It is explained by Martino why Dos Santos performed several hours after his father’s death. Date, time, location, and television channel for the Gold Cup final in 2021.
What is Gregorian Chant – GIA Publications
|Before reviewing the main Gregorian chant books and resources, perhaps it is good to state what Gregorian chant is.Gregorian chant is the church’s own music, born in the church’s liturgy. Its texts are almost entirely scriptural, coming for the most part from the Psalter. For centuries it was sung as pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment, and this is still the best way to sing chant if possible. It was composed entirely in Latin; and because its melodies are so closely tied to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best to sing it in Latin. (Among possible exceptions are chant hymns, since the melodies are formulaic and are not intrinsically tied to the Latin text.) Gregorian chant is in free rhythm, without meter or time signature.Because the liturgy was sung almost entirely in Gregorian chant in the Middle Ages (with polyphony saved for special occasions), every type of liturgical text has been set in chant: readings, prayers, dialogs, Mass propers, Mass ordinaries, office hymns, office psalms and antiphons, responsories, and versicles. Although Pope St. Gregory the Great (590–604) certainly did not play a role in the creation or compilation of our chant melodies, popular legend led the church to name Gregorian chant after this great leader.Many other types and styles of music are similar to Gregorian chant or inspired by it, but one should distinguish them from Gregorian chant. Taizé chants, for example, are generally in Latin, similar to Gregorian chant antiphons. But the musical style is quite different: metered and with choral harmonies and/or instrumental accompaniments.Many psalm tones have been written since the Second Vatican Council. They are much like Gregorian chant psalm tones with their free rhythm and their repeatable melodic formulas. By Gregorian psalm tones, however, we mean a set of particular melodies, one for each of the Gregorian modes, always in the form of two measures. The Gregorian psalm tones are well suited to the Latin language, but do not work very well with English accents, unless one takes freedom in adapting them. For English psalm verses, it is probably wiser to use psalm tones written for the English language. Back to Gregorian Chant Resources|
A brief history of Gregorian chant
A Gregorian chant rehearsal at the school’s St. Vincent Chapel was conducted on October 10 by Timothy S. McDonnell, director of music ministries at The Catholic University of America’s Institute of Sacred Music, Benjamin T. Rome School of Music in Washington. Gregorian chant is the chanting of the liturgy, and the texts are nearly completely drawn from the Bible. (CNS photo courtesy of Chaz Muth) (CNS) – Washington, D.C. – Whenever Erin Bullock walks in front of the altar at Washington’s Cathedral of St.
- During an October Mass at the church, her function as cantor is as obvious as the priest’s, and much of the music she intones with her powerful soprano – together with the choir and those in the seats – is the unadorned resonances of Gregorian chant.
- In their performance by a choir, the chants are normally chanted in unison and unaccompanied by any kind of rhythmic or melodic accompaniment, with the tones rising and falling in an ad libitum way.
- McDonnell, director of the Institute of Sacred Music at The Catholic University of America in Washington, the history of sung prayer extends back to the first millennium, with Gregorian chant being the suitable music of the mature Roman rite.
- Despite its resurgence in popularity in recent decades, the chant is not the primary musical accompaniment in most Catholic parishes in the United States, according to McDonnell of Catholic News Service.
- According to Elizabeth Black, assistant music director at St.
As an example, when the priest sings, “the Lord be with you,” and the congregation responds in song, “and with your spirit,” they are participating in Gregorian chant because those holy texts are an essential part of the Mass, according to Black, who spoke to Catholic News Service in a recent interview about the practice.
- When you sing a component of the liturgy that is fundamental to the Mass, you’re singing Gregorian chant, according to Lang, who is an expert on the subject.
- Despite the fact that hymns, which are typically layered in rich harmonies, are liturgical in character, such melodies are intended to beautify the Mass with meditative spirituality rather than serving as a key component of the liturgy, according to Black.
- However, there are several exceptions to this unofficial chant rule, and certain choirs embellish their chants with harmonies and musical accompaniment on occasion.
- But, according to theologian John Paul II, it is only recently that Gregorian chant, which began to take shape in the ninth century, has been written down and kept for historical preservation.
The development of Gregorian chant is unlikely to have been a direct result of Pope Gregory I’s efforts, according to McDonnell, who described him as a “building pope” who helped reorder the liturgy in a more practical way, creating the artistic environment necessary for the establishment of some form of plainchant.
- Gregory the Great’s death that the music we know today as Gregorian chant began to develop, according to Dr.
- “In fact, most historians believe it was Pope Gregory II (715-731), who reigned about 100 years later, who was the Pope Gregory who actually had more of a hand in formulating this body of chants that we know today as Gregorian chant,” he said.
- Matthew the Apostle.
- John the Beloved, has made the chant a natural component of the liturgy.
McDonnell stated that “Gregorian chant has the potential to be extremely sophisticated, intricate, and convoluted, as well as possessing a high level of artistic merit.” However, much of its beauty may be found in the simplicity of the design and the fact that most of it is accessible to members of the congregation and children.” According to him, “everyone can learn to sing some amount of Gregorian chant,” and the church has organized the chants into categories based on their accessibility over the years.
- There are numerous chants that are intended to be sung by the faithful as part of their participation in the liturgy, and those chants are every bit as much Gregorian chant as the more florid and complex ones,” says the author.
- The chant is more effective because of this technique, in some ways,” says the author.
- According to him, the causes of these waves are unpredictable.
- “When the popes returned from Avignon (a period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven popes resided in Avignon, France, rather than in Rome), the city was in utter disarray, and the culture of Rome had to be reconstructed,” he explained.
As a result, we witnessed the resurgence of Gregorian chant.” The Renaissance polyphony of the 16th century, with its intricate texturized harmonies, became the dominant music in the church and for a time superseded Gregorian chant, according to McDonnell, who believes that the Renaissance was a period of cultural restoration.
Then, in 1947, Pope Pius XII released his encyclical “Mediator Dei” (“On the Sacred Liturgy”), which encouraged active involvement by the laity in the liturgy while also strengthening the use of Gregorian chant, according to historian Black.
The use of Gregorian chant was advocated for in papers produced during Vatican II in the 1960s; but, as the Latin Mass was replaced by the vernacular, most parishes opted for music that was more in tune with popular culture, such as praise and worship and folk genres, according to McDonnell.
When “Chant,” an incredibly successful CD produced by the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos, Spain, was published in the 1990s, interest in the practice was once again piqued, according to him.
Gregorian chant is no longer the dominant force in parish life as it once was, but according to McDonnell, if history repeats itself, it is in the process of regaining its former prominence and might once again become a mainstay of church music.
A short history of liturgical music
When I wrote the first part of this series on sacred music, I explained what I meant by the term “sacred music,” which is defined as the music of the Church’s sacred liturgy as opposed to “religious music.” As a second installment, I will examine, from a historical perspective, the Church’s role in guiding and promoting authentic sacred music in order to facilitate more fruitful participation in the Sacred Mysteries by both clergy and lay faithful.
I will begin by discussing the importance of authentic sacred music in the life of the Church.
It was as a result of this that the Council fathers issued a decision declaring that “the treasure of holy music is to be protected and nurtured with great care” (Ibid, 114).
EN ESPAÑOL:Una corta historia de la música litúrgica
First and foremost, in the first installment of this series on sacred music, I explained what it means to sing sacred music, which is the music of the Church’s holy liturgy as opposed to “religious music.” As a second installment, I will examine, from a historical perspective, the Church’s role in guiding and promoting authentic sacred music in order to facilitate more fruitful participation in the Sacred Mysteries by both clergy and lay faithful.
I will begin by discussing the importance of authentic sacred music in the Catholic Church today.
It was as a result of this that the Council fathers issued a decision stating that “the treasure of holy music is to be protected and nurtured with great care” (Ibid, 114).
Sacred music in the early Church
The interaction of what was then a Jewish-Semitic reality with the Greek-Roman world characterised the first centuries of the Church’s existence after Pentecost. On one one, there was an openness to new cultural forms; on the other, there was what was irreversibly a part of Christian religion. A dramatic conflict developed between these two opposing viewpoints. First and foremost, the Church had to conserve and then promote her holy music for the first time in her history. The usage of early Greek-style songs rapidly became ingrained in Church life (e.g., the prologue of John and the Philippians hymn, 2:5-11), but because this new music was so closely associated with potentially hazardous gnostic views, the Church decided to forbid its use.
It was only after centuries of restriction that the Second Vatican Council boldly declared that the Church’s treasury of sacred music was of greater value than any of her other artistic contributions.
By preserving the forms which embodied her true identity, the Church made it possible for wonderful growth to be fostered.
Preserving, fostering through the centuries
We may see the same fundamental pattern that Vatican II commanded for sacred music in this extraordinary process by which the Church negotiated her contact with Greek culture and later other cultures: she first protects, then she promotes. The early Church had to first retain the fundamental form of Christian religion that served as the foundation of her very identity — an identity that was inextricably bound up with certain cultural (i.e., Jewish) aesthetic traditions in order to survive (i.e., the music of the Psalms).
- In the 6th century, St.
- As early as the eighth or ninth centuries, organ accompaniment was occasionally added to Gregorian chant, and as early as the 10th century, a single or many vocal harmonies (e.g., polyphony) were added to chant.
- They saw that some musical genres were becoming disconnected from their origins and banned anything that was “lascivious or unclean,” as the fathers of the Council of Trent put it.
- Throughout the years that followed, the Church maintained her rich history of sacred music while also encouraging the development of new and authentic forms of sacred music.
The task for today
A performance of sacred music was attended by Pope Benedict XVI on June 24, 2006. Following the event, the Pope stated that “an true revival of sacred music can only arise as a result of the great tradition of the past, which includes Gregorian chant and sacred polyphony.” “As a result, in the fields of music and other art forms, the Ecclesial Community has always encouraged and supported individuals in their search for new forms of expression while never dismissing the past, the history of the human spirit, which is also the history of its relationship with God.” The real regeneration of holy music is not simply a matter of duplicating the past; it is also not a matter of disregarding the past, which is the opposite of what it is.
Instead, it is a matter of maintaining the past while encouraging the emergence of new forms that are naturally derived from it.
Preserving the old forms while encouraging new growth: this is how a gardener takes care of a plant, this is how Christ takes care of our souls, and this is how the Church’s sacred music, which has been carefully preserved, continues to surprise and delight us while also glorifying God with new and delightful growth.
Sacred music is critical to the Church’s vocation of evangelization of culture, and we will discuss this in further depth next time, in the third installment of this series.
A brief history of Gregorian chant from King David to the present
A performance of sacred music was attended by Pope Benedict XVI on June 24, 2006. Following the event, he stated that “an true revival of sacred music can only arise as a result of the great tradition of the past, which includes Gregorian chant and sacred polyphony.” As a result, in the field of music, as well as in the fields of other art forms, the Ecclesial Community has always encouraged and supported people who are searching for new forms of expression without denying the past, the history of the human spirit, which is also a history of its dialogue with God.
Genuine renewal of sacred music is not a matter of simply reproducing what has gone before, and even less is it a matter of turning a blind eye to what has gone before.
This is a genuinely big and necessary responsibility that has been assigned to pastors and holy artists in particular.
This is also how Christ cares for our souls, and it is how the Church’s sacred music, which has been meticulously kept over the centuries, continues to amaze and thrill us while also bringing glory to God.
“A short history of Gregorian chant from the time of King David to the present,” by Peter Kwasniewski. LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym that stands for “LifeSite is an acronym (November 5, 2018).
With permission from LifeSite and Peter Kwasniewski, this article has been reprinted.
Peter Kwasniewski has a B.A. in Liberal Arts from Thomas Aquinas College, as well as an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Philosophy from The Catholic University of America. He is a member of the American Philosophical Association. In addition to teaching at the International Theological Institute in Austria and the Franciscan University of Steubenville’s Austrian Program, he was a member of the founding team of Wyoming Catholic College in Lander, Wyoming. He was in charge of the choir and schola, and he also served as the college’s dean of academics.
His books include Resurgent in the Midst of Crisis: Sacred Liturgy, the Traditional Latin Mass, and Renewal in the Church, A Missal for Young Catholics, and Noble Beauty, Transcendent Holiness: Why the Modern Age Needs the Mass of the Ages.
He is also the author of numerous articles and book chapters. His webpage may be found here. Copyright 2018LifeSiteNewsreturn to top of page
What is Gregorian Chant? History, Characteristics and Composers
Since the 9th and 10th centuries, Gregorian chant has played an important role in the development of religious music. Despite its mournful beauty, its chorus could be heard throughout the immense worship halls of large early European cathedrals, and its echoes may still be heard in current music in classical forms that somehow yet seem authentic. In this piece, we’ll make an attempt to provide a thorough assessment of the history and qualities that have defined Gregorian chant throughout history and into the present day.
Background and History
St. Gregory the Great It is generally believed that Pope Gregory I, who is often credited with developing Gregorian Chant, was the first to use it in the 9th century following his death. Gregorian style chant as holy music may have been affected by Pope Gregory I (715-731 AD), who may have been the first to influence the establishment of the style after the music began as prayer enriched by art in song and read like poetry put to music. In the words of St. Augustine, transforming prayer into music “adds such strength that it is like praying twice.” Gregorian chant, on the other hand, began to lose popularity when secular values began to take precedence over religious beliefs throughout the first part of the first century.
As the Holy Roman Empire’s strength and influence diminished in the 15th century, the seat of the pope was restored to Rome after several generations spent at Avignon, France, as the empire’s power and influence fell.
The resurgence of the clergy in Roman society resulted in the reintroduction of Gregorian chant to the general populace.
Characteristics and Style
Gregorian chant is a amonophonic type of music, which means that there is just one melodic line in the piece of music. Because there are no polyphonic harmonies, all of the vocalists sing in unison to the same single tune. Especially when performed in acoustically ideal places of worship such as St. Paul’s Cathedral in London or the Basilicas of Rome, the impact may be breathtaking and even eerie in places of devotion like these. Today, Gregorian chant is used in both Catholic and Protestant rituals, particularly in the call and answer liturgy of sermons.
In addition, current solfege singing has its roots in old Gregorian chant.
Gregorian chant was traditionally sung only by human voices, according to tradition. This time, the choir sang without accompaniment, with a strong emphasis on the often sad, sometimes soaring melodic intonation of religious texts or vowel sounds as a key focus of the performance. Stringed or wind instruments, primarily flutes, harpsichords, organs, and violins, as well as electronic instruments like as keyboards and synthesizers, may be used to accompany modern versions of Gregorian chant, depending on the style.
Even current Gregorian chant does not include drums or bass instruments, due to the lack of an established rhythm section in Gregorian chant.
Form and Texture
The single melodic line is frequently performed by a group of voices singing in unison. Rhythmically, it ranges from Largo (slow) to Andante (“walking speed”), with a smooth and velvety texture, as well as being sluggish and flowing. Each note flows into the next like a river, with minimal pauses and no short or staccato notes in between. When performing Gregorian chant, breathing is an important aspect of the performance, and singers frequently purposefully alternate breaths with one another in order to keep the melodic flow uninterrupted.
Boys’ and all-female choirs perform Gregorian chant in a variety of tonalities ranging from alto to soprano, and, on occasion, falsetto, among other things.
Mixed choirs have the greatest range of adaptability, since they include members from all voice ranges in a single group.
Usually, a single melodic line is performed by a group of voices singing in harmony. Rhythmically, it ranges from Largo (slow) to Andante (“walking speed”), with a smooth and velvety texture, as well as sluggish and flowing. Short and staccato notes are avoided in favor of tones that flow together like a river. When performing Gregorian chant, breathing is an important aspect of the performance, and singers will frequently actively alternate breaths with one another in order to keep the melodic flow uninterrupted.
In tones ranging from alto to soprano and, on rare occasions, falsetto, boys’ and all-female choirs perform Gregorian chant.
Mixed choirs have the greatest range of versatility since they include members from all voice ranges.
1. Stephen of Liège (850-920)
Stephen of Liege is one of the earliest known composers of Gregorian chant and is regarded as one of the greatest of all time. He served a number of lower roles in the church before being appointed Bishop of Liege in 901 AD and remained there until 920 AD. Aside from that, Stephen has written biographies of saints and other notable religious individuals.
2. Fulbert of Chartres (960-1028)
A Gregorian chant composer who lived in the 11th century, Stephen of Liege is one of the first known. Before becoming Bishop of Liege from 901 to 920 AD, he held a number of minor offices in the priesthood. Saints and other prominent religious personalities were profiled by Stephen, as were himself.
3. Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179)
Hildegard von Bingen was a medieval nun who lived in Germany. Her name was Hildegard von Bingen, and she lived in the early second millennium. She was a philosopher, mystic, writer, and composer. In 2012, the Catholic Church canonized Mary in recognition of the miracles she accomplished and her amazing dedication. In a spiritually induced trance-like state of divine ecstasy, the prophetess wrote extensive works that are still read today.
Many of her writings are still in print today. Despite the fact that she was the only known female composer of her day, St. Hildegard is also the most acclaimed and most often recorded medieval artist of the contemporary era, according to the scholarly community.
4. Peter Abelard (1079-1142)
Peter Abelard was a theologian and scholar who was one of the most scandalous and well-known religious personalities of the medieval period. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time. But he was also a gifted composer of Gregorian chant, well known for his melancholy songs of lamentation for the loss of loved ones, which frequently made reference to Biblical and theological characters. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time.
It’s possible that we’ve discovered further proof of Abelard’s musical talent, which was ahead of its day in terms of musical structure and melodic simplicity, in this work.
Despite the fact that it appears to be straightforward, the sacred subject matter and distinct melodic lines of Gregorian chant have continued to influence religious composers throughout the ages. The impact of the great composers may be seen and heard in subsequent works by legends such as Mozart, Beethoven, Handel, and Bach, as well as in works by lesser-known artists. In this century, classical artists continue to reinterpret, record, and present these and other ancient works on the stage in new ways, as well as in previous centuries.
1. Ordo Virtutum
Hailing from a tradition of ingenuity, Hildegard von Bingen’s 82-song Gregorian operaOrdo Virtutumbe was the world’s first morality drama, and her music went on to inspire a generation of Renaissance musicians.
2. “Chorus Novae Jerusalem”
Later recordings have re-interpreted several of Saint Fulbert’s holy songs, notably “Ye Choirs of New Jerusalem,” composed by English composer Henry John Gauntlettin the 19th century and still performed at Easter masses throughout the western world today.
3. “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha”
King Saul and his son, Prince Jonathan, were killed in Abelard’s “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha,” which was written to grieve Israel’s defeat at the hands of the Philistines and to lament the deaths of the two kings.
Because of its origins in the early medieval era, Gregorian chant has had ups and downs in popularity throughout the centuries. In the same way that artists return to any great art form, they return to a genre, and even the same old compositions, time and time again, re-imagining its material to suit the tastes of the period and re-mastering them to suit the latest technical developments. During the early days of Gregorian chant, the music was only heard by a small group of people, and then only at very irregular intervals.
I’m curious what these great composers would have to say about it.
One Man’s Offering – Liturgical Chant
|Blessings (LongerShorter Forms)(Gregorian notation)|
|4-Part Advent Blessing(Gregorian 6 in wide x 8.25 in tall)|
|4-Part Christmas Blessing(Gregorian 6 in wide x 8.5 in tall)|
|Short Epiphany Blessing(Gregorian 6 in wide x 8.5 in tall)|
|4-Part Epiphany Blessing(Gregorian 6 in wide x 8.25 in tall)|
|Short Easter Blessing(Gregorian notation 5.5 x 8.5 in)|
|Short Easter BlessingDismissals(Gregorian notation)|
|4-Part Easter Blessing(Modern notation)|
|4-Part Pentecost Blessing(Gregorian 6 in wide x 8.25 in tall)|
|Short Pentecost Blessing(Modern notation 5.5 x 8.5 in)|
|Short Trinity Blessing(Modern notation 5.5 x 8.5 in)|
|English Blessings Booklet (only words,no music; requires one8 � x 11 sheet of paper)-pages 41|
|English Blessings Booklet(only words, no music; requires one8 � x 11 sheet of paper)-pages 23|
|Seasonal Blessings Booklet (only words, nomusic; requires two 8 � x 11 sheets of paper)-Outer Sheet|
|Seasonal Blessings Booklet (only words,no music; requires two 8 � x 11 sheets of paper)-Inner Sheet|
|The Blessing of the Marriage(BCP 1979 Nuptial Blessing) (three 8 �x 11-inch pages, Gregorian notation)|
|Prayer of Blessing over the Couple(from the Consultation on CommonTexts Wedding service) (2 pages)|
|Holy Baptism: The Thanksgiving over the Water (Solemn Tone)(2pages)|
|Lessons from Lamentations for Tenebrae(according to the AmericanBook of Occasional Services)|
|Lesson 1 (Lam 1:1-5)(Gregorian notation) (2 pages)|
|Lesson 2 (Lam. 1:6-9)(Gregorian notation) (2 pages)|
|Lesson 3 (Lam. 1:10:14)(Gregorian notation) (2 pages)|
|I am not a musicologist and wasnot even a music major in college, so I’m sure someone who has a better musical background than me will find much that iswrong about the above Gregorian settings. I wouldappreciate help improving the sheet music notation, if anyone more musical would contactme and teachme how to do it better. -Bill Gartig|
|These settings all use the Tone of Silos, used onTrack 2 of the CDGregorian Chant: Liturgy for Good Fridayby theGregorian Choir of Paris, Francois Polgar, Choirmaster (Musical HeritageSociety 11206H). I am making that recording (an mp3that is 4 minutes, 8 seconds in length and was recorded at 128 kps) availablehere. The language is Latin, not English, but you can hear the tune.You can, of course, sing in any key, but to play along with the therecording, make the first notes A, C, and D.|
|mp3 of me singing Lesson 1(4m26s @ 64 kbps)(Again, the singing is poor, but try to look beyond that.)|
|The Exultet—The Exultet(Gregorian notation, large print) (6 pages)|
|The Exultet (mp3 audio file)(5m41s, 2,669 KB @ 64 kbps)(recorded Spring, 2010.)|
|The Exultet(mp3 file in the Key of F)(5m39s, 3,979 KB @ 96 kbps) (recorded Mar. 28, 2011)(This recording is pitched lower, in the Key of F. Itbegins C, D-F, F, E, F, G, F, E, D, E-F, D.)|
|Eucharistic Prayers for Through-Singing|
|Eucharistic Prayer I (Rite One)|
|Eucharistic Prayer II(Rite One)(Beta version, suggestions welcomed-posted Feb. 23, 2011)|
|Eucharistic Prayer A(chanted throughout, Simple Tone) (Gregoriannotation) (REPOSTED 23-Aug-2009)|
|Eucharistic Prayer B(chanted throughout, Simple Tone) (Gregoriannotation)|
|Eucharistic Prayer D (chantedthroughout, Mozarabic Chant, Gregorian notation, large print)|
|MozarabicSursum corda and Preface(2 pages, that is, front and back of one8.5 x 11-inch sheet)(exactly what is theThe Altar Book,only in Gregorian notation)|
|After Sanctusto the End(10 pages, that is, five 8.5- x11-inch pages printed on front and back)|
|Mp3 Audio of the After Sanctus(8 minutes, 33 seconds at 64 kbs)|
|Bilingual (Spanish-English)Eucharistic Prayer 3(fromEnriching Our Worship 1)(does not include Sursumcorda) (Spanish Preface set to Simple Tone) (4 pages)|
|Prefaces for Eucharistic Prayers|
|EnrichingOur Worship 1 – Eucharistic Prayer 1 Preface(Solemn Tone)(2 pages)|
|Enriching Our Worship 1 -Eucharistic Prayer 2 Preface(“male andfemale” version) (Solemn Tone)(2 pages)|
|Enriching Our Worship 1 -Eucharistic Prayer 2 Preface(WITHOUT “male andfemale”) (Solemn Tone)|
|Eucharistic Prayer 3Preface (Solemn Tone)(fromEnriching Our Worship 1) -corrected Sept. 25, 2010|
|Eucharistic Prayer 3 Preface (Simple Tone)(fromEnriching OurWorship 1) (more successful, I think)|
|Eucharistic Prayer 3 Preface (Simple Tone)(fromEnriching OurWorship 1) (VERY large print)|
|Enriching Our Worship 1 – Concluding Doxologies for Eucharistic Prayers 1-3(large print)|
|Celtic Eucharistic Prayer Preface (Solemn Tone) (large print)|
|Celtic Eucharistic Prayer (post-Sanctus) (large print)|
|Eucharistic Prayer Inspired by an Original Text – Preface (Simple Tone,INCLUDING sursum corda)|
|Eucharistic Prayer Inspired by an Original Text – Preface (Simple Tone,WITHOUT sursum corda)|
|Eucharistic Prayer Inspired by an Original Text (post-Sanctus)|
|Wisdom Eucharistic PrayerPreface (Solemn)|
|Wisdom Eucharistic Prayer (post-Sanctus)|
|Kenyan Eucharistic Prayer(fromOur ModernServicesof the Anglican Church of Kenya) – Preface (SolemnTone) (2 pages) (used during Lent at the Church of Our Saviour,Cincinnati, Ohio)|
|Anglican Church of CanadaBook ofAlternative Services|
|Proper Prefaces for the Lord’s Day (Solemn Tone)(2 pages)|
|Anglican Church of AustraliaLiturgical Materials|
|Eucharistic Prayer 2 – Preface (Solemn Tone)|
|Eucharistic Prayer 2 – Preface (Simple Tone)|
|Eucharistic Prayer 2 – Preface (Common WorshipStyle)|
|Bruce Ford on Setting Texts to the Solemn PrefaceTone|
|In 1995 I composed a solemn setting of the AmericanEucharistic Prayer B and sent it to Bruce Ford, one of the leadingAnglican composers of church music. He very kindly sang through my work,noting places where there were problems, and then wrote me a detailedletter explaining both his remarks and the structure of the Solemn Tone.He also sent a one-page analysis of the Solemn Preface Tone. I am hereposting Bruce Ford’s letter, his analysis, and my attempt at a solemnsetting of Eucharistic Prayer B with his notations. I think these areexcellent and clear enough for a non-musician like me to understandthem. (I am amazed that Mr. Ford took the time to look at my materialsand to give me such a well-considered response.) Others consideringsetting text using the Solemn Preface Tone should find these things ofinterest.|
|BruceFord’s Nov. 1, 1995 letter about setting Texts to the Solemn PrefaceTone|
|Bruce Ford’s analysis of the Solemn Preface Tone|
|My attempt at a Solemn setting of Eucharistic Prayer B with Bruce Ford’snotations|
|The Great Litany|
|The Great Litany(Gregorian notation, 6 pages, large print-My firstattempt.)|
|The Great Litany(6 pages, large print, Gregorian notation,revised 12-Mar-2011)|
|The Great Litany(8-page version, large print, Gregorian notation12-Mar-2011)|
|Prayers of the People|
|Prayers of the People Form V (Tone B)(revised July 24, 2009)|
|Collects of the Day (Contemporary)[These aremeant to be printed and then trimmed to fit into a BCP.]|
|Advent 1Advent 2Advent 3Advent 4|
|Christmas Day1ChristmasDay2Christmas Day3|
|The Epiphany (Jan. 6)Epiphany 1Epiphany Last|
|Easter Day1Easter Day2Easter Day3|
|Ascension Day1Ascension Day2|
|Pentecost Day1Pentecost Day2|
|Proper 29 (Christ the King)|
Medieval Music: Introduction to Gregorian Chant
Sonja Maurer-Dass contributed to this article. Gregorian chant is one of the most famous musical legacies of medieval Europe, distinguished by its free-flowing melodies, holy Latin lyrics, and distinctive monophonic texture. Gregorian chant, which was developed and propagated during the Carolingian dynasty, appears to be a world away from the much more contemporary epochs of Western music to which many of our ears are accustomed; however, it is from this ages-old liturgical tradition that our current understanding of Western music and its accompanying system of musical notation derives from.
This section will look at how Gregorian chant came to be and how it spread throughout the world.
Many medieval music fans nowadays are aware with Gregorian chant (also known as Frankish-Roman chant), which is the most well-known of the liturgical chant traditions; nevertheless, throughout early medieval Europe, there were numerous distinct styles of holy chant that differed according to area.
- When one considers the several diverse Western liturgical chant traditions that have existed throughout the centuries, one would wonder why Gregorian chant has become the most generally recognized and maintained of them all.
- The development of Gregorian chant took place between the seventh and ninth centuries CE, during a period in which Frankish monarchs, most notably Charlemagne, tried to bring liturgical consistency to their kingdoms.
- Charlemagne declared in 789 that all of his kingdoms would be consolidated under a single Roman liturgy and chant, which became known as the Roman Rite.
- In essence, Gregorian chant was, as Margot Fassler puts it, “the revised song of the Franks,” which arose from a fusion of Old Roman chant with the Gallican chant of the Franks, according to Fassler.
- So far, we’ve looked at how the Carolingians had a crucial part in the spreading and development of Gregorian chant, but what about the popular tale that claims that Pope Saint Gregory I (“Gregory the Great”) is responsible for the spread of Gregorian chant?
- Because it was sung to Gregory I by the Holy Spirit, who came to him in the guise of a white dove, it was considered the most sacred and true type of liturgical chant.
- Some musicologists, on the other hand, have speculated that Gregory may have had a role in the codification and consolidation of previous chants, which eventually served as the foundation for later Gregorian chant.
A common depiction of the dove is that it is singing its sacred songs to Gregory, while Gregory is concurrently dictating the dove’s melodies to a nearby scribe.
Gregorian Chant’s Texture and Melody are both beautiful.
“Monophonic” is a musical word that refers to the performance of a single tune with no accompaniment (that is, there is no harmony played with a melody).
In the opening minute of the following chant sample, which was produced by the twelfth-century abbess, philosopher, mystic, and composer Hildegard of Bingen, you can hear a drone that is repeated several times.
For those who have heard different recordings of Gregorian chant, you may have noticed that its melodies are quite flowing in comparison to many modern types of Western art music and popular music.
Classical Gregorian melodies were produced using the notes of an organized pitch system known as modes (which were distinct from the major and minor keys that are now employed in Western music), and they were set to sacred Latin texts from religious services such as the Mass and the Divine Office.
- Gregorian Chant and Early Types of Medieval Musical Notation are two examples of medieval musical notation.
- This necessitated the development of a method of recording tunes that could be correctly taught and conveyed without the limitations of human memory.
- Instead, it made use of symbols known as “neumes,” which served as a kind of trigger for melodies that had previously been acquired and retained as part of an oral culture.
- They reflect the relative rising and descending melodic motion of the text.
- The St.
- Gall in Switzerland, is one of the earliest existing sources of this notation (which was copied in the tenth century).
- Guido d’Arezzo, a prominent music theorist who lived in Arezzo in the eleventh century, continued to create the framework for modern music notation by developing a four-line musical staff divided by intervals of thirds (an interval is the distance between two pitches).
Guido described the manner in which his employees worked in the preface to his antiphoner (of which only the prologue has been preserved): As a result, the notes are organized in such a manner that any sound, no matter how many times it appears in a song, can always be located in the same row.
–Margot Fassler provided the translation.
As a singer or member of a chorus, you may be acquainted with the syllable pattern Do-Re-Mi-Fa Sol, etc., in which each syllable corresponds to a written note (Guido’s syllable pattern differed somewhat in that the first syllable he used was “Ut” instead of “Do”).
Square notation allowed for the inclusion of more melodic elements that may be interpreted by vocalists who were unfamiliar with the source material.
It’s possible that you’ve already seen some square notation in medieval chant manuscripts, such as punctum (a single note sung to a single syllable); podatus (two notes—one is written on top of the other and the lowest of the two notes is sung first followed by the second note which moves in ascending motion); clivis (contains two notes that are sung in descending motion); and torculus (three notes sung consecutively When compared to our modern experiences of melody and notation, the notation and melodies of Gregorian chant may appear to be foreign and unfamiliar at first glance and listen; however, upon closer examination, it is fascinating and possible to see how the earliest attempts to record and accurately transmit sacred chant evolved over many centuries and eventually matured into the comprehensive system that is widely used and understood in the modern day.
Sonja Maurer-Dass is a Canadian musicologist and harpsichordist who specializes in Baroque music.
In addition, she possesses a Master’s degree on Musicology from York University, where she specialized in late medieval English choral music and the Old Hall Manuscript, among other things (Toronto, Canada).
The paper was presented at the 9th International Medieval Meeting.
Read on for more information: Willi Apel is the author of this work.
Western Music in Context: Western Music in the Medieval West is a book on music in the Medieval West (W.W.
Carolingians and Gregorian Chant are two examples of medieval music (Princeton University Press, 1998) Richard Taruskin is the author of this work.
From the earliest notations through the sixteenth century, there has been music (Oxford University Press, 2010) Adiastematic gregorian aquitanian notation is seen in the top image. Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons