases can be used to describe the texture of a piece of music (thick, thin, bass-heavy, rhythmically complicated, and so on), but the formal terminology that are used to describe texture all refer to the connections between melodies and harmonies in the piece of music. Listed below are definitions and illustrations of the four primary types of texture. Please read the Activity section below for examples of specific pieces of music that are appropriate examples of each sort of texture used in music.

Monophonic

When it comes to monophonic music, there is just one melody line and no harmony or counterpoint. Even though there may be a rhythmic accompaniment, there will only be one line with precise pitches. Monophonic music is also referred to as monophony in some circles. Even though it is frequently referred to as monody, the term can also apply to a specific form of solo singing (with instrumental accompaniment) that was extremely popular in the 1600s.

Examples of Monophony

One individual may be heard whistling a melody. “Taps” is sounded by a single bugle. A group of individuals who are all singing the same song together, without the use of harmonies or musical instruments. A fife and drum corps, with each fife playing the same song as the others.

Homophonic

Homophonic music is also referred to as homophony in some circles. People who are describing homophonic music may use terms such as chords, accompaniment, harmony, or harmonies to describe it more formally. A single obviously melodic line runs through Homophony; it is this line that naturally catches your attention. All of the other components serve as accompaniment or fill in the gaps between the chords. When it comes to well-written homophony, even the portions that are not melodically significant can nevertheless have a great deal of melodic appeal.

In contrast, when they are sung or performed in conjunction with the melody, it is evident that they are not separate melodic parts, either because they have the same rhythm as the melody (i.e., are not independent), or because their primary function is to fill in the chords or harmony gaps (i.e.

Examples of Homophony

Homophonic music is a type of choral music in which all of the parts have primarily the same rhythms at the same time. The vast majority of traditional Protestant hymns, as well as the vast majority of “barbershop quartet” music, fall under this group. A vocalist who is accompanied by a guitar playing chords or strumming them. An improvised trumpet solo is performed by a small jazz trio consisting of a bass, piano, and drum set, which serves as the “rhythm” background for the performance. A solo bagpiper or accordion musician who performs a song accompanied by drones or chords.

Polyphonic

Polyphonic music is also referred to as polyphony, counterpoint, or contrapuntal music in some circles. Polyphonic music is defined as music in which more than one separate melody is heard at the same time. (See also the rebuttal.) Illustrations of Polyphony Rounds, canons, and fugues are all examples of polyphonic composition. It is possible for various persons to sing or play the same melody at different times, even though there is only one melody. Much of the music of the Baroque period, notably the compositions of J.S.

Almost all musical compositions for large instrumental groupings, such as bands or orchestras, are contrapuntal, at least to some degree of consistency.

As an example, consider a beloved pop or gospel song where the soloist is improvising at the conclusion as the backing singers sing the chorus.

Heterophonic

In Western music, a heterophonic texture is quite unusual. Heterophony is a musical technique in which a single melody is played or sung while many versions of it are performed simultaneously. There are no examples of heterophonic music that would be known to most Western listeners because they are not common in the West. Heterophony can be found in several Middle Eastern, South Asian, and Native American music traditions, among other places. Look for traditional music (most modern-composed music, even from these countries, has little or no heterophony), in which many singers and/or instrumentalists execute the same melody at the same time, but each adds their own flourishes and ornaments to the piece.

Homophony

A classic Scott Joplin rag, like as “Peacherine Rag” or “The Easy Winners,” is a must-have for any music fan. Part of Edward Elgar’s “Pomp and Circumstance No. 1” is devoted to the “graduate march.” Albeniz’s Suite Espanola for guitar includes the “March of the Toreadors” from Bizet’s Carmen No. 1 (“Granada”) as well as other pieces from the opera. The most recent chart-topping single by a notable pop solo singer The “Overture” of Handel’s “Messiah” begins with the first passage of the “Overture” (The second section of the overture is polyphonic)

Monophony

A selection from James Romig’s Sonnet 2, performed by John McMurtery, is presented here for your enjoyment. Gregorian chant in the style of Bach’s unaccompanied cello suite Sing a song for them without the use of an accompaniment.

Long portions of Handel’s “Messiah” aria “The People Who Walked in Darkness” are performed in a monophonic style (the instruments are playing the same line as the voice). Apparently, Handel links monophony with the experience of “walking in the dark”!

Heterophony

On the Turkish Music page, there is considerable heterophony (with certain instruments playing more ornaments than others) in the pieces “Donulmez Aksamin” and “Urfaliyim Ezelden,” both of which contain ornamentation. The Fairfield Four’s rendition of “Lonesome Valley,” which appears on the “O Brother, Where Art Thou” soundtrack, is a bit of a mishmash of styles. (Old-style blues owes more to African traditions than it does to Western ones.) Please get in touch with me if you know of any additional useful links or recordings of heterophony that are simple to access, or if you have an audio file of a good example to contribute.

Polyphony

Pachelbel’s Canon is a piece of music composed by Johann Pachelbel. Anything with the words “fugue” or “invention” in the title. Handel’s “Messiah” concludes with a final “Amen” chorus. The trio strain of John Philip Sousa’s “Stars and Stripes Forever,” with the renowned piccolo countermelody. The “One Day More” chorus from the musical “Les Miserables” is a good example of this. The opening movement of Holst’s 1st Suite for Military Band is titled “Theme and Variations.”

MUSIC OUTLINE

OUTLINE FOR MUSIC Since the dawn of recorded history, humans have played an essential role in a variety of activities. Music today plays an extremely essential and critical function in the lives of all human beings. It can be found virtually everywhere on our planet. One more stimulation to add to the huge ocean of impulses that our senses acquire on a daily basis. Humans utilize music for a variety of purposes, including: Amusement for one’s own amusement Activities that promote contemplation.

  1. �Stimulation.
  2. Sound is transmitted and received in two ways.
  3. Areceiverto is a device that can detect and record sound vibrations.
  4. A membrane made of animal hide or synthetic material is used to protect the skin.
  5. Beads rattling in a confined container can be heard.
  6. In a tiny resonating tube, the buzzing of lips may be heard.

The movement of small pieces of reed linked to a tube is triggered by the action of human breathing. There are a plethora of different naturally occurring vibrating sources. Sound may also be created artificially through the use of electrical synthesis. Elements of Music

  • SUMMARY OF MUSIC Ever since the beginning of recorded history, agriculture has played a significant role in human activity. Music is now considered to be a fundamental and significant part of human existence. It may be found virtually everywhere on our planet now.. It’s just one more stimulation in a vast ocean of impulses that our senses collect on a regular basis. Music serves a variety of functions in human life. Amusement for one’s self Exercises that promote contemplation �Relaxation. �Stimulation. Music has the ability to affect psychological elements of behavior, both consciously and unconsciously— a method for transmitting and receiving audio signals For sound to “occur” in an environment, there are three needs to meet: a source that is constantly changing make a sound to begin with Amedium is used to transport sound waves throughout an environment – such as air or water – and into other objects. Areceiverto is a sound vibration receiver that can record or listen to sound. Worldwide, there are several types of vibrating sources: Vocal cords are a type of cable that is found in the voice box. Animal hide or synthetic material is used as a membrane between two surfaces. A plucked or bowed string that has been stretched out. Objects such as wood, stone, clay, metal, and glass that are hit are referred to as striking materials. There’s a rattling of beads in a little enclosed space. Grunts and groans from animals, as well as the clapping of hands and the singing of birds In a tiny resonating tube, the buzzing of lips is heard. An air stream is divided when it splits. Several small pieces of reed are strung together in a tube and propelled forward by the action of human breath. There are a plethora of additional naturally occurring sources of vibration. In addition, electronic synthesis may be used to create false sound. Components of Music

NOTATION Written on paper in order for the music to be performed again and over again is the goal. System of notation for music Having the ability to read and interpret written music notation is not necessary for most people to enjoy and comprehend most music, but it does help. MELODY – A song about love and loss (Line, Space) Melody A series of single tones or pitches that are thought to be coherent in their appearance. Melody has the following characteristics: �Pitch The highness or lowness of a tone is determined by the frequency of the tone (rate of vibration) �Interval The distance between two pitches, as well as their connection.

  1. (either narrow, medium, or broad) �Shape The direction that a melody follows as it ascends or descends, or as it remains static, is called the tempo.
  2. �Cadence Musical punctuation is a location where a musical phrase can take a break.
  3. RHYTHM – A rhythm is a pattern of beats (Rhythm, Pattern, Repetition, Time) Rhythm In music, the concept of time is present.
  4. Accentuation is the placement of emphasis on a note such that it is louder or lasts longer than another.
  5. In music, there are many different types of styles.
  6. �Meter Measurement is the grouping of beats into bigger, more regular patterns that are notated.
  7. �Downbeat In any meter, the first beat of a measure is the most powerful beat.
  • Polyrhythmic – The employment of numerous different rhythmic patterns or meters at the same time

Nonmetric music is music that does not have a strong sense of rhythm or meter. A HARMONY – (Balance)Harmony is the simultaneous combination of notes, as well as the connections between intervals and chords that result. Harmony has the following characteristics: �Chord A single block of harmony is formed by the simultaneous combination of tones (usually three or more) that form a single block of harmony.

�Scale A succession of tones or pitches that are either rising or decreasing in pitch. �Tonality The principle of structuring a work around a core tonic, or home pitch, that is based on a major or minor scale is called tonic structure.

  • Diatonic
  • Chromatic
  • Consonance
  • Dissonance
  • Drone
  • Tonic and diatonic

THE TEXTURE – (Texture) Texture A musical fabric is formed by the intertwining of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) parts. Generally speaking, they are as follows: A single melody is presented by a single voice or section in a monophonic composition. Heterophonic compositions are those in which two or more voices/parts elaborate on the same melody at the same time. Homophonic music consists of a main melody and an accompanying harmony. The term polyphonic refers to the combination of two or more melodies into a multi-voiced texture.

Formal characteristics include: �Repetition Within a form, repetition cements the material in our minds and fulfills our craving for the familiar; it brings a form’s elements together as a whole.

(Variety) �Variation A principle that allows for some characteristics of the music to be changed while remaining recognizable.

�Theme In music composition, a melodic concept is employed as a fundamental building component in the production of the piece.

  • Motive A tiny, thematic fragment that serves as the basis of a melodic-rhythmic structure
  • Sequence The same notion repeated at a higher or lower pitch level
  • Obligato A brief musical pattern- melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic- that is repeated repeatedly throughout a work or a main portion of a composition In this example, a brief (four-note) descending pattern in the bass can be heard throughout the piece beneath the vocals.

DYNAMICS – The study of motion (Emphasis, Subordination, Value) Dynamics The relative loudness or quietness of music is indicated via the use of designations. Pianissimo, Piano, Mezzo-piano, Forte, Fortissimo, Pianissimo, Piano, Mezzo-piano �Crescendo The dynamic effect of progressively becoming louder as time passes �Decrescendo The dynamic effect of becoming progressively softer over time. �Sforzando A single note or chord is given a rapid emphasis or accent by pressing down on the note or chord.

  • “Tone color” is another term for this.
  • Strings are a kind of string.
  • (Violins, violas, cellos, bass, harp, guitar, and percussion) Woodwinds are a group of instruments.
  • (Flute, piccolo, clarinet, bassoon, oboe, bass clarinet, and saxophone are among the instruments represented.) The Brass Clad Family Trumpet, French horn, trombone, and tuba are examples of brass instruments.
  • Surface-playing instruments are those that are played by striking the instrument’s surface.

(Piano, harpsichord, and synthesizers are among the instruments used). �Ensembles Groups of people that play music (instrumental, vocal and mixed)

Four Types of Texture in Music

In your mind’s eye, what pictures come to mind when you hear the word “texture”? Is it better to be soft or hard? Is it better to be dry or wet? Is it a living being or an inanimate object? Slimy? Sticky? What do you prefer: fur, skin, or scales? It is possible that the word “texture” will bring up pictures in your mind of the smooth sands of a wide desert, the rough brick wall of a dilapidated city structure, the rolling waves of the ocean, or the repeating patterns of plant life as shown in the image above.

  1. What is the effect of these various textures on the sound produced?
  2. a few examples of Instruments that produce a broad variety of “timbres.” A piece of music (or a musical performance) is composed of a large number of individual building components.
  3. When all of these distinct building elements, as well as speed and timbre, are combined, they form a musical texture.
  4. When many instruments or voices are playing or singing at the same frequency or musical pitch, it is this characteristic that identifies them.
  5. In order to create musical textures that distinguish one piece of music from another, it is critical to combine timbres in the right way.
  6. These four textures may be found in a variety of musical styles from throughout the world.

Monophony

Monophony is a musical texture composed of a single melodic line that is repeated over and over again. This old musical texture may be found in the few instances of Ancient Greek music that have survived, such as The Epitaph of Seikilos, which you can listen to and examine the score for in the video above, as well as in other pieces from the period. Aside: TheEpitaph of Seikilosis the world’s oldest full and notated musical piece still in existence. It is believed to have been built about the first century CE.

  • It was written by Seikilos in memory of his late wife, who passed away.
  • Double-reed instruments were prevalent in the ancient world, and they are the forerunners of the contemporary oboe and bassoon, among other instruments.
  • For example, Byzantine and Gregorian chants, the songs of French troubadours and trouvères, and the minnesingers and meistersingers are all examples of chants from the past.
  • Note: From 901 to 920 CE, Étienne deLiège served as the bishop of Liège, which is located in present-day Belgium.
  • Even now, monophony can be heard in musical compositions.
  • Play Bach’s Cello Suite No.

Take note to how many different emotions the artist is able to convey with a single musical line. THE FIRST ASSIGNMENT Choose a specific feeling or tale to depict, and then compose a short (12 to 32 bar) monophonic tune to describe that emotion or story.

Polyphony

Polyphony is a musical texture made up of two or more melodic lines that are played at the same time. The first polyphonic music was made simply by having two separate songs played or sung by two different musicians at the same time. When polyphony was first formed in the late Middle Ages, it quickly rose to prominence and eventually became the dominant musical texture during the Renaissance. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c.1525 – 2 February 1594), an Italian musician, was one of the most important composers of polyphonic music during his lifetime.

  • Play the music numerous times, following a different vocal line each time, and note how the various works generate consonance and discord in the overall composition.
  • Western music has been enriched by this invention, which marks the birth of contemporary harmonies.
  • Musical compositions in counterpunctal forms, such as the Baroque Invention and Fugue, were written by composers like Johann Sebastian Bach and Antonio Vivaldi, among others.
  • Take note of how the left hand imitates the material of the right hand, and how this imitation results in harmony between the two instruments.
  • ASSIGNMENT 1: Download the score from the IMSLP.

Orchestral Polyphony

Bach is not just well-known for his polyphonic solo instrument compositions, but he is also well-known for employing polyphonic writing when composing for a large number of different instruments as well. His Brandenburg Concertos are outstanding examples; have a listen and pay close attention to Number 1 in F major, which is shown here.

Homophony

It is a type of musical texture in which a main melodic line is backed by one or more secondary musical lines that provide harmonic support to the main melodic line. This is the type of musical texture that we hear the most frequently these days. When all voices play or sing in (approximately) the same beat, this is known as traditional homophony, and it results in a rich texture. Chorales (such as Christmas carols or patriot songs) sung in a conventional four-voice “hymnal” arrangement) are the most fundamental homophonic form, and they are the most common.

  • As a result, students of music theory study his chorales in order to have a thorough understanding of the notions of Western harmony.
  • ASSIGNMENT NUMBER THREE Analyze the harmonies in the whole score below, paying close attention to the sharps that have been added, the transpositions, and the crucial locations.
  • The term “Monody” refers to a guitarist who is strumming chords and singing a tune while playing a guitar.
  • Take a look at the video below and listen to Chopin’s Waltz in A minor as you go along.
  • Homophony is not just present in Western music, where it is employed in conjunction with Western harmonies.

Listen to the rich texture created by this in the video below, which features the Zolokere Choir from Malawi. ASSIGNMENT NUMBER FOUR Produce a piece of music in which you incorporate some of these enormous stacked chords into your own composition.

Heterophony

Heterophony is the final type of musical texture, and it may be found in musical civilizations all across the world. It is, however, less frequently heard in Classical Western music than the other two instruments. Traditional music, particularly that of the Middle East, Asia, and Europe’s folk traditions, is replete with this instrument. H eterophony is a texture formed by altering the pitch of a single melody at the same time. It may be viewed of as a more intricate form of Monophony, and it is frequently seen as the first texture to develop after Monophony in the musical world.

  1. Winter Sun can be heard on the radio.
  2. Even in classical music, heterophony can be present in the compositions.
  3. Beginning at min.
  4. Create a Heterophonic version of your Monophonic piece from assignment 1 and submit it to the instructor.

Going Forward: Multiple Textures

Igor Stravinsky, a Russian-American composer, is renowned for his innovative and dramatic use of textures in his compositions. I’ve attached two of his works for you to go over and examine. ASSIGNMENT 6 Can you tell me what kinds of textures you’re hearing? What method does he use to generate them? What is the method through which Stravinsky creates texture with timbre? What kind of interactions do the instruments have with one another and how do they operate together? Make a list of at least ten observations, and be sure to identify which piece or pieces you listened to.

Janae J.

In addition to her undergraduate degree in music/education from Judson University, she holds an advanced master’s degree in computer music/composition from the Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University.

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