Chant – Wikipedia
Achant (from the French chanter, which comes from the Latin cantare, “to sing”) is the repeated speaking or singing of words or sounds, usually based on one or two basic pitches known as recitation tones. For example, the Significant Responsories and OffertoriesofGregorian chant have a considerable degree of repetitionof musical subphrases, whereas a basic melody with a restricted set of notes contains a complicated musical structure that contains a great deal of repetition of musical subphrases.
Some liturgical chants were transformed into songs in the later Middle Ages (forming one of the roots of later Western music).
Chant as a spiritual practice
Chanting (e.g., the recitation of a mantra, a holy text, the name of God/Spirit, etc.) is a widely practiced spiritual activity. Chanting, like prayer, can be a part of one’s personal or collective practice, depending on the context. Chanting is considered a path to spiritual development by a wide range of spiritual traditions. In 2013, monks sang at Drepung monastery in Tibet. African, Hawaiian, and Native American chants; Assyrian and Australian Aboriginal chants; Gregorian chant; Hindu chant; Qur’an reading; Bahá’ chants; various Buddhist chants; various mantras; Jewish cantillation; and the chanting ofpsalms and prayers in particular in Roman Catholic (seeGregorian chantorTaizé Community), Eastern Orthodox (seeByzantine chantorZnamenny (seeAnglican Chant).
Tibetan Buddhist chant is performed through the throat, with each performer producing a variety of different pitches.
India’s bhakti devotional tradition is based on kirtan, which has a large following in various nations and traditions, including the Ananda Marga school of meditation.
ChineseShijing(), often known as ‘chanted poetry,’ reflects Zen Buddhist concepts and is sung from theDan tien (or lower belly), which is considered the locus of power in many Eastern cultures.
- A prayer to the almighty
- A fight song
- A sea shanty–a rhyming work song performed on sailing vessels
- A skipping-rope rhyme
- A football chant, etc.
- A site dedicated to Vedic chants
- Traditional Buddhist Chants (Texts and Audio), such as those found in the Buddhist Encyclopedia
- And other related topics.
Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.
- The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.
- The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.
- The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.
- TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
- Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
- The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
- During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.
As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.
Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.
Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.
Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.
By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.
The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.
The song has a neumatic feel to it.
Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.
Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.
How Plainchant Started and Where It Is Now
Plainchant is a type of medieval church music that is characterized by the use of chanting or the singing of lyrics without the use of any musical accompaniment. Plainsong is another name for this type of music. You may be more familiar with the name Gregorian Chant, which you may have come across when reading about early music forms or heard about it during a church service or concert. Even though the phrases are sometimes used improperly as synonyms, Gregorian Chant is a type of plainchant that is derived from the Latin language.
Plainchant, a primitive style of music, first appeared about the year 100 C.E. Early on, it was the only sort of music that was permitted in Christian churches. A common belief among Christians is that music should make the listener more open to spiritual ideas and reflections. This belief is supported by research. As a result, the melody was maintained clean and unaccompanied throughout. This was especially true because the same tune would be replayed throughout the plainsong. There are no harmonies or chords to enhance the melody in this song.
Why Is it Also Called Gregorian Chant?
There were numerous various types of plainchant in use during the early centuries, and there was no standardization. A collection of chants was envisioned by Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) about the year 600, and it was completed by Pope Gregory the First in the year 600. This collection of music was known as Gregorian Chant since it was named after him. Later, the word Gregorian Chant was adopted to denote this type of music in general. Prayer, reading, psalm, canticle, hymn, prose, antiphon, responsory, introit, alleluia, and many more varieties of Gregorian Chant are among the many types of Gregorian Chant.
Musical Notation of Plainchant
There were numerous various types of plainchant in use during the early centuries, and there was no standardization of these styles. A collection of chants was envisioned by Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) about the year 600, and it was completed by Pope Gregory the First in the year 700. This collection of music was known as Gregorian Chant since it was named after him. Later, the word Gregorian Chant was adopted to represent this type of music more broadly. Psalm, canticle, hymn, prose, antiphon, responsory, introit, alleluia and many more genres of Gregorian Chant are among the many diverse varieties of Gregorian Chant.
Gregorian chants are still chanted in Roman Catholic churches all throughout the world today, despite the passage of time. In this version, it is adapted to Latin text and performed either by a soloist or by a chorus. Listen to the Gregorian Chants from Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris to get a sense of what plainchant sounds like. Plainchant has had a cultural renaissance outside of the church and has even made its way into mainstream culture in recent decades. An unexpected international hit was achieved by the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos in Spain when they published their CD named, Chant, in 1994.
During their interviews on The Tonight Show and Good Morning America, the monks expressed their gratitude.
The Cistercian Monks of Austria’s Heiligenkreuz Abbey made another popular Gregorian Chant CD in 2008, titled Chant – Music for Paradise, which became a bestseller in the United States.
It peaked at number 7 on the UK charts, number 4 on the Billboard classical music charts in the United States, and was the best-selling album on the Austrian pop music charts.
20 Awesome Chants That Will Radically Improve Your Life
Chanting is a spiritual discipline that is supposed to improve listening skills, increase energy, and increase sensitivity toward others. Chanting is a form of meditation. The Benedictine Monks of Santo Damingo in Spain recorded a Gregorian chant CD that became a best-seller, and the practice acquired widespread acceptance as a result. Chants may be used to convey dedication, appreciation, peace, compassion, and the desire for light to enter someone’s life. Chants can also be used to bring in light into someone’s life.
It is the Compassionate Buddha’s “Om Mani Padme Hum,” which translates as “Hail to the gem in the lotus,” that is the most widely known chant in the world. It is the mantra of the Buddha of Compassion, also known as Goddess Kuan Yin in the Chinese tradition. Fears are calmed, anxieties are eased, and shattered hearts are healed with the mantra.
Amazing Grace of Sanskrit
The mantra “Om Namah Shivaya,” which was given the term “Amazing Grace of Sanskrit” by Elizabeth Gilbert, author of “Eat, Pray, Love,” translates as “I bow to Shiva, the greatest deity of change who represents, the truest, highest self.” According to Gilbert, the meaning of the phrase is “I revere the divinity inside myself.” This is meant to serve as a gentle reminder that everyone possesses divine energy and that everyone should be treated as if they are divine.
Happiness and Freedom
“Lokah Samastah Sukhino Bhavantu” is a phrase that is frequently connected with the Jivamukti Yoga School of meditation. According to the dictionary, it means: “May all creatures everywhere be happy and free; and may the thoughts. words. and acts of my own life contribute in some manner to that happiness and freedom for all.” It is a potent chant that emphasizes the importance of living one’s life as a servant to the greater good. Collaboration, compassion, and living in harmony with others, as well as with nature, are encouraged by the teachings of Buddhism.
Medicine Buddha Mantra
It is customary to say the mantra “Tayata Om Bekanze Bekanze Maha Bekanze Radza Samudgate Soha” to achieve prosperity and to assist erase troubles and suffering in the world. It is also said for healing and to help humans or animals at any time of day or night, even when they are in good health.
Mantra of Ganesh
The Ganesh Mantra is devoted to the Hindu god of knowledge and success, Ganesh, who is known for destroying all barriers in his path. “In Sanskrit, this phrase means “I bow down to the elephant-faced deity (Ganesh), who is capable of erasing all barriers.” I pray for blessings and safety for all of my loved ones.” When faced with a significant task or when traveling, the phrase can be extremely helpful.
“Om Shrim Maha Lakshmlyei Swaha,” which translates as “Om Shrim Maha Lakshmlyei Swaha,” is a greeting to the Hindu goddess of riches and prosperity, Lakshmi. A request for Lakshmi’s help in obtaining material prosperity and abundance is made in the chant.
Buddhist Money Mantra
“Om Shrim Maha Lakshmlyei Swaha,” which translates as “Om Shrim Maha Lakshmlyei Swaha,” is a greeting to Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess of riches and prosperity.
A request for Lakshmi’s help in obtaining material prosperity and abundance is made in the chanting.
A good time to use this chant is when you are going on a job interview or making a proposal. The sentences were written in a formal manner “”Pravisi Nagar Kijal Sab Kaaja Hrudaya Rakhi Kosalpur Raja” translates as “I am entering the city for the purpose of carrying out my duties under the influence of Lord Ram.” May all of my projects and dreams come to fruition.” In addition, it may be utilized while entering an office building or the office of the person with whom you are scheduled to meet.
Mantra for Success
When you are unsure of which decision is best for your success, chanting can help you decide “I am your devotee,” says Jehi Vidhi Hoi Naath Hit Moraa Karahu, which translates as “O Lord, I am your devotee.” I’m at a loss on what to do. So you do whatever is in my best interests right away.” This mantra is claimed to open the door to prosperity if it is practiced with trust and reverence, and it is thought to be effective.
Chanting “Om a ra pa ca na dhih” will develop skills in all areas of learning, which is beneficial for individuals who desire to increase wisdom and improve abilities. The greater the amount of emphasis placed on the chant and the number of times it is repeated, the more likely it is to be successful.
As the energy of an enlightened mind, Vajrapani is thought to be able to cut through illusion and free the chanter of hatred. It is for this reason that chanting “Om vajrapani hum” is claimed to be able to cut through delusion and liberate the chanter from hatred. The image of him dancing madly among flames is frequently used to symbolise metamorphosis. The chant assists in gaining access to surplus energy, and even the sound of the chant is energizing.
If you want to live a peaceful life, the mantra “Sarveshaam Svaastir Bhavatu, Sarveshaam Svaastir Bhavatu, Saveshaam Poornam Bhavatu, Sarveshaam Mangalam Bhavatu, Om Shanti, Shanti Shanteeh” is claimed to provide peace and calm. It is also said to bring prosperity. “May health flourish forever May peace abound forever May total plenty abound forever May auspiciousness abound forever Om Peace, Peace, Peace,” the phrase reads in English.
Health, Strength and Peace
Those seeking peace and serenity should recite the mantra “Sarveshaam Svaastir Bhavatu, Sarveshaam Svaastir Bhavatu, Saveshaam Poornam Bhavatu, Sarveshaam Mangalam Bhavatu, Om Shanti, Shanti Shanteeh,” which is claimed to provide peace and tranquillity. Translation: “May health and peace flourish forever May complete abundance and auspiciousness abound forever May complete abundance and auspiciousness abound forever Om Peace, Peace, Peace”
“Mookam karoti vaachaalam Pangum langhayatey girim Yatkripaa tamaham vandey Paramaananda Maadhavam” is supposed to be able to help the cripple climb mountains and the mute talk with great eloquence.
When someone is in a tough position, the mantra begs for grace to help them get out of it more easily. I adore that Madhava, the source of Supreme Bliss, whose grace makes the deaf man able to speak and the cripple capable of crossing mountains.
Bhagvad Geeta Verse
“Mookam karoti vaachaalam Pangum langhayatey girim Yatkripaa tamaham vandey Paramaananda Maadhavam” is supposed to be able to help the cripple climb mountains and the silent talk with great eloquence, among other things. To get someone out of a bad position, the mantra begs for grace on their behalf. I adore that Madhava, the source of Supreme Bliss, whose grace makes the deaf man able to speak and the cripple capable of traversing mountains.
Those wanting prosperity are advised to recite “Krishna Krishna Mahaayogin Bhaktaanaam Bhayankara Govinda Permaananda Sarvey Mey Vash Maanay,” which is a combination of the mantras Krishna, Govinda, and Permaananda. The translation requests that Krishna bestow Supreme Bliss upon you and that everything work in your favor. Prosperity is a chant that may be heard around the world. Each phrase of this chant incorporates the eight qualities of God, and the repetitions in each verse provide the strength needed to break down walls from the past and empower the individual singing.
Mukhunday, Mukhunday, Mukhunday Udharay Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, Aparay, A Har Har Har Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Hariong Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Har Nimamay, Nimamay, Nimamay, Nimamay, Nimamay, Nimamay The chanting of Akamay is a har har har har har har har har har har har”
A simple chant, “Namo AmitaBha,” is intended to be an homage to Buddha; “Namo AmitaBha” pays tribute to the Buddha of Boundless Light, while “Ham-Sah” is a Hindu variation of the Buddhist phrase “I am that I am,” which means “I am.”
It is possible to pay homage to Buddha by reciting a simple chant; for example, “Namo AmitaBha” pays tribute to the Buddha of Boundless Light, while the phrase “Ham-Sah” is a Hindu variation of the phrase “I am that I am,” which literally means “I am that.”
Green Tara Mantra
Physical, mental, and emotional blockages are frequently addressed with this mantra, but it may also be utilized to address blocks in interpersonal interactions. It is possible to release hope for a certain outcome and return the energy back to yourself by chanting “Om tare tuttare ture soha.” This will help you achieve inner calm and clarity.
Mantra Chanting Heals and Connects
Annemarie Mal is the author of this piece. About a decade ago, I attended an all-night kundalini yoga summer solstice event in New Mexico and had my first encounter with the spiritual power of chanting. An large awning stretched over the desert north of Santa Fe, providing shade for the festivities. The chanting began at dusk and continued till the break of morning. rows of white-clad individuals extended as far as the eye could see, reciting mantras in unison, stretching as far as the eye could see Once, we all turned to face the person in front of us and chanted for what seemed like hours while looking into each other’s eyes.
- It was one of the most intense heavenly encounters I’d ever had: I could sense the presence of the god-spirit in myself, my companion, and everyone else in the room with me.
- During the summer between my sophomore and junior year of college in Albuquerque, I went to that event, which was one of the experiences that finally lead me to Buddhism.
- When I came out of many days of complete stillness, I became vividly aware of how holy sound is, and how little we appreciate it in our lives.
- I was nervous about not being able to keep up with the fast-paced, monotonous Japanese chants, even though I was studying a book with the words to attempt to understand them while doing so.
- I wanted to learn to chant and commit to doing so on a daily basis, but I didn’t have access to a supportive community to guide me through the process.
- However, as a result of my summer solstice practice and prior encounters with kirtan, a Hindu call-and-response type of singing, I was aware that music might be a potent tool for connecting with the divine.
- Buddhist belief systems regard sound as sacred and revere it as such.
Finally, it is recognized that sound, through the medium of speech, serves as a portal to the energy dimensions (vibrations, orprana).
Sacred mantras are chanted out loud, in a repetitive pattern, in succession, and with emphasis on the rhythm.
She also expresses the Zen concept that chanting is not only for one’s own benefit, but is also for the good of all beings on the planet.
Chanting mantras can aid in the healing of the body, the protection of the mind, and the manifestation of human goals by establishing a connection between the individual who is chanting and the divine.
Nhat Hanh has built a number of Buddhist communities across the world, where monks, nuns, and laypeople may all come together to practice Buddhism.
When practitioners chant, they do it from the heart, not as a form of worship for a god or for the benefit of anybody else.
In many cases, chanting is the most direct and immediate method of reconnection with these sacred sites.
According to American Hindu Priest Thomas Ashley-Farrand, mantras have the capacity to replace toxic habits with beneficial ones by instilling patience and enhancing one’s ability to evaluate a situation in a more objective light.
It is possible that the divine is carried by the words and syllables themselves….
5 In light of the fact that frequent chanting of mantras can result in all of the advantages listed below, it is believed to be an effective preventative tool against incorrect ideas from forming in the mind.
Dagsay Tulku Rinpoche, a Buddhist teacher, describes mantra as an act of polite approach and a prayer for protection to the deities in honor of whom the mantras are being recited, according to the teacher.
It is explained in more detail in Ritual and Devotion in Buddhism: An Introduction (Windhorse Publications, 1995), written by Bhikshu Urgyen Sangharakshita, the founder of the Triratna Buddhist Community in the United Kingdom: Similar to the relationship between a painted picture of a Buddha or Bodhisattva and the same figure seen during meditation, the relationship between a gross and subtle verbal repetition is similar to that between a gross and subtle internal mental repetition.
It is true in every situation that the gross experience leads to the subtle experience.
‘Mantra can be characterized as ‘something which guards the mind,'” Sangharakshita argues, citing an etymological definition (111).
If that divinity could be transformed into a sound, which according to Tantric Buddhism is both possible and occurs, then that sound would be the mantra….
(112)An example of this may be found in a prayer to the Bodhisattva of Compassion, Avalokita, who is also known as Guanyin in East Asian traditions, a name that means “Perceiving the noises (or tears) of the world,” and who is also known as “Perceiving the sounds (or cries) of the world.” When it comes to Avalokita’s passion for sound, the Universal Door Chapter of the Lotus of the Wonderful Dharma is particularly memorable: The sound of chanting the Lotus Sutra in the middle of the night rocked the cosmos.
- The following morning, when the entire globe awoke, herlap was bursting with flowers….
- 6 This mantra shows that the name of Avalokita is a pure sound in which individuals can find sanctuary, as demonstrated by the chant.
- When she chants the Lotus Sutra, she causes the galaxies to vibrate into abundance, proving that she is a really powerful being.
- People who open their hearts to mantras and who believe in the deities they are connecting with via the act of chanting are the only ones who will experience the good benefits of mantras in their lives.
- 7 The word “mantra” has historically been mistranslated as “magic words” or even “spell” when it should have been understood otherwise.
- 8 Such a point of view was uncovered in my own research on laity Buddhist chanting traditions in Vietnam, where I discovered it among the educated elite of contemporary Vietnam.
(In other Buddhist communities across the world, male and female lay practitioners, as well as monks and nuns, perform ritual chanting of mantras side by side in the presence of others.) Nineteenth-century Vietnamese Buddhist women have maintained a practice of sound despite being recognized as second-class citizens in religious contexts.
- It speaks volumes about the efficacy of the practice that people continue to chant mantra in the face of such obstacles, regardless of whether or not the reciters comprehend the Chinese scriptures from which they recite.
- In an interview with academic Alexander Soucy, older Vietnamese women who join in the chanting at the pagodas expressed gratitude for the tradition, saying it provides them peace of mind and brings good fortune to their family.
- After relocating to Brighton and settling into a Zen center, I began chanting on a regular basis for the first time last year, and have found it to be a transformational practice for me as a Buddhist and as a woman.
- Martial arts, in addition to meditation and chanting, are a cornerstone of the tradition, and the warrior’s protective scream is an essential aspect of the practice.
- I questioned myself as to why I didn’t want to yell and recognized that, from an early age, I’d had a bad connection with loud women, believing that being loud would make me appear aggressive and unlikable, which was incorrect.
- Most weekday mornings, I get up before the sun to recite at 6 a.m.
- When I go to the temple, I put on my white, sashed uniform and join my temple-mates in the main chamber that we use for meditation and martial arts training, which used to be the main chapel of a United Church of Christ church.
There are two statues, one of the Buddha and the other of Guanyin, in the center of the hall, both of which are coated with magnificent twenty-four carat gold.
Shin Gun Do is a martial art that links the heavens and the ground.
Whenever I chant, no matter how exhausted I am, how poorly I slept, or what type of mood I am in, I get a sense of clarity and alertness that is unparalleled.
The more I chant, the clearer and stronger my voice becomes, and the greater my understanding of what my own voice is capable of doing becomes.
When I chant with my temple-mates, seated in a circle on our zafu cushions, I have the impression that we are tuning in to the divine: I feel as though I am receiving tenfold the sound that I send forth.
I find that the more I chant, the more it reverberates throughout my life.
What does gregorian chant mean?
- Plainsong, plainchant, Gregorian chant nouna liturgical chant of the Roman Catholic Church
- Plainsong, plainchant, Gregorian chant
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- Gregorian chant noun A kind of unaccompanied monophonic singing in the Catholic Church that originated in the fifth century. Ongoing study is being done to determine the actual origin of the name, which was named after Pope Gregory I (540-604) and likely dates back to that time period in some form.
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- Chants of the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian chant is the major tradition of Western plainchant, a kind of monophonic, unaccompanied religious music of the western Roman Catholic Church that originated in the Middle Ages. Western and central Europe were the primary locations where Gregorian chant originated throughout the 9th and 10th centuries, with subsequent additions and redactions. Even though the traditional narrative attributes the invention of Gregorian chant to Pope St. Gregory the Great, experts think that it was a later Carolingian synthesis of Roman chant and Gallican chant that took place around the year 800. The modes of Gregorian chants were first divided into four, then eight, and eventually twelve categories. Ambituses, intervallic patterns relative to a referential mode final, incipits and cadences, the use of reciting tones at a specific distance from the final, around which the other notes of the melody revolve, and a vocabulary of musical motifs that are woven together through a process known as centonization to create families of related chants are all examples of typical melodic features. This broader pitch system, known as the gamut, is produced by organizing the scale patterns against a backdrop pattern composed of conjunct and disjunct tetrachords, resulting in a bigger pitch system. Singing the chants is made possible by employing six-note rhythms known as hexachords. Tradition has it that Gregorian melodies are written in neumes, an early type of musical notation from which the contemporary four-line and five-line staffs derived their structure. Organum, or multi-voice elaborations of Gregorian chant, were an early step in the development of Western polyphony
- They were also known as polyphonic chant.
How to pronounce gregorian chant?
- Canticle Gregorian Classical Gregorian chant serves as the foundation of Western plainchant, a kind of monophonic, unaccompanied holy music popularized by the western Roman Catholic Church. With later additions and redactions, medieval Gregorian chant evolved mostly in western and central Europe throughout the 9th and 10th centuries. Even though the traditional narrative attributes the invention of Gregorian chant to Pope St. Gregory the Great, experts think that it was a later Carolingian synthesis of Roman chant and Gallican chant that took place in the fifth century. Four, then eight, and eventually twelve modes of Gregorian chanting were established at the outset of the tradition. Ambituses, intervallic patterns relative to a referential mode final, incipits and cadences, the use of reciting tones at a specific distance from the final, around which the other notes of the melody revolve, and a vocabulary of musical motifs that are woven together through a process known as centonization to create families of related chants are all examples of typical melodic characteristics. This wider pitch system, known as the gamut, is produced by organizing the scale patterns against a backdrop pattern composed of conjunct and disjunct tetrachords. When singing chants, six-note patterns known as hexachords are used to create a rhythmic pattern. It is customary for Gregorian melodies to be transcribed in neumes, a primitive form of musical notation from which the contemporary four and five-line staffs sprang. Organum, or multi-voice elaborations of Gregorian chant, were a formative step in the development of Western polyphony
- They were composed in the late Middle Ages.
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What is Gregorian Chant – GIA Publications
|Before reviewing the main Gregorian chant books and resources, perhaps it is good to state what Gregorian chant is.Gregorian chant is the church’s own music, born in the church’s liturgy. Its texts are almost entirely scriptural, coming for the most part from the Psalter. For centuries it was sung as pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment, and this is still the best way to sing chant if possible. It was composed entirely in Latin; and because its melodies are so closely tied to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best to sing it in Latin. (Among possible exceptions are chant hymns, since the melodies are formulaic and are not intrinsically tied to the Latin text.) Gregorian chant is in free rhythm, without meter or time signature.Because the liturgy was sung almost entirely in Gregorian chant in the Middle Ages (with polyphony saved for special occasions), every type of liturgical text has been set in chant: readings, prayers, dialogs, Mass propers, Mass ordinaries, office hymns, office psalms and antiphons, responsories, and versicles. Although Pope St. Gregory the Great (590–604) certainly did not play a role in the creation or compilation of our chant melodies, popular legend led the church to name Gregorian chant after this great leader.Many other types and styles of music are similar to Gregorian chant or inspired by it, but one should distinguish them from Gregorian chant. Taizé chants, for example, are generally in Latin, similar to Gregorian chant antiphons. But the musical style is quite different: metered and with choral harmonies and/or instrumental accompaniments.Many psalm tones have been written since the Second Vatican Council. They are much like Gregorian chant psalm tones with their free rhythm and their repeatable melodic formulas. By Gregorian psalm tones, however, we mean a set of particular melodies, one for each of the Gregorian modes, always in the form of two measures. The Gregorian psalm tones are well suited to the Latin language, but do not work very well with English accents, unless one takes freedom in adapting them. For English psalm verses, it is probably wiser to use psalm tones written for the English language. Back to Gregorian Chant Resources|
Kirtan and the World’s Sacred Chant Traditions
If we look at creation stories from different cultures, we will find that practically every time the world is claimed to have come into being by sound, through chant, the world is supposed to have come into being through sound. We feel a connecting and oneness with the Divine via the practice of Kirtani (chanting the holy names), which is the essence of Yoga. Steven Rosen analyzes the beginnings of holy chanting in the Vedic tradition and how it shows itself in the many global religions in this excerpt from his book, The Yoga of Kirtan.
If there isn’t a cantor available, a less qualified kirtaniya is called in, which is referred to as theba’al tefilah.
The fundamental practice derives from a concept given in the Bible (Psalms 150.4-5), which states, “Glory be to Him in His glorious name.” Make a joyful noise to Him with the timbrel and dance; make a joyful noise to Him with stringed instruments and organ.
Certainly one of Judaism’s greatest mystics, the Baal Shem Tov, might be called the ultimatekirtaniya—his own name, which means master of the good name,î means master of the good name,î and he exhorted his devotees to “chant, chant, chant!” Jesus, who came from the same tradition as his followers, taught them how to pray in the following words: “Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name.” This was the underlying principle of early Christianity.
- The apostle St.
- During the reign of Pope Gregory I, the practice of addressing someone by their given name became a canonical element of the Roman Catholic Church (circa 540-604 C.E.).
- The Jesus Prayer, which begins, “Lord Jesus, Son of God, have pity on me,” was given to the world by Christian mystics.
- The Muslim Qari are people who are trained to recite the Koran on a regular basis.
- Despite the fact that demonstrative singing is not normally permitted in mainstream Islam, chanting to Allah is, and it is considered to be a particularly powerful method of prayer.
- It is customary to sing the ninety-nine names of Allah, known as “The Beautiful Names,” on beads or engraved on mosque walls, and to glorify Allah in a variety of other ways.
- The term “Qawwali” refers to a type of sacred Islamic vocal music that originated in Pakistan and India and is an art form or ecstatic ritual based on ancient Sufi scriptures.
In a similar vein to expertkirtaniyas of old, one of its principal tasks is to guide its listeners—those who probe deeply into its poetry and meaning—into a state of ecstatic trance (wajd), similar to that of the poet.
Asshomyo is the term used to refer to Buddhist hymns.
Kirtani is regarded as a way of life in India.
But from whence did kirtanbegin to exist?
We turn to the ancient wisdom scriptures of India for guidance on this.
It is described in minute detail in theVedas and the Upanishads, two of the world’s oldest religious scriptures, how the power of sound may disclose Ultimate Reality, and how specific mantras, when properly uttered, can reveal Ultimate Reality.
According to the scriptures, a distinct manner of God-realization is particularly suitable for each world era, and these are as follows: Millions of years ago, one attained the Absolute through deep meditation; millions of years later, one attained the Absolute through opulent sacrifices; millions of years later, one attained the Absolute through deity worship; and millions of years later, one attained the Absolute through chanting the holy name of God.
This festival of sacred music is so important that even celestial entities mentioned in Vedic literature desire to be a part of it.
During the dance of cosmic dissolution, Shiva used histandavadrum to accompany himself.
Lord Brahma, using the mantras of the Sama Veda, constructed musical scales, and employed the precise syllable OMî to create the cosmos, according to legend.
(John1:1) “The cosmos came into being by the divine word,” the Vedic texts assert emphatically (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad1.2.4) These same scriptures inform us that, just as sound was originally responsible for initiating the first flow of cosmic creation, it too plays an important part in the ultimate aim of humankind: “liberation by sound” (Vedanta-sutra4.4.22).
Yogis and singer-poets with mystic abilities used fresh compositions and contemporary songs to communicate truths, not only in Sanskrit—the language of the Vedas—but also in the vernacular.
Thanks to the guidance of writings such as theBhagavata Purana and theBhagavad Gita, believers came to perceive chanting as a highly technical, albeit also pleasant, practice that would provide them with tangible benefits while traveling down their respective spiritual paths.
A consequence of this was the emergence of four major lineages in South India, allowing primordial wisdom to spread northward and eventually over the entire world.
The four lineages owe a debt of appreciation to the seers who have come before them: Among those who appeared in the Sri Sampradaya were Ramanuja (1017-1137), the first systematizer of the Sri Sampradaya; Nimbarka (ca.
Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s kirtan is considered to be the most significant in terms of significance (1486-1533).
Sri Chaitanya had achieved tremendous scholastic success as a youth, but by his early twenties, he had abandoned all academic endeavors in order to devote his life entirely to Krishna’s service.
He has since become a successful businessman.
Prema took over from thepandit (scholar) (lover of God).
Despite the fact that Sri Chaitanya was first married and had a family, he finally chose to abandon his worldly cares and live the life of an ascetic, an itinerant monk.
He only offered his extensive philosophical knowledge when it was absolutely required, preferring to concentrate on the love, pleasure, and understanding that come through chanting.
In Vrindavan, he met and became disciples with the Six Goswamis of Vrindavan, who were undoubtedly the most brilliant theologians of their day.
Sri Chaitanya spent the last twelve years of his life at Puri, India, where he was completely immersed in meditation.
He conveyed these deep thoughts with his most trusted disciples, not just via words, but also through the physical manifestations of his illness that he displayed in his daily life.
Krishna!” as if he were the victim of unrequited love.
They created a science of devotion by meticulously documenting his every action, recording exactly how love of God develops, the symptoms one encounters along the route, and how to determine when one has reached the correct point on the journey.
At first sight, the poems appear to be straightforward, however this is not the case.
Many different sources contributed sophisticated love poetry, systematic theology, and fresh discoveries to the conversation.
Sur Das, Tulasi Das, Tukaram, Namdev, Mirabai, Vidyapati, Chandidas, Swami Haridas, Narottam, and Bhaktivinode Thakur are only a few of the greatkirtaniyas who contributed to Jayadeva’s theme development.
Kirtan is obliged to them for the rest of its existence.
Rosen’s biographical information A biannual magazine that explores Eastern thinking, Steven J.
He is also the author of more than twenty books on Indian philosophy, several of which are available on Amazon.
He is a follower of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, having been inducted by Him. If you would want additional information, please see his website at: yogaofkirtan.com.