What Is The Best Way To Describe A Gregorian Chant

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Gregorian chant

Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.

  • The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.
  • The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.
  • The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.
  • TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
  • Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
  • The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
  • During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.

As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.

Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.

Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.

Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.

By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.

The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.

The song has a neumatic feel to it.

Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.

Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.

What is Gregorian Chant – GIA Publications

Before reviewing the main Gregorian chant books and resources, perhaps it is good to state what Gregorian chant is.Gregorian chant is the church’s own music, born in the church’s liturgy. Its texts are almost entirely scriptural, coming for the most part from the Psalter. For centuries it was sung as pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment, and this is still the best way to sing chant if possible. It was composed entirely in Latin; and because its melodies are so closely tied to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best to sing it in Latin. (Among possible exceptions are chant hymns, since the melodies are formulaic and are not intrinsically tied to the Latin text.) Gregorian chant is in free rhythm, without meter or time signature.Because the liturgy was sung almost entirely in Gregorian chant in the Middle Ages (with polyphony saved for special occasions), every type of liturgical text has been set in chant: readings, prayers, dialogs, Mass propers, Mass ordinaries, office hymns, office psalms and antiphons, responsories, and versicles. Although Pope St. Gregory the Great (590–604) certainly did not play a role in the creation or compilation of our chant melodies, popular legend led the church to name Gregorian chant after this great leader.Many other types and styles of music are similar to Gregorian chant or inspired by it, but one should distinguish them from Gregorian chant. Taizé chants, for example, are generally in Latin, similar to Gregorian chant antiphons. But the musical style is quite different: metered and with choral harmonies and/or instrumental accompaniments.Many psalm tones have been written since the Second Vatican Council. They are much like Gregorian chant psalm tones with their free rhythm and their repeatable melodic formulas. By Gregorian psalm tones, however, we mean a set of particular melodies, one for each of the Gregorian modes, always in the form of two measures. The Gregorian psalm tones are well suited to the Latin language, but do not work very well with English accents, unless one takes freedom in adapting them. For English psalm verses, it is probably wiser to use psalm tones written for the English language. Back to Gregorian Chant Resources

What are the 5 characteristics of Gregorian chant? – Easierwithpractice.com

Roman Catholic liturgical music consisting of monophonic or unison parts that is used to accompany the text of the mass and the canonical hours, or divine office, is known as Gregorian chant. Saint Gregory I, Pope from 590 to 604, is credited for collecting and codifying the Gregorian chant throughout his pontificate. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) introduced Gregorian Chant into his realm, which had previously practiced a different liturgical style known as Gallican chant. During the eighth and ninth centuries, a process of assimilation occurred between Gallican and Gregorian chants, and it is this developed version of the chant that has survived to the current day.

  • Neumatic (patterns of one to four notes per syllable) and melismatic (patterns of any number of notes per syllable) styles are used in the chanting of the Kyrie.
  • Using psalm tones, which are basic formulae for intoned recitation of psalms, in the recital of early Glorias attests to their antiquity and ancient provenance.
  • In certain ways, the Credo’s melodies recall psalm tones, which were integrated into the mass during the 11th century.
  • Neumatic chants are used in the traditional Sanctus chant.
  • The final Ite Missa Est and its alternative, Benedicamus Domino, both take the melody from the opening Kyrie as a basis for composition.
  • Originally a psalm with a refrain repeated in between verses, the Introit has evolved into a processional chant.
  • It was also evolved from a refrain between psalm lines when it was first presented in the 4th century.

Originally from the East, the Alleluia dates back to the 4th century.

If you’re in a good mood, the Tract can take over for the Alleluia.

It was mostly throughout the 9th to 16th centuries when thisquence thrived in its entirety.

During the second line of the stanza, the melody was repeated, with a new melody being introduced for the next line of the stanza; the music is syllabic in structure.

Melisma pervades the compositions.

TheCommunion is a processional chant, much like the Offertory.

Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline are the eight services that make up the canonical hours: Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas, and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s shape and style are influenced by the sponsor’s role.

In the most recent revision and update, Amy Tikkanen provided further information.

  • In contrast to other types of music, the melody of Gregorian chant is particularly free-flowing. It does not have any harmony since it is monophonic in texture, as Gregorian chants are. Rhythm – There is no set rhythm for a Gregorian chant
  • Instead, it is improvised. Form – Some Gregorian chants are written in ternary (ABA) form
  • Others are not. Timbre – Sung by all male choruses in the same key

How do you describe a Gregorian chant?

The Gregorian Chant is a holy hymn of the Roman Catholic Church, primarily performed in Latin and sung by monks. It is a plainsong/plainchant with a monophonic texture, no definite beat, and a highly free flowing melody. Some gregorian chants are ternary or in ABA Form, while others are a mix of the two.

Which word best describes a Gregorian chant?

It is a sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church, which is normally performed in Latin and is sung by monks. It is a plainsong/plainchant with a monophonic texture, no definite beat, and a highly free flowing melody. Some gregorian chants are ternary or in ABA Form, while others are a mixture of the two.

What makes Gregorian chant unique?

Many characteristics, in addition to modality, contribute to the musical idiom of Gregorian chant, which gives it its own specific melodic taste. Melodic motion is typically characterized by stepwise motion. Skips of a third are prevalent, and greater skips are significantly more common than in other plainchant repertories, such as Ambrosian chant or Beneventan chant, where smaller skips are less common.

Why is Gregorian chant important today?

Gregorian chant had a profound influence on the development of medieval and Renaissance music, particularly the development of polyphony. Staff notation, as we know it now, evolved straight from Gregorian neumes. In various genres of music, the square notation that had been developed for plainchant was taken and changed to fit the situation.

What is the Gregorian chant mood?

With only one sound (monophonic) and no harmony, Gregorian Chant is a style of singing that originated in Europe. I have the impression that the music’s tone is both great and loud.

What are the 7 characteristics of Gregorian chant?

Gregorian chants have certain characteristics.

  • Harmony. Because the texture is monophonic, there is no harmony. Rhythm. There is no definite rhythm
  • Notes may be maintained for a short or long period of time, but no complicated rhythms are utilized
  • There is no precise beat
  • Form. Some Gregorian chants are written in ternary form
  • For example, Texture
  • sMedium

What is the function of Gregorian chant?

Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music that is either monophonic or unison in nature, and it is used to accompany the text of the mass and the canonical hours, also known as the holy office.

What is a chant?

A chant (from the French chanter, which comes from the Latin cantare, which means “to sing”) is the repetitive speaking or singing of words or sounds, usually focusing on one or two major pitches, known as recitation tones, over and over again. Chant is a type of speech that may be regarded either speech or music, or it can be considered a heightened or stylized form of speech.

What is an example of a chant?

A chant (from the French chanter, which comes from the Latin cantare, which means “to sing”) is the iterative speaking or singing of words or sounds, which is usually based on one or two basic pitches, known as recitation tones, that is repeated again and over in a repetitive pattern. It is possible to categorize chant as either speech or music, as well as a heightened or stylized form of communication.

What are the three types of chant?

Chant, the unaccompanied vocal music of the Roman Catholic Church, is most commonly referred to as ‘Gregorian’ chant, after Pope Gregory I, who had a significant role in its establishment. In addition to the Old Roman chant, the Ambrosian chant, and the Mozarabic chant, there are at least three more types of chant to consider.

What is a chant poem?

Chant poems are simply poetry that have repeating lines that are combined to produce a type of chant.

Every line, or every other line, can be repeated. There are several poetry forms that involve chanting and the usage of a refrain that are simple to come across. A chant poem, on the other hand, is a little more deliberate in its construction than a triolet or rondeau.

How do you write chants?

Creating Chants is a fun activity.

  1. Form an outline of the language you want to use, with each syllable counted and organized into groups
  2. Please identify two-syllable words (A), three-syllable words (B), and one-syllable words (C). Choose one word from each group, preferably one that connects the others in some manner, then repeat the process using the formula below

What is a cheer chant?

Cheerleading chants, in contrast to lengthy cheers and routines, are often brief, snappy, and straight to the point in nature. We have chants for any occasion, whether you need something to fill the time in between plays, some rapid encouragement in order to spur your team on to success, or a sweet shout that your team will remember, we have something to suit your demands.

How do you start a cheer chant?

Cheerleading chants, in contrast to lengthy cheers and routines, are often brief, snappy, and to the point. We have chants for any occasion, whether you need something to fill in the gaps between plays, some rapid encouragement in order to spur your team on to success, or a sweet shout that your team will remember, we have something for you.

What is it called when you jump and touch your toes?

Toe-Touch. In gymnastics, this is referred to as a’straddle’ leap since it is quite similar to the most well-known cheering move. Jumping with your legs straddled and straight, parallel to the ground; with your toes pointed; and your knees pointing up/backwards. Your hands should be in fists or blades, and your arms should be in a “T” motion.

What rhymes with Christmas cheer?

aare, beer, bere, cheer, clear, dear… are some of the words and phrases that rhyme with “Christmas cheer.”

What is another word for cheer?

Laughing Synonyms – WordHippo Thesaurus….. What is a synonym for the word “cheer”?

merriment gaiety
glee cheerfulness
mirth happiness
joy joviality
gladness hilarity

What does Bravo mean?

: a rousing applause that is frequently used as an interruption while appreciating a performance The verb bravo is derived from the prefix brä-(v) and the prefix bravo.

What does hearten mean?

a transitive verb that means to encourage or cheer someone.

See also:  Songs Where Girls Chant

What is the opposite of cheer?

What is the polar opposite of happiness?

sadness depression
hopelessness sorrowfulness
woefulness desolation
despondency discouragement
joylessness miserableness

What’s another word for cheer up?

What is another term for “lift your spirits”?

cheer animate
elate uplift
enliven hearten
inspire inspirit
liven brighten

What booing means?

“Boo!” is a way of expressing dissatisfaction towards someone or something, usually in reaction to an entertainment, by screaming “Boo!” and holding out the “oo” sound for a long period of time. People may also direct their attention to the entertainment by using hand signals such as the thumbs down gesture.

What is another word for scared?

1 terrified, frightened, disquieted, uneasy, timid, timorous

What is the most scared word?

1 terrified, frightened, disquieted, anxious, timid, timorous.

What is the strongest connotation for Scared?

The term terrified refers to someone who is exceedingly afraid; it has a more positive meaning than the word scared and relates to the same emotion as scared.

What is the best way to describe Gregorian chant?

It is used to describe someone who is highly afraid; it has a stronger meaning than the word scared but relates to the same emotion.

How do you describe a chant?

A chant (from the French chanter, which comes from the Latin cantare, which means “to sing”) is the repetitive speaking or singing of words or sounds, usually focusing on one or two major pitches, known as recitation tones, over and over again.

What is chants and examples?

Chanting is described as the repetition of a song or a phrase over and over again. At a sporting event, for example, chanting the same cheer again and over is an example of repetition. A chant is defined as a song, tune, or other piece of music that is repeated again and over again.

A basic church hymn, for example, is an example of a chant. Gregorian chant may be divided into three categories: syllabic, neumatic, and melismatic. Usually, the amount of notes sung each syllable allows them to be differentiated from one another without difficulty.

Is chant pure melody?

Gregorian chant is the music of the church, which was born out of the church’s liturgy. Its texts are nearly exclusively derived from the Bible, with the majority of them being from the Psalter. For centuries, it was sung as a pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment, and this is still the ideal method to sing chant if at all feasible today.

What is syllabic chant?

Syllabic chants are chants in which the majority of the syllables have only a single note in each occurrence. Melismatic chants are chants that have extended melodic passages that are repeated on a single syllable. When two or more neumes are sung in succession on the same line or space, especially if they occur on the same syllable, they are treated as if they were tied.

What is a Neume?

In musical notation, a neume is a symbol that represents one or a set of consecutive musical pitches, and is considered to be the forerunner of current musical notes. Neumes put on the staff indicated exact pitch, allowing a performer to interpret a tune that was foreign to him or her to. Neumes were employed in a variety of ways in different parts of Western Europe and in different geographical locations.

What historical period is Neume?

Around the 9th century, neumes began to be used as abbreviated mnemonic aids to help people remember how to recite chant in the appropriate melodic order. The Eastern Roman Empire, according to popular belief, was the first to use neumatic notation in writing.

What does Gregorian chant mean?

It is the major tradition of Western plainchant, a kind of monophonic, unaccompanied religious music in Latin (and occasionally Greek) that is associated with the Roman Catholic Church. Gregorian chant is the most well-known form of plainchant. Gregorian chant was originally sung by choirs of men and boys in churches, or by men and women of monastic orders in their own chapels, and it is still performed today.

What does Plainsong mean?

: a monophonic, rhythmically free liturgical chant from any of the many Christian traditions, particularly gregorian chant

What is another name for Plainsong?

Plainsong is a term that has several different meanings.

psalm hymn
descant worship song
Gregorian chant noel
canzonet strain
ballad madrigal

What does monophonic mean?

1: containing a single melodic line that is unaccompanied. 2. of, related to, or involves single-channel audio transmission, recording, or reproduction

Why is it called plainchant?

Gregorian chant’s unmeasured rhythm and monophony (a single line of melody) are referred to as cantus planus (“plain song”) in the 13th century, as opposed to the measured rhythm and polyphony (multipart music) of polyphonic (multipart) music, which is referred to as cantus mensuratus (“measured,” or “figured,” respectively).

What is the 8th mode?

The eight modes are as follows: Dorian, Hypodorian, Phrygian, Hypophrygian, Lydian and Mixolydian are the names of the first seven modes, which are all derived from Greek musical theory. The name of the eighth mode, Hypomixolydian is derived from Greek music theory as is the name of the first mode, Dorian.

Why is Gregorian chant is referred to us as plainchant plainsong?

A collection of chants was envisioned by Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) about the year 600, and it was completed by Pope Gregory the First in the year 600.

This collection of music was known as Gregorian Chant since it was named after him. Later, the word Gregorian Chant was adopted to denote this type of music in general.

Why is Gregorian chant seldom heard today?

What is it about Gregorian chant that is so rarely heard nowadays? (1) It is quite difficult to sing, and those who are familiar with it are dwindling in number. (2) The use of the vernacular in church services was mandated by the Second Vatican Council, which met from 1962 to 1965. (3) It is out of date with regard to new services. (4)

What is the role of Gregorian chant?

The development of polyphony was greatly aided by the use of Gregorian chant. It was customary for choirs of men and boys to sing Gregorian chant in churches, as well as by ladies and men of monastic orders in their own chapels. It is the music of the Roman Rite, which is used in the celebration of the Mass and the monastic service.

What is the intellectual movement called humanism?

Humanism is a philosophical movement that emphasizes the value of human life and its accomplishments. The term “humanism” refers to the intellectual movement that dominated the Renaissance.

Who was Hildegard of Bingen quizlet?

Hildegard was the world’s first female composer, as well as a doctor of the church and a healer, among other achievements.

Why is Hildegard of Bingen important?

Hildegard is still regarded as the founder of German alternative medicine, and she deserves to be recognized for her contributions to the advancement of holistic health and wellbeing. She advocated for the natural avoidance of disease and sickness by a reasonable and healthy lifestyle, and she employed the therapeutic abilities of natural things to aid in the healing process.

Who performed Hildegard of Bingen’s music quizlet?

That was the person who performed Hildegard’s music? Nuns from the Benedictine convent provided the musical accompaniment for her compositions.

When did Hildegard of Bingen live quizlet?

She had a life (1098-1179). She was born into an aristocratic family in Germany’s Rhineland area, where she grew up.

Why is Hildegard of Bingen so notable quizlet?

Fortunately, she was alive (1098-1179). Originally from Germany’s Rhineland, she was born into a noble family.

Who was Hildegard of Bingen and what did she do?

Who was Hildegard of Bingen, and what was her story? A Benedictine nun from the 12th century who saw remarkable visions. In religious publications, she wrote about these visions, and she utilized them as inspiration for musical creations. She formed her own convent, invented her own language, and composed one of the world’s first musical plays, among other accomplishments.

Who was Hildegard von Bingen and why is she an important figure of this era quizlet?

Who was Hildegard of Bingen, and what was her significance in history? Unusual visions were experienced by a Benedictine nun in the 12th century. In religious publications, she wrote about her visions, and she utilized them as inspiration for musical creations. She formed her own monastery, invented a new language, and composed one of the world’s first musical dramas, among other accomplishments.”

Who were the most important musicians in the Middle Ages?

Over the course of the Middle Ages, between 1100 and 1400, Hildegard von Bingen, Leonin, Perotin, and Guillaume de Machaut made important contributions to the art of musical composition and performance.

Did Hildegard von Bingen write words for her music?

Over the course of the Middle Ages, between 1100 and 1400, Hildegard von Bingen, Leonin, Perotin, and Guillaume de Machaut made important contributions to the art of music.

Who was Hildegard of Bingen music appreciation?

The sisters chose Hildegard as magistra in 1136, and she went on to create the monasteries of Rupertsberg in 1150 and Eibingen in 1165.

Hildegard was born in Rupertsberg, Germany. One of her compositions, the Ordo Virtutum, is considered to be the earliest surviving example of liturgical theater as well as the oldest existing morality play.

Medieval Music: Introduction to Gregorian Chant

Sonja Maurer-Dass contributed to this article. Gregorian chant is one of the most famous musical legacies of medieval Europe, distinguished by its free-flowing melodies, holy Latin lyrics, and distinctive monophonic texture. Gregorian chant, which was developed and propagated during the Carolingian dynasty, appears to be a world away from the much more contemporary epochs of Western music to which many of our ears are accustomed; however, it is from this ages-old liturgical tradition that our current understanding of Western music and its accompanying system of musical notation derives from.

This section will look at how Gregorian chant came to be and how it spread throughout the world.

Many medieval music fans nowadays are aware with Gregorian chant (also known as Frankish-Roman chant), which is the most well-known of the liturgical chant traditions; nevertheless, throughout early medieval Europe, there were numerous distinct styles of holy chant that differed according to area.

  1. When one considers the several diverse Western liturgical chant traditions that have existed throughout the centuries, one would wonder why Gregorian chant has become the most generally recognized and maintained of them all.
  2. The development of Gregorian chant took place between the seventh and ninth centuries CE, during a period in which Frankish monarchs, most notably Charlemagne, tried to bring liturgical consistency to their kingdoms.
  3. Charlemagne declared in 789 that all of his kingdoms would be consolidated under a single Roman liturgy and chant, which became known as the Roman Rite.
  4. In essence, Gregorian chant was, as Margot Fassler puts it, “the revised song of the Franks,” which arose from a fusion of Old Roman chant with the Gallican chant of the Franks, according to Fassler.
  5. So far, we’ve looked at how the Carolingians had a crucial part in the spreading and development of Gregorian chant, but what about the popular tale that claims that Pope Saint Gregory I (“Gregory the Great”) is responsible for the spread of Gregorian chant?
  6. Because it was sung to Gregory I by the Holy Spirit, who came to him in the guise of a white dove, it was considered the most sacred and true type of liturgical chant.
  7. Some musicologists, on the other hand, have speculated that Gregory may have had a role in the codification and consolidation of previous chants, which eventually served as the foundation for later Gregorian chant.

A common depiction of the dove is that it is singing its sacred songs to Gregory, while Gregory is concurrently dictating the dove’s melodies to a nearby scribe.

Gregorian Chant’s Texture and Melody are both beautiful.

“Monophonic” is a musical word that refers to the performance of a single tune with no accompaniment (that is, there is no harmony played with a melody).

In the opening minute of the following chant sample, which was produced by the twelfth-century abbess, philosopher, mystic, and composer Hildegard of Bingen, you can hear a drone that is repeated several times.

For those who have heard different recordings of Gregorian chant, you may have noticed that its melodies are quite flowing in comparison to many modern types of Western art music and popular music.

Classical Gregorian melodies were produced using the notes of an organized pitch system known as modes (which were distinct from the major and minor keys that are now employed in Western music), and they were set to sacred Latin texts from religious services such as the Mass and the Divine Office.

  1. Gregorian Chant and Early Types of Medieval Musical Notation are two examples of medieval musical notation.
  2. This necessitated the development of a method of recording tunes that could be correctly taught and conveyed without the limitations of human memory.
  3. Instead, it made use of symbols known as “neumes,” which served as a kind of trigger for melodies that had previously been acquired and retained as part of an oral culture.
  4. They reflect the relative rising and descending melodic motion of the text.
  5. The St.
  6. Gall in Switzerland, is one of the earliest existing sources of this notation (which was copied in the tenth century).
  7. Sang.
  8. Sang.
  9. Sang.
  10. Guido d’Arezzo, a prominent music theorist who lived in Arezzo in the eleventh century, continued to create the framework for modern music notation by developing a four-line musical staff divided by intervals of thirds (an interval is the distance between two pitches).

Guido described the manner in which his employees worked in the preface to his antiphoner (of which only the prologue has been preserved): As a result, the notes are organized in such a manner that any sound, no matter how many times it appears in a song, can always be located in the same row.

–Margot Fassler provided the translation.

As a singer or member of a chorus, you may be acquainted with the syllable pattern Do-Re-Mi-Fa Sol, etc., in which each syllable corresponds to a written note (Guido’s syllable pattern differed somewhat in that the first syllable he used was “Ut” instead of “Do”).

Square notation allowed for the inclusion of more melodic elements that may be interpreted by vocalists who were unfamiliar with the source material.

It’s possible that you’ve already seen some square notation in medieval chant manuscripts, such as punctum (a single note sung to a single syllable); podatus (two notes—one is written on top of the other and the lowest of the two notes is sung first followed by the second note which moves in ascending motion); clivis (contains two notes that are sung in descending motion); and torculus (three notes sung consecutively When compared to our modern experiences of melody and notation, the notation and melodies of Gregorian chant may appear to be foreign and unfamiliar at first glance and listen; however, upon closer examination, it is fascinating and possible to see how the earliest attempts to record and accurately transmit sacred chant evolved over many centuries and eventually matured into the comprehensive system that is widely used and understood in the modern day.

  • Sonja Maurer-Dass is a Canadian musicologist and harpsichordist who specializes in Baroque music.
  • In addition, she possesses a Master’s degree on Musicology from York University, where she specialized in late medieval English choral music and the Old Hall Manuscript, among other things (Toronto, Canada).
  • The paper was presented at the 9th International Medieval Meeting.
  • Read on for more information: Willi Apel is the author of this work.
  • Western Music in Context: Western Music in the Medieval West is a book on music in the Medieval West (W.W.
  • Carolingians and Gregorian Chant are two examples of medieval music (Princeton University Press, 1998) Richard Taruskin is the author of this work.

From the earliest notations through the sixteenth century, there has been music (Oxford University Press, 2010) Adiastematic gregorian aquitanian notation is seen in the top image. Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

No. 2855: Gregorian Chant

Today, plain and simple. The University of Houston�s College of Engineering presents this series about the machines that make our civilization run, and the people whose ingenuity created them.I t�s easy to take the rich textures of today�s music for granted. Whether listening to a symphony or a rock band, the many layers of instruments and vocals create complex, captivating harmonies. How boring music would be if everything we listened to was mere melody — a lone voice floating on the wind.Yet for much of history that�s exactly what music consisted of. In western civilization we see this quite starkly in the music of the Roman Catholic Church.Cantus planus, orplainchant, refers to the form of music used in Church liturgy for almost a thousand years. Plainchant could be sung by one or many voices, but always consisted of a single, unaccompanied melody.Many different plainchant traditions developed, but central to Church history, and by extension to the history of western music, wasGregorian chant. Gregorian chant is distinguished by its own stylistic elements, but also as the result of formal efforts by the Church to capture and codify plainchant for Church liturgy. It led to the development of an early form of musical notation that bears many similarities to our present notation. Gregorian chant is traditionally credited to the efforts of Saint Gregory the Great, who served as Pope at the turn of the seventh century. However, its actual origins remain open to debate.Much of what is popularly considered Gregorian chant is actuallyorganum. Organum permits the use of more than a single melodic line. The harmonies are often quite simple, but organum proved an important milestone on the road to modern music.The use of Gregorian chant waned in the late Middle Ages as it was supplanted by ever more elaborate musical forms. But it never altogether disappeared. Gregorian chant is no longer required as part of Roman Catholic liturgy, but its use is still encouraged.And it has a following beyond church walls. In 1994 the Angel record label released a recording of Gregorian chants performed by Spanish monks. Marketed as a remedy for stress, it went triple platinum in the U.S. and sold six million copies worldwide. A similar feat was achieved by Austrian monks in 2008, who also sold millions of recordings, mostly in Europe.I for one am glad music�s evolved beyond the limited structures found in plainchant. Still, its haunting simplicity coupled with the acoustics of stone abbeys or cathedrals is admittedly transcendent.I�m Andy Boyd at the University of Houston, where we�re interested in the way inventive minds work.(Theme music)


Notes and references:Gregorian Chant.The Florida Schola Cantorum website. Accessed January 15, 2013.Gregorian Chant. Wikipedia.. Accessed January 15, 2013.The Gregorian Chant: An examination of the ancient musical and spiritual tradition. From theCross Rhythms website. Accessed January 15, 2013.Plain Chant. From the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, taken from thisWikisource website. Accessed January 15, 2013.All pictures are from Wikimedia Commons.This episode was first aired on January 17, 2013.The Engines of Our Ingenuity is Copyright © 1988-2013 by John H. Lienhard.


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Whats a gregorian chant?

Sonja Maurer-Dass is the author of this article. It is one of the most famous musical legacies of medieval Europe, distinguished by its free-flowing melodies, religious Latin words, and distinctive monophonic texture. Gregorian chant, which was developed and propagated during the Carolingian dynasty, appears to be a world away from the much more contemporary epochs of Western music to which many of our ears are accustomed; however, it is from this ages-old liturgical tradition that our current understanding of Western music and its accompanying system of musical notation derives.

Many medieval music fans today are aware with Gregorian chant (also known as Frankish-Roman chant), which is the most well-known of the liturgical chant traditions; nevertheless, throughout early medieval Europe, there were numerous distinct styles of holy chant that differed based on location.

  • When one considers the several diverse Western liturgical chant traditions that have existed throughout the centuries, one would wonder why Gregorian chant has become the most well-known and maintained of these traditions.
  • While Frankish monarchs like as Charlemagne, attempted to bring about liturgical consistency throughout their lands in the eighth and ninth centuries CE, the development of Gregorian chant took place during the eighth and ninth century CE.
  • Following this, in 789, Charlemagne declared that all of his lands would be united under a single Roman liturgy and chant system.
  • To put it another way, Gregorian chant was, to paraphrase Margot Fassler, “the updated chant of the Franks,” which arose from a fusion of Old Roman chant and the Gallican chant of the Franks.
  • In this article, we’ve looked at how the Carolingians had a crucial part in the distribution and development of Gregorian chant.
  • As the eponym of the holy songs, how does his story come into play, and is there any validity to the idea that he invented Gregorian chant, one could wonder.
  • However, researchers like as Margot Fassler believe that the heavenly origin narrative of Frankish-Roman chant was developed out of a Carolingian endeavor to further justify and prove undeniable its legitimacy.

Despite the fact that the aforementioned narrative is not true, the story of Gregory I and his relation to the birth of Gregorian chant has been memorialized in a number of pictures in which the saint is commonly depicted with a dove flying near his ear.

Divine Inspiration is symbolized by a dove, which represents the Holy Spirit, perched on Pope Gregory I’s shoulder.

“Monophonic” is a musical word that refers to the performance of a single melody without the accompaniment of other musical instruments (that is, there is no harmony played with a melody).

This chant sample, which was produced by Hildegard of Bingen in the eleventh century, begins with a drone that can be heard in the first minute of the first minute of the second minute.

When it comes to melody, if you have listened to different recordings of Gregorian chant, you may characterize its melodies as being incredibly fluid when compared to many modern types of Western art music and popular music, such as jazz.

They could be syllabic (with one note sung on each syllable), neumatic (with two to four notes sung per syllable), or melismatic (with many notes sung on the vowel of a single syllable), and they were frequently conjunct (melodic motion that moves in steps rather than skips or larger leaps, which is referred to as “disjunct motion”) in nature.

  • The development of a method for recording melodies was necessary in order for them to be correctly taught and transferred without the fallibility of human memory becoming a consideration.
  • Instead, it made use of symbols known as “neumes,” which served as a form of trigger for melodies that had previously been acquired and retained as part of an oral culture.
  • They express the relative rising and descending melodic motion of the melody.
  • Saint Gall 359 manuscriptof the Benedictine Abbey of St.
  • The Stiftsbibliothek Codex Sang.
  • In different regions of Europe, the look and precision of neumes continued to change during the next several centuries, and early prototypes of the musical staff began to emerge in manuscripts at the same time.
  • The modern musical staff consists of five horizontal lines divided into thirds, on which notes are written (the musical staff was originally made up of three horizontal lines).

In this way, any sound, no matter how many times it may be repeated in a tune, will always be located in the same row that it was first placed in.

–Margot Fassler’s translation of the text As a bonus, Guido developed an essential teaching technique (known as solmization) to make it even easier for students to sight-sing written notation on the staff, an approach that has subsequently evolved into the modern solfège method.

Notation in the Square It wasn’t until the thirteenth century that square notation began to be used for Gregorian chant, which was written on a four-lined staff.

Unlike the adiastematic neumes, which only supplied limited notated suggestions to enable vocalists who had previously learned the melodies, this is in contrast to the adiastematic neumes.

A Canadian musicologist and harpsichordist, Sonja Maurer-Dass is well-known for her work on the organ.

She also possesses a Master’s degree in Musicology from York University, where she specialized on late medieval English choral music and the Old Hall Manuscript (Toronto, Canada).

Sonja may be found on Twitter under the handle @SonjaMaurerDass.

Mr.

Choral chants in the style of St.

Western Music in Context: Western Music in the Medieval West is a collection of essays on Western music in the medieval west (W.W.

Clement of Alexandria, Carolingians, and Gregorian Chant (Princeton University Press, 1998) Mr.

From the earliest notations through the sixteenth century, music has played an important role (Oxford University Press, 2010) To the right is an example of Adiastematic Gregory Acquanian Notation. The Commons has a lot of great pictures!

Why is Gregorian chant?

Sonja Maurer-Dass is the author of this piece. It is one of the most recognizable musical legacies of medieval Europe, thanks to its free-flowing melodies, religious Latin words, and distinctive monophonic texture. Gregorian chant, which was developed and propagated during the Carolingian dynasty, appears to be a world away from the much more contemporary epochs of Western music to which many of our ears are accustomed; yet it is from this ages-old liturgical tradition that our current understanding of Western music and its accompanying system of musical notation derives.

  • Many medieval music fans nowadays are aware with Gregorian chant (also known as Frankish-Roman chant), but throughout early medieval Europe, there were numerous distinct styles of religious chant that differed based on area.
  • When one considers the several diverse Western liturgical chant styles that have existed throughout the centuries, one would wonder why Gregorian chant has become the most well-known and maintained of them all.
  • The development of Gregorian chant took place between the seventh and ninth centuries CE, at a time when Frankish monarchs, most notably Charlemagne, tried to bring liturgical consistency to their kingdoms.
  • Charlemagne declared in 789 that all of his kingdoms would be united under a single Roman liturgy and chant.
  • It is believed to have blended to some extent with the Franks’ earlier Gallican chants.
  • As a result, as a result of the Carolingians’ goal for liturgical unity, many of the chant traditions described above (such as the Benevento chant tradition) were displaced by the Frankish-Roman synthesis, which is still in use today.
  • But what about the traditional tale which claims that Pope Saint Gregory I (“Gregory the Great”) is responsible for the spread of Gregorian chant?

According to mythology, Gregorian chant was the most sacred and true type of liturgical chant since it was thought to have been performed to Gregory I by the Holy Spirit, who appeared to him in the shape of a white dove.

Some musicologists, on the other hand, believe that Gregory may have contributed to the regulation and consolidation of previous chants, which eventually formed the basis of later Gregorian chant.

When the dove sings its sacred songs to Gregory, he is frequently represented as concurrently dictating the dove’s melodies to a nearby scribe.

Gregorian Chant’s Texture and Melody In general, Gregorian chant (as well as many other forms of chants from throughout the world) has a monophonic musical texture, with vocalists singing in unison (all singers sing the exact same melody together).

In other instances, however, chant may be done to the accompaniment of a drone, which is a sustained pitch that is played for the duration of the melody that is being sung during the performance.

In short, if you were to sing a tune by yourself (or if you and a group of friends were all singing the same melody at the same time), this would be deemed monophonic.

The late musicologist Willi Apel defined the melodies of Gregorian chant as compositions that were unrestrained by the limitations of meter (as we today understand and relate to it) and harmony, and that were key components of melodies written in future musical periods.

These melodies could be syllabic (with a note sung on each syllable), neumatic (with typically two to four notes sung per syllable), or melismatic (with many notes sung on the vowel of a single syllable), and they were frequently conjunct (melodic motion that moves in steps rather than skips or larger leaps, which is referred to as “disjunct motion Early Types of Medieval Musical Notation and Gregorian Chant Charlemagne’s decree that liturgy and chant should be uniform throughout all areas spurred the need for notated chant.

  • This necessitated the development of a method for recording tunes that could be correctly taught and conveyed without the limitations of human memory.
  • Instead, it made use of symbols known as “neumes,” which served as a kind of trigger for melodies that had previously been taught and preserved as part of an oral tradition….
  • They express the relative rising and descending melodic motion of the text.
  • The St.
  • Gall, Switzerland, is one of the earliest existing sources of this notation (which was copied in the tenth century).
  • Sang.
  • Sang.

Sang.

Guido d’Arezzo, a prominent music theorist from Arezzo in the eleventh century, continued to create the framework for modern music notation by developing a four-line musical staff divided by intervals of thirds (an interval is the distance between two pitches).

Guido described the manner in which his employees worked in the preface to his antiphoner (of which only the prologue has survived): The notes are structured in such a manner that each sound, no matter how many times it appears in a song, is always located in the same row.

–Margot Fassler’s translation of the original text Additionally, Guido provided an essential instructional technique (known as solmization) to further enable sight-singing of written notation on the staff, an approach that has now evolved into today’s solfège.

Using Square Notation By the time the thirteenth century arrived, Gregorian chant was being notated with square notation, which was written on a four-lined staff.

This is in contrast to the previously described adiastematic neumes, which merely supplied a few notated suggestions to enable vocalists who had already learned the melodies in order to aid them in their performances.

Sonja Maurer-Dass is a musicologist and harpsichordist from Canada.

Additionally, she possesses a Master’s degree in Musicology from York University, where she specialized on late medieval English choral music and the Old Hall Manuscript (Toronto, Canada).

Read on for more information.

Chant of the Gregorian Calendar (BurnsOates, 1958) Margot Fassler is a writer who lives in the United States.

Norton and Company, 2014) Kenneth Levy is the author of this work.

From the earliest notations through the sixteenth century, music has been recorded (Oxford University Press, 2010) Featured Image: Adiastematic gregorian equitanian notation (top image). Wikimedia Commons has a large collection of images.

What is Gregorian chant theme?

It is common practice for the Halo series to use Gregorian chants as the theme music for the Halo Installations, most likely in reference to the strong religious connotations that the installations hold for the Covenant, who regard them as relics left behind by their gods, the species that built them.

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What period is Gregorian chants?

The practice of Gregorian chant started in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, which refers to the era from about the 5th century and the 15th century. Because it was Catholic Church music, the objective of the performance was ceremonial in nature.

What language are Gregorian chants?

European Gregorian chant originated during the Middle Ages, which is defined as the era spanning about the 5th century to the 15th century, and is still in use today. Given that it was Catholic Church music, the objective of the performance was ceremonial.

Is Gregorian chant still used today?

The Roman Catholic Church still considers Gregorian chant to be the most appropriate music for worship, even though it is no longer required under the church’s rules. Gregorian chant saw a renaissance in both the musicological and popular realms throughout the twentieth century.

Are Gregorian chants healing?

The Roman Catholic Church still considers Gregorian chant to be the most appropriate music for liturgy, even though it is no longer mandatory. When it comes to musicology and popular culture, the 20th century has seen an upsurge in Gregorian chant.

What are the five characteristics of Gregorian chant?

Editing the Gregorian Chant

  • In contrast to other musical styles, the melody of a Gregorian chant is highly free-flowing. Harmony – Because Gregorian chants are monophonic in texture, they do not have any harmonic content. It is impossible to determine the rhythm of a traditional Gregorian chant. In terms of form, several Gregorian chants are written in ternary (ABA) form. Timbre – Sung by all male choruses in the same key

Are the Gregorian singers real monks?

You probably figured it before, but they are monks who live and pray at a remote Benedictine monastery near the town of Burgos in northern Spain. With their current Gregorian chant CD, which spent five weeks at No. 1 on the Spanish album charts, they have created a phenomenon in the country.

What are the three types of chant?

Syllabic chant, neumatic chant, and melismatic chant are the three forms of Gregorian chant. Usually, the amount of notes sung each syllable allows them to be differentiated from one another without difficulty.

What is the best way to describe a Gregorian chant?

Gregorian chants are best described by the term monophonic, which is an excellent choice.

Why is Gregorian chant seldom heard today?

What is it about Gregorian chant that is so rarely heard nowadays? (1)It is quite difficult to sing, and those who are familiar with it are rapidly disappearing. (2) The use of the vernacular in church services was mandated by the Second Vatican Council, which met from 1962 to 1965. (3) It is out of date with regard to new services. (4)

Is motet sacred or secular?

It is a type of vocal composition that has experienced several alterations over many years, and its name comes from the French word mot, which means “word.” However, it can be any type of music, whether it a secular composition or a piece for soloist(s) and instrumental accompaniment in any language, with or without the participation of a choir.

What are the characteristics of Gregorian chants?

The six fundamental qualities of Gregorian chant are as follows:

  • Harmony. Because the texture is monophonic, there is no harmony. Rhythm. There is no definite rhythm
  • Notes may be maintained for a short or long period of time, but no complicated rhythms are utilized
  • There is no precise beat
  • Form. Some Gregorian chants are written in ternary form
  • For example, Texture.
  • sMedium

What is unmetered in Gregorian chant means?

The majority of the music performed during the Middle Ages was Gregorian chant. The majority of the songs are monophonic. unmetered, not in metric units a limited number of options There is little to no feeling of rhythm.

What religion are Gregorian monks?

For centuries, the music of the Roman Catholic Church was based on Gregorian chant, which was developed in these monastic communities.

For years, the deep, mellow chants filled the lofty cathedrals of Europe and beyond until falling out of favor in the 1960s.

What’s our calendar called?

The Gregorian calendar is a solar-based calendar that is utilized by the majority of the globe. It was given this name in honor of Pope Gregory XIII, who in 1582 published the papal bull Inter gravissimas, which announced calendar modifications for the whole Catholic Church worldwide.

How many days in a year in the Gregorian calendar?

The year is 365 days long in both calendars, with a leap day being added to February in the years when the calendars are aligned. According to the Gregorian calendar, the months and month lengths are the same as they are according to the Julian calendar.

Which element of Gregorian chant was the most important?

Gregorian chant, also known as plainsong or plainchant, is a musical form that places a strong emphasis on the element of melody, often to the exclusion of all other musical aspects.

What is a melismatic melody?

Song, air, and melody (from the Greek words o melos (song) and melisma (melismata)) is the singing of a single phrase while switching between multiple distinct notes in succession. A vocal run is a word used to refer to melisma informally.

What key are Gregorian chants in?

The Gregorian notation system was created largely for the purpose of committing holy chants from the beginning of the second millennium on paper. Using current notes, the scale is composed of the following chords: C, D, E, F, G, and A. There are no differences in the intervals between these notes and those in current notation. Notes are written on a four-line staff to keep them organized.

Why is Gregorian chant so relaxing?

Because it gives “a technique of coping with time,” Gregorian chant is particularly well suited for meditation. According to him, the concepts of mother and time elicit an emotional reaction of ease, and “all music returns to that naive state of joy.”

Why do monks say Ohm?

the holy spirit, or Shakti, and its three fundamental characteristics: creation, preservation, and liberation, are symbolically embodied by the sound Om When we chant Om, we are tuning ourselves into the fundamental sound of the cosmos, acknowledging our interconnectedness to everything in the world and the universe as a whole.

Why is Gregorian chant calming?

The ability of sounds to induce quiet and tranquillity was recognized hundreds of years ago, and the Gregorian chants were composed with this understanding in mind when they were composed. As a result of listening to or singing spiritual tunes, many reported experiencing a deep sense of balance and peace.

The Book of Gregorian Chant

Liturgical music and Latin texts make up the bulk of the book’s content. It is the chants from the Ordinary of the Mass that comprise the majority of the manuscript, including arrangements of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Ite Missa Est, Deo gratias, and Benedicamus Domino texts. In this collection, you’ll find a variety of chants from various Proper settings, such as those from the Asperges Mass, the Requiem Mass, the Mass for a Church’s Dedication, the Mass for the Purification of Mary (Candlemas), and others.

  1. Francisci, the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Lady Day), Maundy Thursday, and Palm Sunday, among other occasions.
  2. The UMKC Library Catalog contains a comprehensive listing of the manuscript’s contents, which can be found here.
  3. Six scribes appear to have contributed to the book, according to an examination of the notation features..
  4. In addition to the initial notation, other scribes “fixed” the work of prior scribes, which was done in a variety of ways.
  5. The process of comparing the original with the new version of various chants, and then comparing those two versions with other medieval sources, was critical in determining the publication date of the book.
  6. This, together with the fact that the number of staff lines varied from four to six lines per staff in the manuscript, indicates that at least a portion of the book was written before the standard staff for chant notation were established.
  7. Alumnus of the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory of Music James Adair purchased the manuscript in 1968 while visiting Seville, Spain.

Adair has determined that a stamp in purple ink that occurs on three folios (folios 26r, 93r, and 98r) is an official identifying mark from the Spanish government.

Adair presented the book to the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory Library in 1973, which later became a component of the Miller Nichols Library.

Janet K.

Dr.

Every chant in the UMKC text has been recorded in contemporary notation, which is the most significant outcome of her endeavor.

Dr.

A lecture-recital based on chosen chants from the UMKC text was delivered on April 16, 2000, at the RLDS Temple in Independence, Mo.

Kraybill was the guest speaker for the event.

After the chants, Dr.

Dr.

Dr.

Kraybill, who graciously provided a recording of it.

They are the Kyrie and Alleluia from the Mass for the Dedication of a Church, as well as the Antiphon from the Palm Sunday celebration.

Kraybill’s transcriptions of them, are also available on this website for viewing and listening.

Kraybill has contributed digitized photographs from the book for use in this web exhibit, in addition to the written text.

The experience and research of Ms.

Moses Ong, Special Collections volunteer and former student assistant, who gave extremely beneficial technical support. We would like to express our gratitude to Rob Ray, our previous Special Collections Librarian, for his leadership and assistance during this endeavor.

Kyrie

An acclamation that is sung immediately after the Introit in the Latin Mass is known as the Kyrie. Lord, have mercy on us,’ says the fundamental text, which is in Greek, which is composed of the phrases ‘Kyrie, eleison’ (three times), ‘Christe, eleison’ (three times), and ‘Kyrie, eleison’ (three times): ‘Lord, have mercy on us,’ says the text. Please, Christ, have mercy on me. ‘Lord, take compassion on me.’ After becoming popularized as part of pagan civic and religious events throughout the Roman Empire, the phrase ‘kyrie eleison’ continued to be employed in Christian rites, eventually becoming a staple of many Christian liturgies beginning in the 6th century and continuing today.

(This information comes from the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians Online.) The audio element cannot be played because your browser does not support it.

Kraybill’s performance of the Kyrie eleison is available on CD.

Alleluia

This Proper chant is performed after the Gradual during the Fore-Mass on liturgical days connected with penitence and fasting (most notably during Lent), and on liturgical occasions associated with sadness (such as the Requiem Mass), when it may be substituted by the Tract. During Paschal Time, which begins with Low Sunday and ends with High Sunday, the Gradual is skipped and two Alleluias are sung instead. After singing the word “alleluia” and closing with a prolonged melismatic flourish (the Jubilus), the Alleluia will be followed by a somewhat ornate verse, followed by another repetition of the phrase “alleluia.” The Alleluia will be done in a responsorial way.

Although there is no evidence of such participation by the chorus in the early sources, it is possible that the chorus sang at least the final iteration of the Alleluia at some point.

Dr.

Antiphon

This form of liturgical chant was common to the Gregorian and other Western chant repertoires and was connected mostly with antiphonal psalmody, although it was also used in other contexts. When a Psalm or canticle is being sang, it is customary for the refrain to be composed in basic syllabic manner, and it is usually only a few measures in length. There were, on the other hand, several sorts of Antiphons that were not related with psalmody at all. In the processional Antiphons, which were first preserved in graduals and later in separate books and sung at processions on such occassions as the Feast of the Purification (Candlemas), the Greater Litanies, and Palm Sunday, there were verses after the fasion of responsories that were sometimes included in a processional.

It is still used in processionals at modern services, which is a testament to its longevity.

The UMKC text has just a few chants from the Office. This one, from the Office of “Terce,” would have been at the church at 9 a.m. for worship. This information is derived from the New Harvard Dictionary of Music.

Credo

According to an examination of the peculiarities of the notation, it appears that six scribes worked on the UMKC’s Book of Gregorian Chant. ‘Scribe 1’ is responsible for the majority of the manuscript’s work, which includes the biggest illumination in the text, a capital “P,” which occurs on folio 82r and takes up more than half of the page (left). In addition to the initial notation, other scribes “fixed” the work of prior scribes, which was done in a variety of ways. On the right is a page from the manuscript (folio 8r), which was written by another scribe and features an illumination of the letter “P,” but this illumination is much different from the previous one.

Kraybill, “the illuminations distinguish and enhance the beauty of this book, as is true of many medieval instances.” Many various colors of pen were used to produce these text decorations, including black, red, teal blue, dark blue, green and orange.

As a result, a wide variety of techniques were employed, yielding results that ranged from extremely ornate and colorful decorations that filled the margins from top to bottom with beautiful filigree to very crude, “colored-in” letters that appeared to be a clumsy attempt by an unskilled hand to imitate the beauty of the former.

Folio 8r has the final section of the Asperges Antiphon with Psalm, as well as the first section of an unnamed Credo, among other things (which also begins with an illuminated “P”).

Although we have three Latin Creeds (the ‘Apostles’, the ‘Nicene, and the ‘Athanasian’), the history of the texts is complicated; nonetheless, the one used at Mass is the one often referred to as the ‘Nicene.’ Early in the 6th century, the Credo was introduced into the eucharistic liturgy in the eastern church in the form known as the ‘Nicene’ (or ‘Nicea-Constantinople’) version (so named because it summarizes the doctrines agreed upon at the Councils of Nicea, 325, and Constantinople, 381), and soon after that, it was introduced into the Visigothic rite by the Council of Toledo (589).

In both cases, it was instituted in the wake of theological disputes, with the goal of defining the conviction that all those who participate in the Eucharist should hold in common.

Baptismal usage of the Credo (or Symbolum, as it was known in this capacity) persisted throughout the Middle Ages, and it is thought to have been responsible for the maintenance of a Greek text in Latin manuscripts depicting customs in northern France and Germany during this period.

(Image courtesy of the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians on the Internet.)

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