What Is The “chant” Alu Mean In Hawaiian


An ancient song credited to Waipi’o’s Sam Li’a was recorded and released by a guy named Gabby “Pops” Pahinui in the 1950s, and this marked a turning point in Hawaiian music history. The song “Hi’ilawe,” which was inspired by a beautiful waterfall in Waipi’o Valley and a love affair that took place there, was delivered in Gabby’s unique Slack Key style, which she has developed over the years. It quickly became a classic in its own right. Soon after, an increasing number of slack key guitarists began to share, play, and record their music in public settings.

Players such as Leonard Kwan, Leland “Atta” Isaacs, Fred Punahoa, Nedward and Ledward Ka’apana, Auntie Alice Namakelua, Peter Moon, and, of course, Raymond, Sonny, and Gabby established a legacy framework for K H’alu, one that elevated this beautiful and relatively unknown folk art to the forefront, sharing both its humble roots as a personal folk expression and its artistic potential to serve as a high Many of the practitioners who were named here have now died away.

Their legacies, on the other hand, live on.

As George Winston, the famous pianist and creator of Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar recording company Dancing Cat, once observed, “Hawaiian Slack Key is the ultimate frontier of the acoustic guitar.” And there is still more to be discovered.

  • Most effectively conveyed in person, accompanied by the stories of its musicians, their travels across Hawaii and the world, and their experiences in presenting this extremely uncommon music.
  • And for those who are interested in a more technical explanation of Slack Key, please continue reading.
  • Tuning up modifies the connection between the open string notes, allowing for new melodic and chordal possibilities to be explored on the fretboard as a result.
  • A distinctive and rich resonance is created by combining a picking style that resembles bass, rhythm, and melody all at the same time, creating the effect of “three guitars in one.” “Slack Key” is used differently in different cultures.
  • Strings are often tuned down, or “slacked,” although they can also be tuned up.
  • When the fretting hand is free, the picking hand provides an alternating bass pattern over which a false beat and lead melody are played, allowing the fretting hand to move more freely.
  • You have the feeling that you have a mini-symphony right in front of you.

However, tuning the guitar is only one aspect of the process.

However, playing in open tuning does not imply that one is playing Slack Key Guitar; on the contrary, playing in open tuning does not imply that one is playing Slack Key Guitar.

Slack Key Guitar in the Hawaiian style cannot be done just on the basis of technical understanding or talent; rather, it must originate from the heart and soul of the performer.

The slack key becomes just another method, which the old timers would never approve of or identify as K H’alu until it is accompanied by this.

The Hawaiian style is comprised on three fundamental components: An alternating bass line, what I call “fake rhythms,” in which you put in a small brush stroke to resemble a rhythm strummer, and the melody are all part of the composition process.

If you compare it to, say, Travis Picking, you’ll see that there are a lot more syncopated things happening at the same time.

You must definitely differentiate yourself from the crowd like a drummer.

“K’ H’alu” is Hawaiian for “to slacken or relax.” Note that the word “alu” also has the kaona (hidden meaning) of “united or operating together,” which refers to one element that is critical in determining Slack Key’s identity.

The ability to tune to a chord without having to hold chords is what really distinguishes Hawaiian Slack Key from other styles of music.

Our fingers dampen the sound of the strings as we touch them, causing them to stop ringing.

As they play together, they produce a droning sound, which transmits a wonderful resonance, giving the impression that there is more than one instrument performing.

Many Slack Key tunes require the player to fret just the two highest strings (i.e., Gabby’s and the G string) “K H’alu (“PURE GABBY”) is an abbreviation for “K H’alu.” While the bottom strings continue to ring continuously (without being fretted), the upper strings are swiftly fretted and released in order to replicate bird noises, and other uplifting mimicries of nature, as is typical.

  • Slack Key in its purest form is not complete without this component.
  • While many players learn the melody of the Hawaiianmele(song), many are unable to grasp the bass portion of the song.
  • When you listen to Peter Moon (Sr) and the Gabby Pahinui Hawaiian Band (not solo) records, you’ll notice that the two of them aren’t playing the bass for the most of the time.
  • Even though they used the tunings and melodies of classic Hawaiianmele, this is still considered “Slack Key” music; however, in order to properly define the genre, we must include the alternating bass accompaniment with thumb.
  • 2) The principal melody of the tune is performed by the fingers of the picking hand.
  • In order to create the appearance of an accompanying background strumming rhythm guitar, I use both my thumb and pointer finger to transmit what I term a “fake” beat from time to time.
  • The fact that it is a method that is difficult to describe or teach means that it is rarely used, yet it may be observed in the playing styles of legends.

The fundamental approach to guitar known as Hawaiian Slack Key is comprised of the combination of these three components performed simultaneously on a single guitar in slacked or “open” tuning, which is known as the “open” tuning.

Haole – Wikipedia


Non-native Hawaiians
Regions with significant populations

Haole(; Hawaiian) is aHawaiian term used to describe people who are neither Native Hawaiian or Polynesian in origin. This term can refer to any foreigner or anything else that has been introduced to the Hawaiian islands that is of foreign origin, yet it is most usually used to persons of European heritage in Hawaii. The word’s origins may be traced back to antiquity, before the arrival of Captain James Cook in 1778, according to a number of chants that date back to that time. Depending on the context in which it is used, its meanings can range from neutral and descriptive to vitriolic and derogatory.


When European immigrants arrived in the United States in the early 1820s, Haolefirst became linked with their children. It helped to bring these Hawaii-born children’s self-identity together, despite the fact that their parents were as culturally diverse as they were similar. The term “Haole” came to be associated with contempt after missionaries imposed strict rules prohibiting games, singing, and playing that have lasted to the present day. The first three generations of Haole played pivotal roles in the rise of economic and political power shifts that have lasted to the present day.

According to a 1906 phrase book, it is occasionally translated as “English (language).”


The pronunciation is given as ha-o-le in the 1865 Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language, which was prepared by Lorrin Andrews. According to a common urban legend, the term ashole is correctly spelled and spoken as ashole, which literally translates as “without air.” One explanation for this is that Westerners are unfamiliar with thehoni(hongiinMori), aPolynesiangreeting practiced by contacting nose to nose and inhaling or sharing each other’s breaths, which is conducted by touching nose to nose and inhaling or sharing each other’s breaths.

  1. According to legend, outsiders were portrayed as being “without air” since they were not aware of the habit.
  2. St.
  3. In 1944, Hawaiian scholar Charles W.
  4. In its secondary meaning, the word haole connotes a thief, a robber, or someone who should not be trusted.
  5. The term has evolved to apply to anyone who is of Nordic heritage, regardless of whether they were born in Hawaii or abroad.” Later study, however, has revealed that the connotation of “without breath” is most likely wrong.
  6. He is known as Hookahi o Kahiki kanaka.
  7. Kahiki is an island with a language that is difficult to understand.
  8. With the exception of one kind—a foreign kind— The term “haole” is a single word in this chant, with no glottal stops or lengthened vowels, and there is no record of anybody else using the word “hole” prior to Western contact with the Hawaiian people.

Former University of Hawai’i at Mnoa professor of linguistics Albert J. Schütz concurred that there was no evidence that the word “haole” could be broken down into two shorter words.

Use of the word

It is commonly used to identify persons of European heritage among Hawaiian residents who are descended from various ethnic groups that worked on the plantations (typically known as “locals”), and it is also used informally to indicate those of mixed ancestry. Despite the fact that the phrase itself might be purely descriptive, others claim that it can be used in a negative or discriminating manner as well. There are multiple terms often used in Hawaii to designate distinct ethnic groups, and haole is only one of them.

See also:  What Did Audience Chant At Elizabeth Warren I. Atlanta

As a result, it is possible to claim that Chinese, Filipinos, and other ‘locals’ are also considered haole.

The term is also linked to traditional and cultural practices as well as regional dialects and customs found in the mainland United States, as opposed to those that are found on the Hawaiian islands.

“It is not negative — it is descriptive,” says Haunani-Kay Trask, a prominent Hawaiian nationalist and language champion.

See also

  • A list of ethnic insults, including the term kamaina
  • Pkeh, which is the equivalent term in the Mori language
  • And Samoans refer to outsiders as palagi, which is a phrase that is occasionally used to characterize them. Portuguese immigration to Hawaii, Spanish immigration to Hawaii, Greeks in Hawaii, and other ethnic groups in Hawaii


  1. Definition of the HAOLE acronym. Merriam-definition Webster’s of the word Haole. The 29th of October, 2018. Obtainable on October 31, 2018
  2. In the Hawaiian Dictionary, Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003) wrote, “lookup ofHaole.” The University of Hawaii Press publishes Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library. Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003).”lookup ofhaole” in the Hawaiian Dictionary, which was retrieved on July 27, 2021. The University of Hawaii Press publishes Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library. Retrieved on July 27, 2021
  3. Also see The Hawaiian Legal Land-Terms were defined by Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003) in the Hawaiian Dictionary, “lookup ofhaole.” The University of Hawaii Press publishes Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library. Judy Rohrer’s article was retrieved on July 27, 2021. (July 22, 2010). In Hawaii, there are haoles. Publisher: University of Hawaii Press. Page number: 59. ISBN: 978-0-8248-6042-4. On July 12, 2021, Gamayo and Dardel were retrieved (June 10, 2016). What do you think of the word “Haole?” Now is a good time to visit the Big Island. KE KUMU HAWAII is retrieved on October 31, 2020
  4. The article 12 Nowemapa (1834) was published in a missionary newspaper and described a recital by haole children in November 1834, with Hawaiian royalty, the American Consulate, ship captains, other notable persons of Oahu, and many missionaries in attendance
  5. HOUSE RULE REPUBALIKA 6 Nowemapa 1901p.4
  6. Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003). “lookup ofmalihini” in the Hawaiian The University of Hawaii Press publishes Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library. Mark Twain’s quotation was retrieved on November 24, 2010. (1966). A. Grove Day is a day in which trees are planted in groves (ed.). letter from hawaii, pages 202–203, ISBN 978-0-8248-0288-2
  7. John Harris Soper, “Letters from Hawaii” (1906). The Hawaiian Phrase Book contains the following phrases: No Huaolelo a Me Na Olelo Kikeki Na Ka Olelo Beritania a Me Ka Olelo Hawaii. No Huaolelo a Me Na Olelo Kikeki Na Ka Olelo Hawaii. p. 64
  8. Abcd
  9. The Hawaiian news corporation Albert J. Schütz is the author of this work (January 1, 1995). The Voices of Eden: A History of Hawaiian Language Studies is a book on the history of Hawaiian language studies. University of Hawaii Press, p. 213, ISBN 978-0-8248-1637-7. University of Hawaii Press. The data was retrieved on July 9, 2021
  10. Abcd Kenn, Charles W., et al (August 1944). “Can you tell me what a Haole is?” Paradise of the Pacific, p. 16
  11. “Hawaii: The Heart of the Pacific,” p. 17. 2008
  12. “Denby Fawcett: Can A White Person Ever Be ‘Local’ in Hawaii?” in Hawaiian Studies 107 Reader(2nd ed.). “Haole: Is it a Bad Word?” asks Honolulu Civil Beat on February 4, 2020, and is retrieved on February 28, 2020. Big Island Now, June 10, 2016. Big Island Now, June 10, 2016. “Hawaiian English” was retrieved on May 17, 2021
  13. Encyclopedia.com. “Hawaii Suffering from Racial Prejudice” was published on April 15, 2021, and was retrieved on May 17, 2021. The Southern Poverty Law Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to fighting poverty. The 30th of August, 2009. retrieved on May 17th, 2021
  14. Judy Rohrer published an article on July 22, 2010 titled Haoles in Hawaii. p. 73-74. ISBN 978-0-8248-6042-4. Published by the University of Hawaii Press. Audrey McAvoy (born July 12, 1921) is a British actress (May 2, 2021). “Two men from Hawaii have been indicted in a hate crime case on the island of Maui.” Associated Press News. The document was retrieved on July 12, 2021
  15. Ladao, Mark
  16. Boylan, Peter (July 4, 2021). “Haunani-Kay Trask, an activist and retired University of Hawaii professor, has worked for Hawaiian rights and concerns for decades.” The Honolulu Star-Advertiser is a newspaper in Honolulu, Hawaii. Susan Essoyan’s paper was published on July 9, 2021, and it was retrieved on the same day (November 28, 1990). In “Race Relations: The Aloha Spirit of Love Gives Way to “Yankee Go Home,” a professor’s anti-white stance sparks a national controversy about racism in Hawaii.” The Los Angeles Times published this article. retrieved on July 9, 2021
  17. Retrieved on July 9, 2021
  18. “Haunani-Kay Trask Interview: Haole and the Colonization of Hawaii,” which was archived at theGhostarchive and theWayback Machine, is available online. YouTube

Further reading

  • Elvi Whittaker is a fictional character created by author Elvi Whittaker (1986). Hawai’i’s Mainland Haole: The White Experience in the Land of the Rising Sun Columbia University Press
  • Ohnuma, Keiko
  • New York: Columbia University Press (2002). “Local Haole – Is It a Misnomer? Is it a misnomer? The conundrum of being a white person who was born and reared in Hawai’i “….. Cultural Values, Volume 6, Number 3, Pages 273–285, doi: 10.1080/1362517022000007211.S2CID144729410
  • Rohrer, Judy (1997). Identity and White Privilege in Hawai’i: The Case of the Haole Girl 38: 140–161
  • Judy Rohrer, Social Process in Hawai’i.38: 140–161
  • (2006). “”Are you up for a race?” The Production of Haole and the Distortion of Indigeneity in the Rice Decision are two important issues to consider “….. The Contemporary Pacific, volume 18, number 1, pages 1–31, doi: 10.1353/cp.2005.0102

Hawaiian Moon Phases

KAMALII IKE OLE I KA HELU P: MUKU NEI, MUKU KA MALAMA, HILO NEI, KAU O HOAKA. KAMALII IKE OLE I KA HELU P: MUKU NEI, MUKU KA MALAMA, KAU O HOAKA. 1471 Children who are unfamiliar with the phases of the moon: Muku has arrived; Muku is the month; Hilo will follow, followed by Hoaka. When someone does not know the answer to a question or is uneducated, they are said to be ignorant. He is compared to a little child who has not yet learnt about the phases of the moon. Never paid attention to the many phases of the moon, or how they affected the Inn and the Kai (as well as ourselves as knaka)?

  1. Our kpuna were such keen watchers that they were able to detect the many cycles and patterns that occurred during the night.
  2. “Kamalii ike ole I ka helu p.” “Kamalii ike ole I ka helu p.” Children who do not understand the phases of the moon.
  3. Understanding the moon phases was so important to Hawaiians in order to optimize their farming, fishing, construction, and other duties that without knowing about them would be deemed nearly ignorant of their surroundings.
  4. As a result, we have been planting two patches of kalo every month in order to keep up with the demand (for which we are quite thankful).
  5. The timing of the planting of this second patch is dictated by our ability to prepare it and obtain sufficient huli.
  6. The weeds will continue to grow, and the evenings will continue to slip away from us.
  7. We can see a difference in the growth of the kalo when it is planted on the full moon vs when it isn’t.

The first anahulu is namedhoonui, and it is the time of the month when the moon is growing in size or waxing, respectively.

The third anahulu is namedhomi, and it occurs when the moon is declining in size or fading in brightness.

By looking at the term ole, you can see that it implies “without” or “without,” which is not what you want your kalo to represent.

Moons ranging from Hua to Mhealani are among those on which we choose to grow our crops.

K-moons might also be beneficial for gardening.

L’au is a broad term for trees or plants, therefore any l’au moons are excellent for planting as well as for observing.

It appeared as if someone had reached down and lifted it up into the sky from the ground level.

You are under no obligation to accept our word for it.

Try it out for yourself and make your own notes about how it worked. View the results of the same plant being planted on different moons by clicking here. See which plants thrive on certain moons by observing their growth patterns. Let us all set a goal for ourselves to learn something new together.


  • THE KAMALII NEI, MUKU KA MALAMA, HILO NEI, and KAU o HOAKA are examples of KAMALII NEI, IKE KA HELU P. 1471 When it comes to children who do not understand the phases of the moon, Greetings from Muku! The month of Muku has here
  • Hilo will follow, followed by Hoaka. When someone does not know the answer to a question or is uneducated, they are said to be illiterate. A young youngster who has not yet learnt the phases of the moon is used to compare him. Never paid attention to the many phases of the moon, or how they affected the Inn and the Kai (as well as us as knaka)? Because of the moon’s gravitational influence, we can watch the ebb and flow of the tides. They were such keen watchers that they were able to distinguish between the many cycles and patterns that occurred throughout the night every night. All elements of life, including fishing, farming, building, chores, and festivities, were influenced by the helu p (moon phases), which they observed every day. “Kamalii ike ole I ka helu p” means “Kamalii ike ole in the ka helu p.” Children who do not understand the phases of the moon It was common to hear this comment in response to someone who didn’t know the answer to a question
  • They were contrasted to kamalii (children) who didn’t understand the phases of the moon. Understanding the moon phases was so important to Hawaiians in order to optimize their farming, fishing, construction, and other chores that not knowing about them was nearly considered foolish. Whenever we plant, we follow the lunar calendar, which serves as a guide for us at Hookuaina. As a result, we have been planting two patches of kalo every month in order to keep up with demand (for which we are quite thankful). Our goal is to plant one patch around the full moon, and the second patch will be planted sometime in the middle of the month. Whether or whether we can plant this second patch will depend on how quickly we can prepare it and collect enough huli. We have to face the fact that life will not wait for us to arrive. Even if the weeds continue to grow, and even though the evenings continue to slip away, we must endure them. This is advantageous in that it provides us with an opportunity to kilo a kilo (make observations). In order to understand how the kalo grows, we must first understand how it grows when it is planted on the full moon. It is possible to divide the Hawaiian malama (month) into three anahulu (period of 10 days). Anahulu is the first of the five anahulu, which occurs when the moon is growing in size, or waxing. This is the second anahulu, which is also known as poepoe, and it occurs when the moon is rounding and about to reach full phase. Namulu is the third anahulu, which occurs while the moon is diminishing or fading. Ole moons, on the whole, aren’t the best time to plant or go fishing. By looking at the term ole, you can see that it signifies “without” or “lack,” which is not what you want your kalo to be. Our best days for clearing hau and pulling weeds are ahead of us. Moons ranging from Hua to Mhealani are among the ones we enjoy planting on. We learned about a similar practice of planting immediately before the full moon from Uncle Viriamu during our exchange trip to Rurutu in 2018. In addition to planting, K moonlight can be beneficial. Standing is one meaning of the word k, thus planting items that would grow tall and sit upright would be a logical choice in this case. The term “lau” refers to a broad term for trees or plants, which means that any lau moons are excellent for planting as well. A few years back, when we initially made the purposeful decision to plant on the full moon, what jumped out the most to us was how much straighter and higher the kalo stood in comparison to its typical height. It appeared as if someone had reached down and lifted it up into the sky from the ground up. Possibly, in the same way that the moon’s gravity draws water into the ocean, the water in the kalo plant is drawn upwards. This isn’t something you have to take our word for, though. Make your own observations after putting it through its paces. View the results of the same plant being planted on different moons by following the links below. Look at the moon phases to see which plants thrive best. Come on, let’s put ourselves out there and learn together!
See also:  How Do You Chant


  • Helu P:Calendar of the moon
  • Used to keep track of the number of nights. Moon is represented by Mahina, and month is represented by Malama. Anahulu: Ten-day period of time
  • Hoonui: First anahulu, then enlarging
  • Poepoe:Rounding, second anahulu
  • Homi:Diminishing, third anahulu
  • Poepoe:Rounding, second anahulu
  • Poepoe:Rounding, third anahulu

Hawaiian Moon Phases

  • Here is a link to an interactive Hawaiian Moon Calendar: http://www.hawaiianmooncalendar.com/ type=”1″>
  • sHilo
  • sHoaka
  • sKūkahi
  • sKūlua
  • sKūkolu
  • sKūpau
  • sʻOlekūkahi
  • sʻOlekūlua
  • sʻOlekūkolu
  • sʻOlepau
  • Check out this interactive Hawaiian Moon Calendar: http://www.hawaiianmooncalendar.com/index html type=”1″>
  • sHilo
  • sHoaka
  • sKūkahi
  • sKūlua
  • sKūkolu
  • sKūpau
  • sʻOlekūkahi
  • sʻOlekūlua
  • sʻOlekūkolu
  • sʻOlepau
  • ʻOlekūkahi
  • sʻOlekūlua
  • sʻOlepau
  • sKāloakūkahi
  • sKāloakūlua
  • sKāloapau
  • sKāne
  • sLono
  • sMauli
  • sMuku

Possible Extension Activities

This chant and hand game will help you learn about the Hawaiian moon phases. Ike ‘ole I Ka Helu P Muku Nei, Muku ka Malama Hilo nei, Hoaka ‘Eho Kulu, Mohalu, Hua, Akua Hoku, Mhealani, Kulu, ‘ike ‘ole I Ka Helu P Muku nei, Hoaka ‘Eho Kulu, Mohalu, Hua, Akua Hoku, M Lono, Mauli Pau, ‘Ekolu L’au, ‘Ekolu ‘Ole, ‘Ekolu Kloa Kne, ‘Ekolu Kloa Kne, ‘Ekolu Kloa Kne, Lono, Mauli Pau Choose a crop and plant it on different moon phases to see how it grows. Perhaps begin with Hilo, the new moon, followed by an ole moon, and then one of the full moons in the calendar.

  1. Take photographs and make notes so that you can compare how they grow in different environments.
  2. It is possible to choose a plant in your yard, a favorite beach, or even just to reflect on yourself and observe how you feel on a day to day basis.
  3. Do you see that the tide is a little higher than it was yesterday?
  4. Make a mental note of it!
  5. “Lelo Noeau: Hawaiian Proverbs and Poetical Sayings” is a collection of Hawaiian proverbs and poetical sayings.
  6. 71, published by the Bernice P.
  7. “Hawaiian Dictionary,” by Mary Kawena lua o Samuel H.
  8. The University of Hawai’i Press published a book in 1986 titled “A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language,” by Lorrin lua o Henry H.
  9. The Board of Commissioners of Public Archives of the Territory of Hawaii published this publication in 1922 in Hawai’i.

Na Leo Hawai’i: Musics of Hawai’i

Soundscapes Japanese and Korean music is popular in Hawai’i. Asians and Pacific Islanders make up the bulk of the population of the Hawaiian islands. Music has always played a crucial part in the lives of all of these groups. Mele, or chanting, was the most significant method of preserving the memory of gods and the actions of strong individuals in early Hawai’ian history. Today, Hawaiians continue to utilize music to define themselves and to celebrate aloha ‘aina, or love of the land, as well as to express their cultural identity.


The first Hawaiians recorded their literature via memory rather than writing, according to historians. They created and preserved an enormous oral legacy, a body of literature that included every aspect of Hawaiian culture and history. Mele, or ancient Polynesian and Hawaiian chants, preserved thousands of years of ancient Polynesian and Hawaiian history. Besides recording the daily lives of the Hawaiian people, chants also captured their love of the land, their sense of comedy or tragedy, and the heroic character of their leaders.

Mele oli andmele hula are the two broad types into which they may be divided.

Mele oli also relates myths and folklore, as well as recounting historical occurrences.

As heard in the songs “Anoai (Huliuli)” and “Hole Waimea,” mele hula is accompanied by dance movements performed alone or in conjunction with musical instruments like as the drum “pahu” and gourd rattle “uli’uli.” The drum “pahu” is used to accompany the dance motions.


Introduced to Hawaii in the nineteenth century, Western string instruments and Christian hymns (orhimeni), orhimeni, changed older forms of Hawaiian music and offered ingredients for the development of new musical genres. Congregationalist missionary Hiram Bingham established “singing schools” at the location of Kawaiaha’o Church on the island of Oahu around 1820, according to historical records. He taught native Hawaiians how to sing Western hymns and Western music. They stressed communal singing, with everyone actively participating rather than passively listening to a selected choir, as was the case at these “singing schools.” In the tradition of Protestant hymns, the Reverend Bingham and others produced Hawaiian hymns using previously composed tunes, often copying a whole song from another source.

See also:  How To Create A Spiritual Chant

Himeni have managed to keep the beauty of the Hawaiian language alive.

Slack-key Guitar

Hawaiian cowboys from Spain and Mexico who worked on the various cattle ranches scattered around the islands were the first to introduce the guitar to the islands. ‘Alu’ brought with them a playing style that had an impact on the evolution of the game (slack-key guitar). Slack-key guitar is considered by some to be as important in Hawaii as the flamenco guitar is in Spain and the Delta blues guitar is in Mississippi. Music played in the slack key is a distinctively Hawaiian blend of traditional Hawaiian vocal techniques and elements of Western music that is only found in Hawaii.

Without the use of tablature or charts, this extraordinary and innovative technique is usually learnt by imitation.

Falsetto Singing

Hawaiian music places a strong emphasis on the voice. Many Hawaiian songs incorporate falsetto, which is referred to as leo ki’eki’e, a phrase that was first used in Hawaiian in 1973. Falsetto singing, which is most commonly employed by men, is a technique that allows them to sing notes that are above their normal vocal range. During the shift from the standard vocal register to the falsetto range, the voice makes a distinctive break that distinguishes it. In Western falsetto singing, the singer strives to make the transition between registers as seamless as possible while maintaining the highest possible pitch.

Yodeling is a technique in which the vocalist exaggerates the break by repeating it again and over.

Given that a comparable split between registers, known as the ha’iha’i, is utilized as an ornament in some ancient chanting techniques, the falsetto may have been a natural and pleasant vocal technique for early Hawaiians.

Immigrant Influences

The establishment of a plantation-based economy brought various ethnic groups to Hawaii, each with its own musical traditions to share with the community. Immigrants from Puerto Rico, Portugal, China, Okinawa, Korea, Japan, and the Philippines were among those who came to the United States. Each of these immigrant cultures has made a contribution to the cultural life of the islands by performing their music at gatherings for the community. The samples on the right show how music from Japan, Puerto Rico, and China has influenced the soundscape of Hawaii in positive ways.

Grass-Roots Renaissance

Hawaii’s capital, Honolulu, is a popular tourist destination. Every time I set out towards the islands, I can hear them approaching me long before I really see them. When I contacted Hawaiian Airlines to confirm my reservation in September and was put on hold, I didn’t mind the wait because I was in a hurry. I was halfway there when a charming falsetto voice sang “The Green Rose Hula” over swinging guitars, and I knew I’d made it. When I put in my headphones for the trip the next day across the Pacific, I was treated to an all-Hawaiian soundtrack.

  1. A few songs later, it was his son, Cyril, who was on the stage, continuing on his father’s heritage as a writer, vocalist, and critically praised guitar player.
  2. You wouldn’t want to end yourself on the wrong side of him at a party, based on the appearance of this photograph.
  3. The wind, the rain, a mountain, a waterfall, a bird that dips its sharp beak into a flower; there are so many of these types of melodies in Hawaiian music.
  4. With echoes of chant and the rhythmic pulse of Hawaiian music, his voice is fragile, much like his father’s, and from time to time there’s something in the air between joy and grief, like the enticing notes in flamenco singing, that draws the listener in.
  5. A fondness for the steel guitar emerged during his three years on a submarine crew in Pearl Harbor in the 1920s.
  6. Later, he relocated to San Francisco, where I grew up hearing his songs for the first time before I realized who was singing them.
  7. Something had changed in terms of the music.

The melodies of the Hawaiian cultural revival had me completely enthralled.

Their impact may still be felt today, as seen by the recently re-issued classic 1971 album, “Sons of Hawaii,” which included Kamae and Moe Keale on ukuleles and Gabby on guitar and was published in 1971.

They were a pleasure to listen to.

Something entirely new was created as a result of this merger.

The poetry of the words, as well as the pulse that drove them, emanated from a deep place inside Polynesian heritage….

And there is no better illustration of this than the style of guitar playing known as ki ho’alu, also known as slack key, which is widely recognized as the iconic Hawaiian sound by many.

Most of the time, this requires lowering the bass strings and rearranging the treble strings such that the majority of chords may be played with just two or three open notes plucked by the roaming thumb.

More than a decade ago, Dancing Cat Records released the Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar Masters series, which featured artists like as Keola Beamer, George and Moses Kahumoku, the Rev.

Gabby Pahinui, who brought slack key music from back-porch family gatherings into the public eye, is remembered by all slack key artists.

By the 1950s, Gabby was the most well-known member of a small group of artists who were adopting a more sophisticated and imaginative solo technique that was becoming increasingly popular.

It is an exacting art form, both technically and musically distinctive, that is now honored each year in various Hawaiian festivals.

The Bankoh Ki ho’alu “Gabby Style” Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar Festival, which will take place at the Royal Hawaiian Hotel in Honolulu on August 15, will be the most well-known.

Listed below is only a small sample of what will be available in the next weeks and months: In Honolulu, Moe Keale frequently performs poolside at the Sheraton Waikiki on Sunday and Thursday evenings, while Jerry Santos and Olomana, with their angelic voices, perform on weekends at the Hilton Hawaiian Village in Honolulu.

Currently, the Hawaiian Regent hotel in Honolulu is the most active new location for fine Hawaiian music in Waikiki.

Stretch September, she turned 80, yet she is still capable of stopping the show with breath-taking notes that can last for a half-minute or longer.

An all-day hula and music festival was held in front of a grassy plaza just a few blocks from the ocean.

A wide variety of aloha shirts, koa carvings, and strings of shell leis from the island of Niihau, which was visible across the channel, were on show among the vendors.

Sometimes young ladies in the audience, touched by a particular song, would come out onto the grass and do a spontaneous hula, drawing huge applause from the other members of the audience.

At Papohaku Beach Park on May 15, the Molokai KaHula Piko event will take place, a daylong celebration of the origins of hula.

Bands and dancing troupes will be flying in from all around the world to perform.

During his reign (1874-1891), Kalakaua was also recognized for utilizing the power of his position to assist maintain some of the ancient arts alive, particularly the hula, which was at the time under strong attack from missionary leaders who believed it to be obscene.

It was known to Kalakaua that, if the hula were to die, the chants would also perish, and if the chants perished, it was possible that history itself would be lost.

The auwana style, which is more undulating in nature, is usually accompanied by a small group of musicians.

The women dress in a traditional kahiko costume, which consists of knee-length skirts made of flat green leaves and fern leis.

Their movements are accompanied by the beat of a single drum and the chanting of a single voice, which is either male or female.

It is the same note that can be heard in the voices of Cyril Pahinui, Eddie Kamae, Genoa Keawe, and other performers for whom these ancient chants continue to serve as a source of inspiration and a foundation for their performances.

INTRODUCTION TO THE INFOBOX/INFORMATION GRAPHIC Island Melodies: A Guidebook Traditional music can be heard in the following places: The Hawaiian Regent hotel, 2552 Kalakaua Ave., Honolulu; phone: (808) 921-5444, hosts regular performances by talented Hawaiian musicians every weekend.

Molokai Ka Hula Piko festival will take place on May 15 at Papohaku Beach Park; call (808) 553-3876 for more information.

For more information, please see: Mele.com is a fantastic resource for Hawaiian music concerts, both in Hawaii and on the mainland, and it can be found on the Internet.

For information on performances, contact the Hawaii Visitors and Convention Bureau at (808) 923-1811, or go to their website at (808) 923-1811.

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