IB Music/Music History/Medieval Period – Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Return to the IB Music Archive Middle Ages (450-1450) Sacred and secular music were distinguished in the Medieval Period, which was divided into two distinct categories. Sacred music was music that was used by the Roman Catholic Church, whilst secular music was music that had no connection to the Church and was utilized by other organizations.
Return to the IB Music Archive. Middle Ages (450-1450): Sacred and secular music were distinguished in the music of the Middle Ages (450-1450). In the Roman Catholic Church, sacred music was music that was utilized for religious purposes, whereas secular music was music that did not have any connection with the Church.
Characteristics of Gregorian chants
- The melody of a Gregorian chant is highly free-flowing, as is the rhythm of the chant. The chant progresses upward and downward in little increments and jumps within a limited range. Melodies are frequentlymelismatic, meaning that syllables are stretched across numerous notes. Harmony- Because Gregorian chants have a monophonic texture, they do not include any harmony. Although drone (singing the same note over a lengthy period of time, generally in entire notes) was popular, it wasn’t always used. It is impossible to determine the exact timing of each word in a Gregorian chant. It is permissible to hold notes for a “short” or “long” period of time, but no complicated rhythms are employed. In terms of structure, several Gregorian chants are written in ternary (ABA) form. An incipit, or introduction solo, is performed by a cantor at the start of the composition. The piece is subsequently performed by the chorus, and at the conclusion, the cantor ends with a solo that was frequently performed at a lower dynamic level and with a more limited range of notes. Timbre- Sung by entirely male choirs in a hushed tone. However, they were occasionally composed as a teaching tool for women who were nuns in convents. Structure-Gregorian chants are one of the rare pieces of music that is totally monophonic, as seen by its texture. In a Gregorian chant, there is just one melodic line to be heard. The Gregorian chants were employed by the Church to help in the performance of prayers. They were sung by monks (and, on occasion, women in convents) in the past. In addition, because it was the official music of the Roman Catholic Church, all gregorian chants were just vocalists, as instrumentation was regarded to be Pagan by the Church. As a result, every text was written in Latin as a result of this. They were performed at the “office” and “mass” of religious ceremonies, and all gregorian chant was passed down orally because the use of written music was quite unusual at the time. Church Modes were the scales in which gregorian chants were performed, and they were divided into three categories. Up to the Renaissance period, they were in widespread usage during the middle ages. The phrase “what can we do with a drunken sailor” is an example of how they are used frequently in folk song. Church modes are composed of seven tones, with the eighth tone duplicating the tonic an octave higher than the tonic.
Around the year 700, the Gregorian chant began to take shape. From 700 to 900, composers would write a line in parallel motion to the chant at a predetermined interval of a fifth or a fourth above the original line, resulting in a total of nine lines. From 900 until 1200, this technology underwent considerable development. During this time, the upper line moved in its own right, independent of the initial chanting pattern. After 1100, top lines began to develop rhythmic independence and eventually became independent.
This is the name given to the Gregorian chant on which the higher lines are based, which is known as thecantus firmus.
Leonin and Perotin, two composers who worked together on organum, were important in its development.
It is therefore legitimate to speak to these two composers and their pupils collectively as theSchool of Notre Dame.
- Leonin – He is the first known composer to employ measured rhythm in his works
- He is also the first known composer to utilize measured rhythm in his compositions. The composer Perotin is credited with being the first known composer to create three separate lines at the same time.
Sacred music was usually performed by singers. This was mostly owing to the association between instruments and paganic ceremonies. Although instruments were increasingly significant throughout the Medieval Period, this was not the case throughout the whole period. When it comes to holy music throughout the Medieval Period, the organ is the most essential instrument. Even while early organs were quite loud, they were significantly more difficult to operate and necessitated a considerable lot of physical power on the part of the player.
In contrast to religious music, secular music had a more clearly defined rhythm and a texture that was closer to homophony or polyphony than holy music. Because chords were merely inferred, it wasn’t pure homophony in this case. The texture was predominantly vocal, as was the case with holy music, albeit it did not treat instruments with the same level of distrust as the Church.
Religious music had a more clearly defined rhythm, whereas secular music had a texture that was closer to homophony or polyphony.
Because chords were just inferred, it was not real homophony. The texture was predominantly vocal, as was the case with holy music, however it did not hold instruments in the same respect that the Church did.
- Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine
- Chastelain di Couci
- Beatriz de Dia (a female troubadour)
- Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine
Jongleurs also created and performed secular music in addition to his religious works. Jongleurs were traveling minstrels who would go from town to town entertaining people with music, juggling, and theatre. They had no civil rights, yet they were vital members of society since they were responsible for spreading news from town to town. The estampie was one of the types of music that they performed. Anestampie is a quick dance in triple meter that is performed in a circle.
Around the year 1350, a new type of music known as Ars Nova (New Art) began to emerge. The period known as Ars Nova encompasses both ecclesiastical and secular music, however secular music gained prominence during this time. The following are some of the most important aspects of Ars Nova:
- The Ars Nova (New Art) style of music first appeared about the year 1350. Although secular music gained prominence during this era, both religious and secular music are included in Ars Nova. Aspects of Ars Nova that are noteworthy include:
The emergence of a great form for religious music, themass ordinary, occurred during the Ars Nova period. The ordinary of the mass is made up of five prayers that are put to music in five separate movements. The prayers are as follows:
In part as a result of the Church’s declining power, secular music began to gain in popularity during the Ars Nova Period. Instruments were employed more often, while the majority of the song was still performed vocally. The ballata is a new secular form that emerged during the Ars Nova period. Theballatais a dance that takes the shape of the letters A BB AA. A ballata is also referred to as a falala due to the fact that it employs this line throughout its compositions.
- Works of significance
- It is the first known polyphonic mass, and it is celebrated at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
- Works of significance
- Ecco la Primavera – This is an example of an Ars Nova ballata
- It was composed in the early twentieth century.
Instruments of the Period
|Term||Definition Sound resolves itself, it returns to whole notes, returns home.|
|Term Each melody is broken into||Definition|
|Term Phrases move by _ or _||Definition|
|Term||Definition A to B, B to C, C to D, etc.|
|Term What is a climax in music?||Definition The highest part of the music, loudest point, most interesting part of the phrase.|
|Term||Definition It is the home note. Key of C (tonic note = C)|
|Term||Definition When composers take the melody and base the rest of the piece off of this theme.|
|Term Way chords are constructed and the way they follow each other is known as.||Definition|
|Term Harmonic construction is when you add.||Definition|
|Term How many notes are in a chord and what are these known as?||Definition|
|Term What are the two categories chords can fall into?||Definition|
|Term||Definition When the chord sounds restful and stable|
|Term||Definition Create unstable sound, drives music|
|Term Where melody and harmony comes together is known as||Definition|
|Term What are the 3 types of texture in classical music?||Definition Monophonic, polyphonic, and homophonic|
|Term One instrument or multiple in unison, one note at a time||Definition|
|Term 2 or more independent lines playing different melodies at the same time is known as||Definition|
|Term Monophonic line with chords||Definition|
|Term What is imitation and in which texture is this found?||Definition Imitation is like a canon. One melody starts and the same melody starts a bar or 2 later. Found in polyphonic texture.|
|Term What are the 2 basic forms in music?||Definition Ternary form and binary form.|
|Term A, BA and B are relatedStill gives complete feeling||Definition|
|Term What are the 3 basic forms that a composer uses when composing?||Definition Repitition, contrast, and variation|
|Term Playing something over and over is known as:||Definition|
|Term Introducing completely new material is known as:||Definition|
|Term First time plain melody, second time melody and chords, third something else, etc.||Definition|
|Term What is the time period of medival music?||Definition|
|Term What were the 3 classes of people in the medival times?||Definition Peasant, nobility, clergy|
|Term Who were the most important people in music during the medival times?||Definition|
|Term What was the main form of music during the medival ages?||Definition|
|Term What is the texture of Gregorian chant?||Definition Monophonic, no real rhythm, passed on through oral tradition.|
|Term What language is Gregorian Chant in?||Definition|
|Term What are the two types of mass music?||Definition Ordinary (sung at every service) and Proper (seasonal, changes)|
|Term Who was one of the most famous composers during the medival ages?||Definition Hildegard. She was a nun in the convent and advised The Pope. Created liturgical dramas.|
|Term What was the date of the introduction of secular music?||Definition|
|Term Who were troubadors/traveres?||Definition Nobleman who sang secular songs about love|
|Term What was the music of troubadors like?||Definition Monophonic, had a drone, about love|
|Term What was the texture of an estampie?||Definition Mostly monophonic, musicians would make up melody on the spot, accompanied with percussion and drones|
|Term||Definition Performed secular music, lower than peasants in standing|
|Term||Definition First choirmaster of Notre Dame. Began polyphonic music into sacred music.|
|Term||Definition Polyphonic chant, rhythmic modes were introduced. A lot of rhythms represented the trinity|
|Term||Definition Next choirmaster of notre dame. Composed polyphonic music for 3/4/5 voices. Wrote more complex music.|
|Term Where was the music center once polyphonic music came about?||Definition|
|Term What does Ars Antigua mean?||Definition|
|Term When was the transition into the Ars Nova?||Definition|
|Term Who was the originator of the Ars Nova?||Definition|
|Term What did Guillaume Machaunt introduce in terms of rhythm?||Definition|
|Term With the introduction of syncopation and polyphony, what type of music did we see a transition into?||Definition|
|Term When did Renissance music begin?||Definition|
|Term Which was more important during the Renaissance? Vocal music or instrumental?||Definition|
|Term Trying to create music that matches the text is known as.||Definition|
|Term What was the new composition category in sacred music known as during the Renissance?||Definition|
|Term||Definition Where a composer would take a part of a mass chant and compose music off of it.|
|Term What composer was famous for his motets during the Renissance?||Definition|
|Term What musical style was seen commonly in motets?||Definition|
|Term What was the church going through during the Renissance that brought many changes including changes to music? And what council did it lead to?||Definition Counter-Reformation, Council of Trent|
|Term What was decided at the Council of Trent?||Definition The church wanted songs that enhanced worship and that weren’t necessarily pleasing to the ears. They tried to move away from polyphonic music.|
|Term||Definition Composer during Renissance that met at middle ground on music with the church. Italian. Wrote the Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass.|
|Term Polyphonic Music that originated during the Renaissance about love, very popular in England||Definition|
|Term Who was a famous composer of Madrigals?||Definition|
|Term Shawm was a predecessor of what instrument?||Definition|
|Term Recorders were the predecessors of what instruments?||Definition|
|Term Sackbut’s were predecessors of what instruments?||Definition|
|Term Lutes were predecessors of what instruements?||Definition|
|Term Known for composing and playing songs on the Lute. Wrote “Flow My Tears”||Definition|
|Term German Composer who wrote instrumental music. Famous for terpsichore?||Definition|
|Term||Definition Music used for dancing, originated in Renaissance. Collection of over 300 dance tunes for instrumental ensemble.|
What is the texture of Gregorian chant answer? – dengenchronicles.com
Answer: Texture – Gregorian chants are one of the rare pieces of music that are totally monophonic, as is the case with most other types of music. In a Gregorian chant, there is just one melodic line to be heard.
Which texture is normally used in Gregorian chant?
Homophonic The texture of Gregorian chant is homophonic in nature.
What is polyphonic texture in Gregorian chant?
Polyphony is a type of musical texture that consists of two or more lines of independent melody that are played at the same time, as opposed to a musical texture that has only one voice, which is called monophony, or a musical texture that has one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords, which is called homophony.
What is the role of Gregorian chant?
Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music that is either monophonic or unison in nature, and it is used to accompany the text of the mass and the canonical hours, also known as the holy office. Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who reigned as Pope from 590 to 604 and was responsible for its collection and codification.
What does the Gregorian chant Kyrie eleison mean?
A Gregorian chant, Kyrie Eleison is performed by the group in the following manner: eleison” and signify “Lord have mercy, Christ have mercy.” Interestingly, Libera’s version only included the first phrase.
What kind of texture does Gregorian chant have?
If everyone is singing at the same pitch at the same time, it is referred to as a monophonic texture. If everyone is hearing one tune, it is referred to as a hiss sound. what comes after the s? As opposed to monophonic textures, multivoiced textures are composed of two or more melodic lines that are merged to create a multivoiced texture.
How many masses are there in the Kyriale?
The Kyriale is a collection of Gregorian chant settings for the Ordinary of the Mass that was composed in the early twentieth century.
It consists of eighteen Masses (each of which has the Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei), six Credos, and a number of ad libitum chants, among other things.
What is the setting for Kyrie XI notated in neumes?
Kyrie XI is set to a Gregorian chant setting that is notated in neumes. The Kyriale is a collection of Gregorian chant settings for the Ordinary of the Mass that was composed in the early twentieth century.
Texture and Instruments of Medieval and Renaissance Music
courtesy of Kathykonkle / Getty Images A single melodic line was used to create the musical texture throughout the Middle Ages, which is known as monophony. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, sacred vocal music, such as Gregorian chants, was put to Latin text and sung without accompaniment. Because it was the only sort of music that could be played in churches, composers made sure that the melodies were plain and straightforward. More melodic lines were introduced to Gregorianchants later on, thanks to the efforts of church choirs.
The Texture of Medieval Renaissance Music
Kathykonkle / Associated Press Photographs A single melodic line was used to create the musical texture throughout the Middle Ages, which was monophonic. Unaccompanied sacred vocal music, such as the Gregorian chants, was composed to Latin text and sung in the church. For the reason that it was the only sort of music that could be played in churches, composers made sure that their melodies were plain and straightforward. More melodic lines were added to Gregorianchants as time went on by church choirs across the world.
Instruments Used in Medieval and Renaissance Music
During the Middle Ages, the majority of the music was performed solo and without accompaniment. Because it is less distracting, the church preferred to keep the music clean and serious in nature. Music was later permitted in churches, and instruments like as bells and organs were employed primarily to commemorate key days in the liturgical calendar. Traveling musicians, often known as minstrels, played on street corners and in courthouses, using musical instruments. Fiddles, harps, and lutes are among the instruments that they used to perform.
- During the Renaissance period, the majority of musical activity went away from the church and toward the courtroom.
- As a result, more composers began to incorporate musical instruments into their works as a result of this.
- For outdoor events, louder and more brilliant-sounding instruments were favored over more subdued ones.
- Dance music and outdoor festivities were made possible by the usage of a musical instrument known as the shawm.
- Roger Kamien’s Music An Appreciation, 6th Brief Edition is the source for this information.
Is Gregorian chant monophonic?
Music was mostly performed by voice and unaccompanied during the Middle Ages. For the sake of minimizing distractions, the church preferred pure and serious music. Music was later permitted in churches, and instruments such as bells and organs were employed primarily to commemorate major days in the Liturgical calendar. As they played on street corners or in court, traveling musicians or minstrels employed musical instruments. Fiddles, harps, and lutes were among the instruments they utilized.
Most musical activity during the Renaissance period went away from the churches and towards the courts.
It was as a result that a greater number of composers used musical instruments into their work.
On the other hand, outdoor gatherings tended to favor louder and more brilliantly sounded instruments.
For dancing music and outdoor gatherings, a musical instrument known as a shawm was employed. When it comes to wind instruments, the shawm comes first. Roger Kamien’s Music An Appreciation, Sixth Brief Edition is the source for this information.
Is Gregorian chant monophonic? – Related Questions
The development of polyphony was greatly aided by the use of Gregorian chant. It was customary for choirs of men and boys to sing Gregorian chant in churches, as well as by ladies and men of monastic orders in their own chapels. It is the music of the Roman Rite, which is used in the celebration of the Mass and the monastic service.
What is the purpose of Gregorian chant?
Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music that is either monophonic or unison in nature, and it is used to accompany the text of the mass and the canonical hours, also known as the holy office.
Why does Gregorian chant sound so different?
What is it about Gregorian chant that makes it sound so distinct from other styles of Western music? There is no sense of harmony. When it comes to the Mass, what is the predominant language? Identify which of the following women was a religious leader who was also a well-known figure in literature and music.
What historical period is Gregorian chant?
The practice of Gregorian chant started in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, which refers to the era from about the 5th century and the 15th century. Because it was Catholic Church music, the objective of the performance was ceremonial in nature. It is named after Pope Gregory I, who reigned as head of the Catholic Church from 590 to 604, and is referred to as a “Gregorian.”
How do you tell if a song is monophonic polyphonic or homophonic?
In music, monophony refers to music having a single “part,” and a “part” is often defined as a single vocal melody, although it might also refer to a single melody played on an instrument of any type. Polyphony refers to music that has more than one component, and hence this signifies notes that are played at the same time.
Are Gregorian chants healing?
Gregorian Chant is used for healing meditation, deep relaxation, spa treatments, sleep, massage, spiritual meditation, and music therapy, among other things. Being in the presence of the Gregorian Chants is an uplifting and soothing experience.
What is the character of Gregorian chant?
Chants of the Gregorian Chant for Healing Meditation and Deep Relaxation in Spas and Bedtime Routines, Massage, Spiritual Meditation, and Music Therapy. When you listen to the Gregorian Chants, you will feel uplifted and at ease.
What key are Gregorian chants in?
The Gregorian notation system was created largely for the purpose of committing holy chants from the beginning of the second millennium on paper. The scale that was employed is as follows in current notes: C, D, E, F, G, and A. There are no differences in the intervals between these notes and those in current notation. Notes are written on a four-line staff to keep them organized.
Is chant a type of music?
A chant is a form of song that has a repeated, monotonous pattern. It is popular in India. It is also something that sports fans like doing. The term “to chant” has come to denote “to repeat things in a monotonous or repetitive manner” as a result of this sort of music. Chants are devoid of harmony or instrumental accompaniment, instead relying on a basic rhythm and a great deal of repetition.
What language is Gregorian chant?
Due to the fact that it was written entirely in Latin, and because its melodies are so intimately related to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best sung in Latin.
(There are certain exceptions, such chant hymns, whose melodies are formulaic and are not inherently linked to the Latin text.)
What is the religion of Gregorian?
Given that it was written entirely in Latin, and because its melodies are so intimately related to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best sung in the original language. (There are certain exceptions, such chant hymns, whose melodies are formulaic and not inherently linked to the Latin text.)
Why do monks chant?
Chanting and reciting mantras are methods of learning about and demonstrating dedication to Buddhist teachings and practices. They are associated with meditation because they are yet another method of concentrating the mind. Chanting is the repetitive repetition of particular phrases over and over again. Mayahana Buddhists, who use prayer beads known as malas, will occasionally chant mantras as they work on their meditation.
What does the word Gregorian mean?
1: pertaining to or associated with Pope Gregory I 2: pertaining to, resembling, or exhibiting the qualities of Gregorian chant
What is the difference between Gregorian chant and troubadour music?
During the 12th and 13th centuries, the troubadours wrote the majority of secular music that has survived today. More than 1650 troubadour tunes have survived to this day. Even though they do not have a distinct rhythm, they do have an established regular meter and a defined beat. Gregorian Chant, on the other hand, has no meter at all, which distinguishes them.
What is the difference between Gregorian chant from Madrigal?
Gregorian chant is monophonic rather than polyphonic (i.e., one part rather than numerous parts), and it has a holy theme to its composition. Renaissance madrigals are secular (i.e., non-religious), and they are performed by a number of voices. Both are performed mostly a cappella, however madrigals may include one or more instrumental elements in addition to the vocals.
How does a Gregorian chant sound?
It is a type of vocal music in which the singer sings without any musical accompaniment. Songs are performed in unison, without rhyme or meter, and are known as chants. In an unstructured manner, the tones increase and fall in pitch. Melody that is free-flowing.
What is Gregorian chant tempo?
Without the use of instruments, it is just verbal music. Singing in unison, without rhyme or meter, chants expresses an idea or sentiment. In an uncontrolled way, the tones rise and fall. Melody that flows freely.
Who wrote Gregorian chants quizlet?
Plainchant, often known as Gregorian Chant, was regulated by Pope Gregory I between 800 and 1400 C.E. (9th-15th centuries).
How can you tell if a song is homophonic?
A homophonic texture is a type of music in which there are several notes played at the same time, but they all move in the same beat. Homophonic music consists of a single distinct melodic line, which is the component that attracts your attention, with the other sections serving as background accompaniment.
What are the 4 textures in music?
Music with a homophonic texture is composed of several notes played at the same time, all of which move in the same time signature. A distinct melodic line, the portion that catches your attention, is present in homophonic music, and all other sections serve to support it.
Why is Gregorian chant so relaxing?
“However, there’s more to it than that,” he explains further. He says that Gregorian chant is performed by a rhythmic kind of breathing that is similar to yogic breathing.
“The chant does not have a metrical beat; instead, it has a more flowing rhythm.” Because it gives “a technique of coping with time,” Gregorian chant is particularly well suited for meditation.
MUSIC APPRECIATION – Quizzes
Practice Test Number Two DESCRIPTION OF THE MIDDLE AGES AND RENAISSANCE (476-1400) ����Answers Questions with a true or false answer: 1. The term “Middle Ages” refers to a period of European history that spans over a thousand years. The majority of learning during the Middle Ages was monopolized by monks who lived in monasteries. Music manuscripts from the Middle Ages reveal that the majority of medieval music was instrumental in nature. 4. The Gregorian chant has a homophonic structure in terms of sound.
- The melodies of Gregorian chants tend to advance in leaps and bounds across a wide range of pitch values.
- Organum is a term used to refer to medieval music that comprises of Gregorian chant plus an extra melodic line in addition to the chant.
- During the Renaissance, educated individuals were frequently instructed in music, literature, drama, and visual arts.
- The texture of Renaissance music is predominantly homophonic in nature.
- A large portion of the instrumental dance music written during the Renaissance was intended for use in the ecclesiastical setting.
- Troubadours were poets and musicians who lived throughout the Middle Ages.
- During the 1400s, there was a decline in the emphasis placed on secular music.
During the Renaissance, solo instrumental music, particularly on the lute, witnessed an increase in popularity.
The madrigal’s text is religious in nature, while the texture is homophonic in nature.
The Renaissance madrigal was very expressive, employing tactics such as word painting to achieve this effect.
The Renaissance Mass was composed in a single movement for singers and instruments.
The creation of the printing press in Western Europe was a development associated with the Renaissance period.
The Second Part consists of the following sections: Fill in the blanks 18.
The few surviving medieval dances, as well as the music that accompanied them, are collectively referred to as_.
Hildegard of Bingen is recognized by the following titles: a.
The mother of Richard the Lion-Hearted was a nun, a church composer, a natural historian, and a poet.
Who has usually been tasked with the task of collecting and codifying the chants of the Catholic Church?
Single line melodies from the early Christian Church that are performed in unison are referred to as_.
It has a monophonic texture in terms of sound.
It is mostly always not metricated.
Which of the following genres was most popular among medieval entertainers?
Chants of the Gregorian calendar 25.
This was dubbed as_ by the media.
In the Renaissance mass, melodies travel from one voice to another, mimicking one another; this texture is referred as as_.
This is the name given to the expressive method employed by Renaissance composers to musically pictorialize words from sung text.
a.Mass celebrated by Pope Marcellus A Madrigal in the style of “As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending Descending” by Thomas Weelkes; c.Organum Leonin’s on the theme of “Benedicamus Domino” by William Byrd; d.Monsiers Almain by William Byrd 34.
This technique is known as_ 35.
instrumental music to accompany the singing in church.
There were two forms of Renaissance chansons: the pavane and the galliard.
Raissance danced in the same meter as a couple of Raissance dancers d.
35 Which of the following works was authored by Bernard de Ventadorn?
What is the title of the work composed by Hildegard of Bingen?
Plainchant “Columba aspexitb.
Motet “Quant en moyd.
Troubadour song “La dousa votz 38 Which of the following works was authored by Guillaume de Machaut?
Plainchant “Columba aspexitb.
Motet “Quant en moyd.
Troubadour song “La dousa votz For number forty, which of the following works was written by Leonin or Perotin?
Plainchant “Columba aspexitb.
Motet “Quant en moyd.
Troubadour song “La dousa votz 41.
Lute solo “Fantasia No.
Madrigal “As Vesta was” d.
Mass “Pange lingua” b. Lute solo “Fantasia No. 7” John Dowland is the author of which piece of work? a. Mass “Pange lingua” b. Lute solo “Fantasia No. 7” c. Madrigal “As Vesta was” d. Pavane “Celeste giglio” a. Mass “Pange lingua” b. Lute solo “Fantasia No. 7” Reactions to the question
A Historical Approach to the Elements of Music
While there are many various techniques to describe the fundamental parts of music, we commonly divide music down into five basic elements: melody, texture, rhythm, form, and harmony (or a combination of these). However, while it is true that not every piece of music has all of the components listed above, it is extremely possible that every piece of music you have recently listened to does. There are two aspects in particular that nearly usually appear first among these five: melody and rhythm.
Whether the very first music consisted of a melody being sang or a beat being tapped is just conjecture at this point, but it is simple to believe that these two experiences were among the very first human musical compositions.
The first of these parts, melody, will be the subject of our brief examination — not because it is more significant than rhythm, but because the first piece of music we will explore in the Middle Ages will be Gregorian chant. Gregorian chant, also known as plainsong or plainchant, is a musical form in which the element of melody is emphasized to the exclusion of all other aspects.
By moving on to texturenext, we will continue to let history to inform our examination of musical aspects. One of the most significant musical advances occurred during the Middle Ages, when a new melodic line was added to an old Gregorian chant tune as part of an experiment. As you’ll soon discover, this approach was known as organum, and it was responsible for introducing a new texture to sacred music throughout the Middle Ages, known as polyphony, into a genre that had previously been dominated by the monophonic texture of plainchant.
For the most part, Gregorian chant was sung without a regular beat, according to what we can determine from the historical record. Plainchant is characterized by a flowing, unstructured freedom that might be loosely defined as without rhythm. This is, without a doubt, the most typical style in which we hear chants sung nowadays. However, with the introduction of organum, it became vital for the singers who were delivering the two melodic lines to be able to maintain a sense of cohesiveness. This necessitated the use of a more regular beat or pulse (rhythm).
When singing in this way, one holds out the notes of the Gregorian chant while another sings an extremely energetic new melody over it.
This might be looked of as the beginning of an important component of rhythm: the meter of the piece in question.
The essential concepts of form in music are repetition, contrast, and variety, which are all related. The way portions of a musical work are ordered is referred to as the piece’s form. Later stages of music history saw a significant increase in the specialization and standardization of musical form and structure. In light of the fact that we are starting with music from the Middle Ages and Renaissance, for the time being we shall confine ourselves to general notions of form.
The importance of form was not placed in the forefront of composers’ minds until later times, and we shall examine specific structural elements later in this course.
While we’re on the subject of elements that won’t be covered until later in the course, harmony (as it is most commonly taught today) is a musical element that developed during the Baroque period (1600–1750) and evolved into increasingly complex constructions during the Classical and Romantic periods. This highly important musical aspect will not be included until later since composers during the Middle Ages and Renaissance did not think of their music in harmonic terms (major and minor keys, chords, chord progressions, and so on).
Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.
- The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.
- The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.
- The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.
- TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
- Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
- The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
- During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.
As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.
Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.
Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.
Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.
By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.
The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.
The song has a neumatic feel to it.
Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.
Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.
What is Gregorian Chant? History, Characteristics and Composers
Since the 9th and 10th centuries, Gregorian chant has played an important role in the development of religious music. Despite its mournful beauty, its chorus could be heard throughout the immense worship halls of large early European cathedrals, and its echoes may still be heard in current music in classical forms that somehow yet seem authentic. In this piece, we’ll make an attempt to provide a thorough assessment of the history and qualities that have defined Gregorian chant throughout history and into the present day.
Background and History
St. Gregory the Great It is generally believed that Pope Gregory I, who is often credited with developing Gregorian Chant, was the first to use it in the 9th century following his death. Gregorian style chant as holy music may have been affected by Pope Gregory I (715-731 AD), who may have been the first to influence the establishment of the style after the music began as prayer enriched by art in song and read like poetry put to music. In the words of St. Augustine, transforming prayer into music “adds such strength that it is like praying twice.” Gregorian chant, on the other hand, began to lose popularity when secular values began to take precedence over religious beliefs throughout the first part of the first century.
As the Holy Roman Empire’s strength and influence diminished in the 15th century, the seat of the pope was restored to Rome after several generations spent at Avignon, France, as the empire’s power and influence fell.
The resurgence of the clergy in Roman society resulted in the reintroduction of Gregorian chant to the general populace.
Characteristics and Style
Gregorian chant is a amonophonic type of music, which means that there is just one melodic line in the piece of music. Because there are no polyphonic harmonies, all of the vocalists sing in unison to the same single tune. Especially when performed in acoustically ideal places of worship such as St. Paul’s Cathedral in London or the Basilicas of Rome, the impact may be breathtaking and even eerie in places of devotion like these. Today, Gregorian chant is used in both Catholic and Protestant rituals, particularly in the call and answer liturgy of sermons.
In addition, current solfege singing has its roots in old Gregorian chant.
Gregorian chant was traditionally sung only by human voices, according to tradition. This time, the choir sang without accompaniment, with a strong emphasis on the often sad, sometimes soaring melodic intonation of religious texts or vowel sounds as a key focus of the performance. Stringed or wind instruments, primarily flutes, harpsichords, organs, and violins, as well as electronic instruments like as keyboards and synthesizers, may be used to accompany modern versions of Gregorian chant, depending on the style.
Even current Gregorian chant does not include drums or bass instruments, due to the lack of an established rhythm section in Gregorian chant.
Form and Texture
Human voices were used exclusively in the performance of Gregorian chant, as was customary at the time. A prominent focus on the often sad, sometimes soaring melodic intonation of religious texts or vowel sounds was created by the unaccompanied singing of the choir, which filled the cathedral. When performing Gregorian chant, stringed or wind instruments, primarily flutes, harpsichords, organs, and violins, as well as electronic instruments like as keyboards and synthesizers, may be employed to accompany the singers.
Most of the most famous medieval composers of Gregorian chant were males, and the majority of them held positions of authority within the clergy. It is possible that some of these composers inspired subsequent Renaissance composers, and several of their pieces are still popular among classical music enthusiasts today.
1. Stephen of Liège (850-920)
Stephen of Liege is one of the earliest known composers of Gregorian chant and is regarded as one of the greatest of all time. He served a number of lower roles in the church before being appointed Bishop of Liege in 901 AD and remained there until 920 AD. Aside from that, Stephen has written biographies of saints and other notable religious individuals.
2. Fulbert of Chartres (960-1028)
The intriguing beginnings of the French teacher and future Bishop of Chartres are still a mystery to this day. But some of Fulbert’s works have endured, notably many hymns praising the Virgin Mary and the still-popular Easter song “Chorus Novae Jerusalem,” which is dedicated to the city of Jerusalem.
3. Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179)
Hildegard von Bingen was a medieval nun who lived in Germany. Her name was Hildegard von Bingen, and she lived in the early second millennium. She was a philosopher, mystic, writer, and composer. In 2012, the Catholic Church canonized Mary in recognition of the miracles she accomplished and her amazing dedication. In a spiritually induced trance-like state of divine ecstasy, the prophetess wrote extensive works that are still read today. Many of her writings are still in print today. Despite the fact that she was the only known female composer of her day, St.
4. Peter Abelard (1079-1142)
Peter Abelard was a theologian and scholar who was one of the most scandalous and well-known religious personalities of the medieval period. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time. But he was also a gifted composer of Gregorian chant, well known for his melancholy songs of lamentation for the loss of loved ones, which frequently made reference to Biblical and theological characters. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time.
It’s possible that we’ve discovered further proof of Abelard’s musical talent, which was ahead of its day in terms of musical structure and melodic simplicity, in this work.
Despite the fact that it appears to be straightforward, the sacred subject matter and distinct melodic lines of Gregorian chant have continued to influence religious composers throughout the ages. The impact of the great composers may be seen and heard in subsequent works by legends such as Mozart, Beethoven, Handel, and Bach, as well as in works by lesser-known artists. In this century, classical artists continue to reinterpret, record, and present these and other ancient works on the stage in new ways, as well as in previous centuries.
1. Ordo Virtutum
Hailing from a tradition of ingenuity, Hildegard von Bingen’s 82-song Gregorian operaOrdo Virtutumbe was the world’s first morality drama, and her music went on to inspire a generation of Renaissance musicians.
2. “Chorus Novae Jerusalem”
Later recordings have re-interpreted several of Saint Fulbert’s holy songs, notably “Ye Choirs of New Jerusalem,” composed by English composer Henry John Gauntlettin the 19th century and still performed at Easter masses throughout the western world today.
3. “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha”
King Saul and his son, Prince Jonathan, were killed in Abelard’s “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha,” which was written to grieve Israel’s defeat at the hands of the Philistines and to lament the deaths of the two kings.
Because of its origins in the early medieval era, Gregorian chant has had ups and downs in popularity throughout the centuries. In the same way that artists return to any great art form, they return to a genre, and even the same old compositions, time and time again, re-imagining its material to suit the tastes of the period and re-mastering them to suit the latest technical developments. During the early days of Gregorian chant, the music was only heard by a small group of people, and then only at very irregular intervals.
I’m curious what these great composers would have to say about it.