‘Om,’ Ginsberg’s Hindu Chant, Fails to Charm a Judge in Chicago
An Illinois judge is unimpressed with Ginsberg’s Hindu chant “Om,” which he learned from his father.
By J. ANTHONY LUKAS
An Illinois judge is unimpressed with Ginsberg’s Hindu chant “Om.”
Behind the Anti-War Protests That Swept America in 1968
The following is an extract from the new special issue of LIFE magazine, published in 1968: The book, The Year That Changed the World, is available at the Time Shop, on Amazon, and at a variety of shops worldwide. Protesters gathered in front of the White House at various hours of the day. They marched around the perimeter of the fence, holding placards that read “Stop the War,” “Bring the GIs Home Now,” and “We Mourn Our Soldiers, They Are Dying in Vain.” The demonstrators traveled with pamphlets in hand and peace signs in their hands.
- It was so loud that it could be heard from within the executive home that they were protesting.
- When Eartha Kitt, the singer and Batman star, attended a White House luncheon at which Johnson spoke, she stood up and reprimanded the president-elect.
- It is because they fear that kids will be taken away from their moms and killed in Vietnam that they do not want to attend school.
- He understood why they pleaded with their dads, sons, brothers, and partners to return home from war-torn Afghanistan.
- Lieutenant Colonel Patrick Nugent, Luci’s husband, served in the Air National Guard, while Lieutenant Colonel Charles Robb, the wife of Lynda’s husband, led a Marine rifle company.
Although the President was profoundly convinced that he had to keep his country fighting, Updegrove argues that he was also convinced that “occasionally you have to take a position, that you cannot take liberty for granted.” Likewise, as America’s military presence expanded, so did the simultaneous campaign for world peace.
Johnson’s subsequent order for the Operation Rolling Thunder bombing campaign in the Philippines.
Young guys took to the streets to burn their draft cards. The United States was nicknamed “Amerika” by the New Left, and the underground press transmitted anti-war material through their own news services, according to the New Left.
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An extract from LIFE magazine’s new special edition from 1968 is presented below: The book, The Year That Changed the World, is available at the Time Shop, on Amazon, and at a variety of retail locations. Every hour of the day, protesters gathered outside the White House to demonstrate their opposition to President Barack Obama. They made their way around the perimeter of the fence, holding placards that read “Stop the War,” “Bring the GIs Home Now,” and “We Mourn Our Soldiers, They Are Dying in Vain.” The demonstrators traveled with fliers in hand and peace signs in their hands.
- It was so loud that it could be heard inside the executive home where they were yelling.
- In 2007, when Eartha Kitt, the singer and Batman actress, was present at a White House luncheon during which Johnson spoke, she got up and reprimanded the president.
- Johnson was personally offended that Kitt would openly attack him in the White House, but he understood why people were out in the streets protesting.
- Both of his daughters’ husbands were stationed at the facility.
As historian Mark Updegrove explains to LIFE, “to their credit, the Johnsons’ family had put their money where their commander in chief’s mouth was.” Although the President was sincerely convinced that he had to keep his country fighting, Updegrove explains that he did so because “sometimes you have to take a position, that you cannot take liberty for granted.” America’s military involvement increased in tandem with the expansion of the parallel war for world peace.
Increasingly, it had been rising since the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and President Lyndon Johnson’s subsequent authorization for the Operation Rolling Thunder air assault.
Draft cards of young males were burnt in public. As “Amerika” was called by the New Left, and the underground press disseminated antiwar material through their own news services, the United States was dubbed “America.”
Vietnam War Protests at the White House
On November 1, 1963, a group of military officers toppled the government of South Vietnam and killed President Ngo Dinh Diem when he refused to resign—all with the implicit consent of the John F. Kennedy administration, which had been in power at the time. 1 However, while the United States has been involved in Vietnam since the Dwight Eisenhower administration, the escalation of the war during the 1960s and 1970s dominated national politics, tarnished the United States’ international reputation, and resulted in the deaths of 58,000 Americans and more than 3 million Vietnamese.
- Kennedy was slain only three weeks after the overthrow of the South Vietnamese government, his plans for the future of Vietnam remain a mystery to this day.
- 2 Former President Lyndon B.
- Even more concerning, Johnson and many of his aides were concerned about a widespread communist conspiracy in the broader context of the United States’ Cold War with the Soviet Union, which was at the time.
- By 1968, more than 500,000 troops had been sent to Vietnam.
- The discussions remained at a standstill, in part because then-presidential candidate Richard Nixon persuaded the South Vietnamese officials to refuse to accept an agreement until he was officially inaugurated as president.
- When the North Vietnamese took Saigon, the capital city of South Vietnam, the war was formally declared over two years after it began.
- Benjamin Spock, among others.
Johnson Presidential Library and Museum Please Show Me More From the very beginning of the war, there were people of the United States who were opposed to the participation of American armed forces in the battle.
Early protests were organized by peace activists who were opposed to American participation in foreign affairs during the Cold War, as well as students who were at risk of being drafted into the military.
The scale of the protests fluctuated from day to day, although the numbers occasionally rose to tens of thousands of participants.
6 When asked if they could hear the demonstrations from within the White House, the Johnsons admitted that they could.
In addition to the White House, protesters marched through the streets of Washington DC.
Employees at the White House have reportedly expressed concern over recurrent episodes of automobile damage, break-ins, and indecent exposure.
A mass fair on the South Grounds of the White House, organized by President Lyndon Johnson on June 14, 1965, was the highlight of the president’s first term.
Lowell canceled his presence at the event two weeks before it was scheduled in a highly known letter to President Johnson, citing the United States’ engagement in the Vietnam War as the reason.
8 On January 18, 1968, during a luncheon, Eartha Kitt addressed President Johnson with a question.
Johnson Presidential Library and Museum Please Show Me More Lowell was not the only entertainer to bring up the subject of politics when speaking with the first family.
Kitt spoke out in support of anti-Vietnam demonstrators during the event.
Johnson — we raise children and send them to war,” she said in her remarks about the Johnsons and the war: “They feel they are going to raise sons — and I know what it’s like, and you have children of your own, Mrs.
Next the meal, the Secret Service sought a report on Kitt’s background and ties, which was sent the following day.
9 On January 19, 1968, a group of anti-Vietnam War demonstrators marched in front of the White House in support of singer Eartha Kitt and her open opposition to the war in Vietnam.
Please Show Me More Activists staged demonstrations around the country, with schools and institutions serving as focal points of dissent.
Other demonstrators concentrated their efforts on draft offices, raiding offices, seizing draft cards, and setting them ablaze.
Unlike the early protests, which were primarily directed at the White House, later demonstrations were directed against Congress and the military.
They thought that if the president would not heed their pleadings, they might be able to persuade Congress to defund the war or exert influence over military strategy.
About half of the audience marched to the Pentagon following the rally, breaking through military policy lines and fighting their way into the Pentagon.
Please Show Me More After President Richard Nixon took office and proposed an expansion of the conflict into neighboring Cambodia in 1970, the demonstrations continued unabated.
The law was eventually passed.
The Secret Service asked for the authority to enforce the regulations and seek criminal charges against demonstrators who disobeyed the guidelines in order to protect the public.
Nixon glanced out the windows in the southwest corner of the White House during the early morning hours of May 9, 1970, and noticed a crowd of demonstrators assembled around the Washington Monument.
Following that, he spent an hour talking with demonstrators and listening to their points of view.
in early May 1971 with the slogan “If the government won’t stop the war, we’ll stop the government,” Nixon’s administration became the most vocal opponent of the war in the United States.
More than 25,000 protesters descended on the streets and erected makeshift barriers to stop vehicular movement.
While the demonstration did not prevent traffic from moving for long, the sheer scale of the demonstration compelled Nixon to speed the United States’ withdrawal from Vietnam.
National Geographic Service photographer James P.
Blair captured this image of a gathering of ladies protesting the Vietnam War outside the North Gate of the White House in June 1966, according to the photographer’s attribution. Washington, D.C.: The White House Historical Association, Inc. Please Show Me More
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Protests at Democratic National Convention in Chicago
On August 28, 1968, hundreds of anti-Vietnam War protestors clash with police in the streets of Chicago, as the Democratic Party disintegrates due to an internal conflict over the party’s stance on the war in the Southeast Asian country. During a 24-hour period, the prevailing American train of thought on the Cold War with the Soviet Union was destroyed, and the world was shocked. Since the end of World War II, the United States’ attitude toward the Soviet Union and Soviet-style communism has been characterized by ferocious opposition.
As a result of this strategy, the United States became involved in the contentious Vietnam War, during which the country sought to prevent South Vietnam from coming under the authority of communist North Vietnam, at the cost of more than 2 million Vietnamese lives and almost 58,000 American lives.
- On the issue of Vietnam, Democratic delegates from all around the country were divided on their positions.
- McCarthy was defeated in the presidential election.
- After much deliberation, the delegates who supported the status quo, led by then-Vice President Hubert Humphrey, eventually prevailed.
- As a result, many thousand anti-war demonstrators assembled on the streets of Chicago to express their support for McCarthy and the withdrawal of American soldiers from Vietnam.
- This quickly spun out of control, with police officers severely assaulting and gassing protesters as well as reporters and medical personnel who had arrived to assist them.
- Thousands of Americans took to the streets for the first time to express their vehement opposition to the Vietnam War, which many had started to believe was useless and misguided.
- MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Yippies found a voice during the 1968 Democratic National Convention.
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The Twenty Best Vietnam Protest Songs
On Sunday, it will be fifty years since the first combat soldiers from the United States arrived in South Vietnam. In honor of the 50th anniversary of the war that forever transformed America, I’m writing a series of essays about the finest Vietnam-related history, memoirs, films, and novels. The subject for today is protest music. In the same way that much of the poetry of World War I gives a window into the Allied spirit of the time, anti-war songs provide a window into the atmosphere of the 1960s.
- But I’m particularly interested in songs written about Vietnam during the war, which have endured long after the final American helicopters were shot down over the East Vietnam Sea.
- With that disclaimer out of the way, here are my twenty favorite protest songs, listed in chronological order by the year they were recorded.
- “This here ain’t no protest song or anything like that, ’cause I don’t write no protest songs,” Dylan told the crowd as he performed a partially completed version of “Blowin’ in the Wind” in Greenwich Village in 1962.
- In their list of the best 500 songs of all time, Rolling Stone magazine rated “Blowin’ in the Wind” at number fourteen on the list.
- – Phil Ochs (1963).
- In the song “What Are You Fighting For,” he cautions listeners about “the war machine standing alongside your home.” “What Are You Fighting For?” In 1976, Ochs, who had struggled with alcoholism and mental disease, committed suicide.
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- In addition to McGuire’s passionate performance of the song’s fiery lyrics—”You’re old enough to kill, but not for votin'”—which contributes to the song’s widespread appeal.
- I’m not marching with you anymore, Phil Ochs (1965).
- It was one of the first songs to draw attention to the generational divide that had begun to engulf the country: “It’s always the old who lead us to war/always It’s the young who fall.” “Lyndon Told the Nation,” a play by Tom Paxton (1965).
- “But now, here I am, sitting in this rice paddy/Wondering about Big Daddy/And I know that Lyndon loves me so./Yet how bitterly I remember/Way back yonder in November/When he promised me I’d never have to go.” The song was rewritten by Paxton in 2007 and titled “George W.
- Folk music legend Pete Seeger, who passed away last year at the age of ninety-four, was one of the all-time greats.
- Who says a protest song can’t be amusing at the same time?
- For certain radio stations, playing “Alice’s Restaurant Massacree” on Thanksgiving is a Thanksgiving tradition.
Langston Hughes’ civil rights poem was adapted into a Vietnam War protest song by Simone de Beauvoir.
” Saigon Bride ” is a song by Joan Baez (1967).
While fighting an adversary for reasons that “will not matter after we’re dead,” an unidentified narrator says farewell to his Saigon wife, which might be intended literally or symbolically.
It was Country Joethe Fish’s performance of “Feel Like I’m Fixin to Die” that became known as the “Vietnam Song” and was one of the most memorable events at Woodstock in 1969.
“Don’t bother asking me, I couldn’t care less; my next stop is Vietnam.” “Waist Deep in the Big Muddy,” a song by Pete Seeger (1967).
Everyone recognized the link to Vietnam, and CBS removed the song from a September 1967 edition of the Smothers Brothers Comedy Show..
“Handsome Johnny” is a song by Richie Havens (1967).
When Havens sang the song at Woodstock in 1969, it became an iconic event in music history.
At the time, Seger was still a relatively unknown Detroit rocker, but he warned of a conflict that would leave young men “dead in the mud, off in a strange jungle area.” His song was a reflection of a shift of attitude on his part.
Creedence “Fortunate Son” is a song by the Clearwater Revival (1969).
He intended to express his displeasure with the reality that not everyone will be burdened by the war: “Some persons are born with a silver spoon in their mouth.” As a result of its “cultural, historical, or artistically important nature,” “Fortunate Son” was included into the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress in 2014.
Despite the fact that it was recorded in a single take in June 1969 when he and wifeYoko Onowere having a “bed-in” in Montreal, John Lennon’s first solo song after quitting The Beatles reached number 14 on the Billboard charts.
“Vietnam” has been described as “the finest protest song ever composed” by Bob Dylan.
“Ohio” by Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young (1970).
The song was taken from numerous AM radio station playlists because of the chorus, which read: “Tin troops and Nixon coming/We’re finally on our own/This summer I hear the drumming/Four dead in Ohio.” Despite this, the song managed to peak at number 14 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States.
When it came to war, “War, huh yeah/What is it good for?/Absolutely nothing, oh hoh, oh,” the song got right to the point: “War, huh yeah/What is it good for?” The song was initially created for The Temptations to release as a single, but the plan was scrapped due to concerns that the group’s fans would be alienated.
“War” peaked at number one on the Billboard charts in 1970 and was the fifth most popular song of the year.
According to Berry Gordy, the founder of Motown Records and Gaye’s brother-in-law at the time, “What’s Going On” was “the worst thing [he] had ever heard in his entire life.” Fortunately, a Motown sales official rejected his advice and managed to have the song released in record stores nationwide.
- On Rolling Stonemagazine’s list of the top 500 songs of all time, “What’s Going On” was placed as the fourth most popular song.
- More than four decades after it was first broadcast, John Lennon’s exhortation to “Imagine all the people/Living life in peace” continues to be a radio fixture.
- In their list of the top 500 songs of all time, Rolling Stone magazine named “Imagine” as the third most popular song.
- Obviously, I left out a lot of excellent songs from this list.
Please feel free to share any of your favorites that I may have missed in the comments section below. Check out the previous entries in this series for further materials on the Vietnam War, including the following:
- “The Best Histories of the Vietnam War”
- “The Ten Best Memoirs of the Vietnam War”
- “Top Ten Vietnam War Movies”
- “Ten Vietnam War Novels to Read”
- “TWE Remembers: The First U.S. Combat Troops Arrive in Vietnam”
‘A party that had lost its mind’: In 1968, Democrats held one of history’s most disastrous conventions
Vice President Hubert Humphrey, who had been designated as his heir and the anticipated contender, found himself enslaved in the administration’s bleak war effort. Humphrey did not participate in the Republican primary. His position as front-runner, on the other hand, was totally based on the patronage of party leaders, who controlled large numbers of delegates. In the eyes of antiwar activists who arrived in Chicago, the conference was a mockery. The remedy had been put in place. Their more subdued shouts include “Dump the Hump!” and “Dump the Hump!” Peaceniks, black militants, revolutionaries, anarchists, communists, and what the stodgy news media characterized to as “flower children” were among those who took part in the demonstrations.
- “We’re not here to be sitting around a jive table vacillating and bull-jiving ourselves,” Black Panther commander Bobby Seale later wrote.
- Daley, who was the definition of a Democratic Party boss.
- When riots erupted following the assassination of the Rev.
- earlier in the year, Daley was famous for ordering police to “shoot to kill arsonists” and “shoot to maim or cripple anyone looting.” Now, with the Democrats in power, Daley braced for an invasion of hundreds of thousands of protesters — a vast horde that never materialized.
- What followed was unquestionably the most catastrophic political convention in the history of the twentieth century.
- Chicago 1968 permanently altered the way Democrats and Republicans nominate presidential candidates, allowing outsiders and populists to participate in the process — and eventually a reality television star to do so.
- This was the beginning of the end for the big-tent party of labor unions, Northern liberals, and conservative Southerners — the alliance that helped elect Presidents John F.
The momentous Voting Rights Act of 1965 ushered in a new era of African-American participation in Democratic politics.
The guy who had the potential to bring the party together was today laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery.
Kennedy had just won the California primary when an assassin approached him with a revolver at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, less than three months ago.
On the night of the killing, he had been with Kennedy in Los Angeles and had sobbed the whole journey back to New York, he recalled.
We were extremely split as Democrats.
In the words of experienced political writer Jules Witcover, who covered the convention for the Newhouse newspaper network, “the entire conference was steeped in melancholy.” The Democrats were in charge of the White House, the House of Representatives, and the Senate throughout the 2016 election cycle.
Exactly four years earlier, Johnson had beaten his Republican opponent, Barry Goldwater, in a landslide in the presidential election.
When Johnson announced his resignation from the president, he declared, “I’ve never felt lower in my life.” “Can you imagine how it feels to be entirely rejected by the party you’ve spent your entire life with, knowing that your name cannot be uttered without choruses of boos and obscenities?” says the interviewer.
Eugene McCarthy, who had been carrying the antiwar banner around the country, was the only one to arrive in Chicago after stumping his way across the country.
The individuals who backed him, according to Witcover, “appeared to have scorn for him at times.” As a result, the party was forced to confront its racist past.
After the death of civil rights activist Medgar Evers, Charles Evers joined forces with newspaper owner Hodding Carter III to try to have a multiracial slate of Mississippi representatives elected to the United Nations General Assembly.
“If you close the door in our faces today, may God help us,” says the narrator.
However, the old guard continued to wield the majority of the authority.
For the duration of the convention, his seat was right in front of the rostrum every night.
‘The entire world is paying attention!’ Yippies were the antiwar movement’s theatrical wing outside, on the streets, and they played an important role in that.
Finally, a few days before the actual commencement of the convention, a group of Yippies assembled in downtown Chicago and nominated a pig as their candidate for president.
His supporters dubbed him Pigasus and requested that he be protected by the Secret Service and get a national security briefing similar to that received by other candidates.
The antiwar movement was riven by factionalism, with splinter groups within factions fighting among themselves, and even the Yippies were embroiled in intra-faction fighting.
One possibility is to eat him.
“Vegetarianism came dangerously close to destroying us,” Rubin later wrote.
Outside, tensions between demonstrators and police officers were rising rapidly.
Evenings and weekends, the police stepped in and removed the demonstrators.
The turmoil reached its zenith on Wednesday.
The leaders of the movement delivered speeches, their language more revolutionary than ever before.
Although a youngster scaled a flagpole and attempted to lower the American flag to half-staff, the violence that erupted on Wednesday was the result of his actions.
They snatched him and thrashed him with billy clubs until he was unconscious.
Both sides yelled profanities at each other.
Some demonstrators were knocked unconscious when around 30 cops moved forward and assaulted them.
National Guardsmen holding two tripod-mounted.30-caliber machine rifles halted a group of demonstrators who were attempting to march.
Humphrey was in his hotel suite when tear gas was released.
When it came to cracking skulls, the police made no distinction.
They seized film from cameras and disposed of it.
Another lady who was being beaten glanced up into the faces of the cops and noticed that they had taken their badges from their lapels as well.
The film was eerie, with police rushing from one location to another, pulling demonstrators, throwing them into a paddy wagon, and clubbing them to death.
Reporters were repeatedly beaten by security forces.
Mike Wallace was forced to the ground by his teammates.
Insectile antennae were attached to the headsets of the reporters who walked around the conference floor.
It was a bit like the game “Where’s Waldo?” When Rather approached Daley on the convention floor, he inquired about rumors that police were abusing demonstrators.
“They are all family men and respectable individuals, and they do not retaliate in an excessively violent manner,” Daley stated.
“Totally propaganda by you and your station, as well as a large number of Eastern interests,” Daley eventually snapped.
George McGovern as his presidential nominee and then looked at Mayor Richard Daley from the platform.
“We wouldn’t have to resort to Gestapo tactics on the streets of Chicago.” The television networks broadcast footage of Daley hurling obscenities at Ribicoff.
“It’s amazing how difficult it is to accept the reality.” Daley replied by dropping what seemed to be a number of f-bombs on the microphone.
The conference came to a total and utter halt.
“We haven’t a clue who they are.” We have no way of knowing who they are.
In his hotel room, he kissed the television screen, which was showing a picture of his wife, Muriel, on it.
McCarthy said affirmatively.
Kennedy was shown.
They were unable to stop singing.
Afterwards, pro-Humphrey delegates began to boo.
The victory speech delivered by Humphrey is mostly forgotten.
Nixon, the Republican nominee, was the only individual to emerge completely victorious from the Chicago election.
He won the state of Illinois.
Party chiefs such as Daley would no longer have an iron hold over their respective party’s delegates.
“Chicago was a stumbling block in the political process,” said Lewis, who has been a member of the House of Representatives representing Georgia since 1987.
“Chicago” is a code phrase meaning “complete disaster” among political operators preparing for a national convention.
Conventions nowadays are carefully choreographed celebrations of unity, with every detail meticulously planned. They’re uninteresting. There is no need for the entire world to be paying attention.