What Kind Of Georgian Chant Type Is “alleluia”

Alleluia – Wikipedia

Alleluia for Christmas Eve, sung by Jubilius (verse has been omitted) Alleluia is a term used to refer to liturgical chanting in which the word is coupled with passages from the Bible, mainly from the Psalms. A typical practice before the preaching of the Gospel is to recite this chant. The term “Alleluia” is often used at Easter services in Western Christianity, although churches refrain from saying it throughout the month of Lent.

History

It is believed that theEarly Christians maintained theHebrewwordHalleluiaas a statement of praise to God, untranslated, as a superlative expression of thankfulness, pleasure, and triumph. As such, it appears in the ancient GreekLiturgy of Saint Cyril|Liturgy of St. James]], which is still in use today by the Patriarch of Jerusalem and, in its Syriac recension, serves as the template for the Maronites’ liturgy. On the rubric of the Liturgy of St. Mark, which is believed to be the most ancient of all, we read the following words: “Then followlet us attend, and the Prologue of the Alleluia.” The “Apostle” is the traditional old Eastern term for the Epistle reading, and the “Prologue of the Alleluia” would appear to be a prayer or verse performed by the choir before the Alleluia can be heard by the congregation.

Eastern uses

Psalm 91 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o (F-Pnfonds grec, Ms.397, f.43r) After reading the Apostle (Epistle) during the Divine Liturgy, the Readerannounces which of theEight Tonesthe Alleluia is to be sang in the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-CatholicChurches. Throughout the service, the choir’s answer is always the same: “Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia.” The only thing that alters is the tone in which it is sung, as well as thestichera (psalm verses) that are intoned by the Reader.

Depending on the amount of Prokeimena, one or two Alleluias may be sung at the end of the service (there may be up to three readings from the Apostle, but never be more than two Prokeimena and Alleluia).

One Alleluia

“Allow us to attend,” the deacon says. “Alleluia in the Tone,” says the reader. “Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia,” the choir sings. The Reader then chants the first sticheron of the Alleluia, which is followed by the second sticheron. “Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia,” the choir sings. The Reader then chants the second sticheron of the Alleluia, which concludes the service. “Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia,” the choir sings.

Two Alleluias

“Allow us to attend,” the deacon says. “Alleluia in the Tone:” says the reader. Then he begins chanting the first sticheron of the first Alleluia, which he finishes instantly. “Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia,” the choir sings. The Reader then chants the second sticheron of the first Alleluia, which concludes the reading.

“Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia,” the choir sings. “In the Tone:” says the reader. And then he chants the first sticheron of the second Alleluia, which is the first sticheron of the Alleluia. “Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia,” the choir sings.

Lenten Alleluia

Unlike in the Western world, the chanting of the Alleluia does not halt during Lent among the Orthodox Christians. According to the Orthodox approach to fasting, which is one of sober gladness, this is in keeping with the tradition. The celebration of the Divine Liturgy on weekdays is not permitted throughout the Great Lent season, as well as on some days of the shorter Lenten seasons (Nativity Fast, Apostles’ Fast, andDormition Fast). Instead, the Alleluia is sung at Matins. Because the chanting of Alleluia at Matins is a distinguishing feature of Lenten services, the days preceding Lent are referred to as “Days with Alleluia.” The Alleluia at Matins has nothing to do with the scriptural readings or the Prokeimena; rather, it takes the place of the phrase “God is the Lord.” Afterwards, in the same tone, the Hymns to the Trinity (Triadica) are sung, and the service concludes with the Benediction (seeOctoechosfor an explanation of the eight-week cycle of tones).

“God is the Lord,” which would ordinarily be intoned by the deacon, is intoned by the priest on days when Alleluia is sung.

He stands in front of the Iconostasis, in front of the icon of Christ, and he says: A priest sings an Alleluia in the Tone, which means “Out of the darkness my spirit awakens at dawn unto Thee, O God, for Thy commands are a light upon this land.” “Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia,” the choir sings.

“Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia,” the choir sings.

“Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia,” the choir sings.

“Add more evils upon them, O Lord,” says the priest.

Alleluia for the departed

The Alleluia is also recited to a specific tune at funerals, memorial services (Greek:Parastas, Slavonic:Panikhida), and on the Saturdays of the Dead, among other occasions. It is repeated in lieu of “God is the Lord.” once more, but this time it is followed by theTropariaof the Departed (the Tribute to the Dead). The deacon (or the priest, if no deacon is present) intones the Alleluia, which is as follows: “Amen, in the eighth tone: Blessed are those whom Thou hast chosen and taken unto Thyself, O Lord,” says the deacon.

“Their memory is passed down from generation to generation,” says the deacon.

“Their spirits will dwell in the midst of pleasant things,” the deacon says.

During Saturdays of the Dead celebrations, which occur numerous times throughout the year, theprokeimenonat Vespers is also replaced with the Alleluia, which is recited in the following way: “Alleluia, in the eighth tone,” the deacon says.

“Blessed are them whom Thou hast chosen and gathered unto Thyself, O Lord,” says the deacon. “Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia,” the choir sings. “Their memory is passed down from generation to generation,” says the deacon. “Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia,” the choir sings.

Other uses

Even other services, notably those held in theTrebnik, have gospel readings scheduled as part of their schedule. A number of them are preceded by an Alleluia, in the same fashion as the Alleluia chanted at the Divine Liturgy, albeit there are occasions when there are no stichera to accompany them (psalm verses). While the priest is pouring theOil of Catechumens into thebaptismal font, the choir, in addition to the Alleluia before the Gospel, performs an Alleluia as part of the sacramental celebration of baptism.

Western use

An example of a pre-Gospel Alleluia accompanied with a verse Alleluia is connected with gladness in the Roman Rite, and it is especially popular during Paschal season, the period between Easter and Pentecost, presumably because of the relationship with Passover, which is marked by the chanting of thehallel (Alleluia psalms). When the term is used extensively during this period, it is added to prayer verses and answers, to psalm antiphons, and, during the Octave of Easter and on Pentecost Sunday, to the dismissal at the conclusion of Mass.

However, the term Alleluia is prohibited from being spoken in the Roman liturgy during Lent, and is sometimes euphemistically referred to as the “A-word” during this period.

During Lent and the Septuagesima period, the phraseLaus tibi, Domine, rex aeternae glorae(Praise to thee, O Lord, king of eternal glory) is used in place of the wordGloria Patriat the beginning of each hour of theLiturgy of the Hours, which is omitted in the present ordinary form of the Roman Rite because it is omitted during Lent in the pre Additionally, the termAlleluiais used to indicate a chant that begins and ends with this word, as well as a passage of scripture, and is particularly associated with a greeting and welcoming of the Lord whose word will be proclaimed in the Gospel reading.

  1. “Alleluia” is sung by the choir or by a cantor.
  2. There follows a verse from the Mass Lectionary or the Roman Gradual, which is followed by another rendition of “Alleluia” by the choir or cantor.
  3. The Alleluia and its verse may be removed at any time of year if singing is not practiced in the congregation.
  4. The cantor begins by singing “Alleluia” at the beginning of this melismaticGregorian chant.
  5. (The repetition is denoted by the Roman numeral “ij” (2) in the Liber Usual, and the jubilus is followed by the jubilus.) When the major half of the verse is finished, the cantor sings the final line, which is joined by the rest of the chorus.
  6. The music is typically extravagant, although it is often restricted to a specific range of notes.
  7. Alleluias were frequently tropped, both in terms of additional melody and in terms of additional words.
  8. Late-medieval chants like as the Alleluia were also extensively employed in the creation of earlyorgana, such as theWinchester Troper.

As an alternative, the Gradualis is substituted with an Alleluia chant during Eastertide. This means there are two such chants before the Gospel reading at that time.

See also

  • Richard Hoppin’s Medieval Music is available online. Ms. 397, fonds grec, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris
  • New York: Norton, 1978
  • “Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds grec, Ms. 397.” Short psaltikon style with Middle Byzantine Round notation (late 13th century)
  • Incomplete Kontakarion (Prokeimena, Stichologia for Christmas and Theophany, Allelouiaria, Hypakoai anastasima, kontakia) in short psaltikon style with Middle Byzantine Round notation (late 13th century)
See also:  How To Gregorian Chant

External links

  • Alleluia (Catholic Encyclopedia article)
  • Alleluia (Russian Orthodox) chanting (photo)
  • Alleluia (Catholic Encyclopedia article)
  • Alleluia (Catholic Encyclopedia article

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Gregorian chant

Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.

  1. The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.
  2. The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.
  3. The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.
  4. TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
  5. Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
  6. The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
  7. During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.

As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.

Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.

Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.

Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.

By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.

The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.

The song has a neumatic feel to it.

Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.

Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.

How Plainchant Started and Where It Is Now

Plainchant is a type of medieval church music that is characterized by the use of chanting or the singing of lyrics without the use of any musical accompaniment. Plainsong is another name for this type of music. You may be more familiar with the name Gregorian Chant, which you may have come across when reading about early music forms or heard about it during a church service or concert. Even though the phrases are sometimes used improperly as synonyms, Gregorian Chant is a type of plainchant that is derived from the Latin language.

Christian Tradition

Plainchant, a primitive style of music, first appeared about the year 100 C.E. Early on, it was the only sort of music that was permitted in Christian churches. A common belief among Christians is that music should make the listener more open to spiritual ideas and reflections. This belief is supported by research. As a result, the melody was maintained clean and unaccompanied throughout. This was especially true because the same tune would be replayed throughout the plainsong. There are no harmonies or chords to enhance the melody in this song.

Why Is it Also Called Gregorian Chant?

There were numerous various types of plainchant in use during the early centuries, and there was no standardization. A collection of chants was envisioned by Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) about the year 600, and it was completed by Pope Gregory the First in the year 600. This collection of music was known as Gregorian Chant since it was named after him. Later, the word Gregorian Chant was adopted to denote this type of music in general. Prayer, reading, psalm, canticle, hymn, prose, antiphon, responsory, introit, alleluia, and many more varieties of Gregorian Chant are among the many types of Gregorian Chant.

Musical Notation of Plainchant

There were numerous various types of plainchant in use during the early centuries, and there was no standardization of these styles. A collection of chants was envisioned by Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) about the year 600, and it was completed by Pope Gregory the First in the year 700. This collection of music was known as Gregorian Chant since it was named after him. Later, the word Gregorian Chant was adopted to represent this type of music more broadly. Psalm, canticle, hymn, prose, antiphon, responsory, introit, alleluia and many more genres of Gregorian Chant are among the many diverse varieties of Gregorian Chant.

Plainchant Today

Gregorian chants are still chanted in Roman Catholic churches all throughout the world today, despite the passage of time. In this version, it is adapted to Latin text and performed either by a soloist or by a chorus. Listen to the Gregorian Chants from Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris to get a sense of what plainchant sounds like. Plainchant has had a cultural renaissance outside of the church and has even made its way into mainstream culture in recent decades. An unexpected international hit was achieved by the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos in Spain when they published their CD named, Chant, in 1994.

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During their interviews on The Tonight Show and Good Morning America, the monks expressed their gratitude.

The Cistercian Monks of Austria’s Heiligenkreuz Abbey made another popular Gregorian Chant CD in 2008, titled Chant – Music for Paradise, which became a bestseller in the United States.

It peaked at number 7 on the UK charts, number 4 on the Billboard classical music charts in the United States, and was the best-selling album on the Austrian pop music charts.

A Short Alleluia

Bryn Mawr College Chorus, which had requested a small composition that would reflect his Jewish roots while still connecting with a wide audience, commissioned Irving Fine to create an a cappella arrangement known as A Short Alleluiain 1945. Alleluia, the term itself, has a lengthy and convoluted musical and liturgical history that may be traced back to the Jewish tradition, Christian ceremonies, and, subsequently, Western art music. In addition, it has amassed a substantial musical repertoire during all three periods.

According to Jewish liturgical tradition, it is found in particular in Psalms 110–118 (111–113, 115–117), which are together known as the Halleluya Psalms.

A number of researchers have postulated connections to halleluya and pre-monotheistic worship of the new moon (i.e., worship that occurred before ancient Hebrews and the writing of the Book of Psalms), although acceptance of that concept is far from unanimous.

Also demonstrated is that the halleluya was originally an important element of both the ancient Hebrew and early Christian doxologies, which is a significant achievement.

This suggests that, notwithstanding any politically elitist attitudes that the priests may have held at various times, and regardless of the extent to which Temple worship represented a nondemocratic and hierarchical, if not aristocratic, form, the liturgical function of the halleluya was a priestly scheme to organize a limited degree of popular participation in the Temple ritual at various times.

  1. Aside from that purpose, there is no strong evidence that the halleluya had a significant liturgical role in its original setting, namely, the Psalter or Psalm translations, when it was first used.
  2. abstract spiritual) utterance.
  3. It took on a particularly magical quality when performed in specific constrained contexts, which was heightened by types of ecstatic musical expression.
  4. Alleluia translations and declarations were employed in the early Church in a number of contexts and in a variety of languages.
  5. They had been a component of both Eastern and Western Church liturgies from at least the 4th century.
  6. If we take the alleluia for example, Isadore describes it as a “Hebrew sort of song,” as follows: “The Lauds,” or alleluia singing, “is a Hebrew form of song” (Patrologia Latina).
  7. Alleluia melodies or chants have tended to be melismatic throughout the history of church music, and particularly in Gregorian chant, but this is not always the case.
  8. The jubilus is one of the most distinguishing characteristics of these melismatic alleluia renditions in Church contexts.
  9. Due to its historically inseparable link with the Hebrew word halleluya, the jubilus may be traced back to its Judaic origins.

In his writings, Augustine appears to connect it to an early Christian practice known as “speaking in tongues.” Whether or not ornate melismas on that final vowel (even without repetition) were already a feature of ancient Temple Hebrew psalmody as rendered by the Levitical choirs—or to what degree that final vowel may have been ornamented melismatically as part of the finalis in an otherwise primarily syllabic Psalm rendition or chant pattern—remains a matter of debate among musicological and liturgical scholars.

  • As a result, Werner came to believe that such intricate melismas did, in fact, have their origins in Temple practice (especially on those occasions or during those periods when halleluya may not have constituted a popular response form).
  • In church music and its liturgical history, the phrase alleluia can refer to a liturgical text or text verse to which alleluia has been added, a text surrounded by alleluias, or one or more verses of liturgical text punctuated by alleluias, in addition to its independent interpretation.
  • Throughout their version, the jubilus might also reoccur in the verse section, particularly at the end of the verse section, where it typically involves certain repetition patterns.
  • remnant of an organized form of musical glossolaly”—as well as the last vestige of an early period of spontaneity in the Church rites, which was later converted to a form of organized melismatic psalmody—should be “considered the last…

Among these are purported halleluya renditions by the Essenes; melismatic chant in medieval Jewish mysticism (against which RaShBa issued a responsum in the 14th century); the fashion for elaborate vocalises in many Central and Western European synagogues from at least the late Baroque period to the modern era; the highly ornamented syllable extensions of traditional eastern European hazzanut from the 19th and early 20th And temple psalmody, which of course includes the hallleluya versions, is the oldest era to which we may trace the possibility of, if not the likelihood of, a precedent for this.

Mozart’s concert alleluia composition is perhaps the most well-known of the several concert alleluia works in the standard choral literature.

Fine explores and exploits the rhythmic possibilities of shifting the emphasis on the phrase alleluia in this piece, which is set in a celebratory tone fit for a happy celebration. Written by: Neil W. Levin

Credits

Irving Fine is the composer of this piece. Length:01:21 Genre:Choral Michael Brewer, Conductor; Laudibus are the performers. On the 10th of January, 2000, a recording was made. Location: St. Paul’s Church (H), Knightsbridge, London, United Kingdom. Campbell Hughes and Morgan Roberts are the engineers on this project. Simon Weir works as an assistant engineer. Neil Levin is the project manager.

Alleluia: Definition, Music & Chords

There are several musical situations where the words alleluia or hallelujah can be heard, including church services. A musical setting is a composition that is based on a piece of literature. During Lent, the 40-day period preceding Easter, many religions, particularly the Roman Catholic faith, refrain from using the word alleluia. During the Easter season, the word is used with a renewed emphasis to commemorate the resurrection of Jesus, which is celebrated on Easter Sunday. To provide an example, the ‘Easter Alleluia’ is an Easter Vigilon Holy Saturday chant that is chanted specifically for this occasion.

  1. Handel’s ‘Hallelujah Chorus’, from hisMessiah(1741), is perhaps the most well-known version of the alleluia.
  2. As well as in many of his other choruses, such as the ‘Hallelujah, Amen’ fromJudas Maccabeus, we may hear the term (1746).
  3. For a well-known vocalist of the day, this iconic setting was composed just for her.
  4. The voices, which are based on a poem by Franz Huber, are intended to symbolize a choir of singing angels.
  5. Thompson completed the piece in just over two months.
  6. The only other word that can be heard throughout the piece is a ‘amen’ at the conclusion.

Vidimus stellam, alleluia

At Latin masses in the Roman Catholic Church, this chant is performed as a commemoration of the Epiphany, the baptism of Jesus Christ, and other related events. Epiphany is usually celebrated on January 6, however it is a moveable feast day in several parts of the world, and is most typically commemorated on a Sunday throughout the week of January 2 through January 8 in these areas. The phrase Vidimus stellam, alleluia translates as “We have seen his star,” and it refers to the Biblical tale of a star lingering above the location of Christ’s birthplace.

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There is a combination of syllabic and melismatic styles in the singing, with the latter being the more prevalent and appearing to transmit a sensation of floating, as though a feather were being swept upward and downward by a soft breeze.

The secondary material that contrasts with the initial theme is short, and the original melody returns to bring this charming piece to a finish. This little piece will be of interest to those who are knowledgeable about chants.

Appears On

Year Title / Performer Label / Catalog AllMusic Rating
2020 Ave Rex AngelorumChoir of Keble College/Oxford CRD RecordsCRD3537
2013 Gregorian ChantsFrater Gottfried Meier/Schola der Benediktinerabtei Gerleve United ClassicsT 2CD2012139
2011 Music: An Appreciation (10th Edition, 7th Brief Edition)Various Artists Sony Music
2011 Music: An Appreciation: 10th Edition: Seventh Brief EditionVarious Artists Sony Music Distribution
2011 Zen ChantsVarious Artists EMI Classics / Virgin Classics5099907085123
2010 Gregorian ChristmasCantArte Regensburg/Hubert Velten Capriccio Records7066
2010 Gregorian and Ambrosian ChantSchola Cantorum Coloniensis Erato / Virgin Classics5099962851
2010 Vidimus Stellam: WeihnachtenEpiphanieSchola Gregoriana Monacensis Ars Musici / Membran232369
2009 From the Vaults of Westminster CathedralMartin Baker/Westminster Cathedral Choir Hyperion67707
2009 Gregorian Chant: Epiphania DominiVarious Artists Denon Records
2009 Gregorian Chant: Mater DominiEpiphania DominiVarious Artists Denon Records
2009 Solem JustitiaeSchola Gregoriana Mediolanensis Multimedia San Paolo / Zebralution
2008 Der Gregorianische KalenderCapella Gregoriana Laserlight / Zebralution
2007 Gregorianische Gesänge zur WeihnachtszeitCapella Gregoriana Song Digital / Zebralution
2006 Gregorian Chant: Advent, Christmas, EpiphanyChoir of the Monks of Montserrat Abbey Milan
2006 In Epiphania New Classical Adventure9509814
2006 Rex Pacificus: Épiphanie Christ-RoiNotre Dame d’Argentan Benedictine Monks’ Choir/Notre-Dame d’Argentan Abbey Choir Milan
2005 The Gregorian Calender: Advent, Christmas, Marienfeste Laserlight14500
2004 Gregorian Christmas: The Purity of Ancient Songs of Christmas Laserlight14597
2003 Jubliate DeoNova Schola Gregoriana Aura Classics0198
2002 Classical Evolution: Famous Gregorian Chants Delta Distribution14576
2001 Panorama: Gregorian Chant Deutsche Grammophon469241
2001 Ravenna the City of MosaicsSchola Hungarica Hungaroton32014
2000 Gregorian Chants Laserlight55572
2000 Gregorian Chants Delta Distribution24472
1997 The Chant 4: MilleniumSchola Cantorum of Cologne Angel Records56408
1996 Gregorian Chants for ChristmasCantArte Regensburg Capriccio Records10701
1995 Chant: Tractus stellae; Agnus Dei Hungaroton12559
1994 Gregorian Chants: Schola de Monjos de MontserratVarious Artists Just A Memory Records9123
1994 Lost in Meditation: Meditative Gregorian Chants, Vol. 1Capella Gregoriana Delta Distribution14157
A Gregorian FeastPro Cantione Antiqua Carlton Classics660087
A Gregorian FeastPro Cantione Antiqua Carlton Classics3007
Gregorian High Days (Box Set) Eufoda1222
Gregorian High Days: Advent and Christmas Eufoda1119
Masterpieces of Music before 1750, Vol. 1: Gregorian Chant to the 16th CenturyMogens Wöldike Haydn Society9038
Roger Kamien: Music – An Appreciation McGraw Hill6545

The Book of Gregorian Chant

At Latin masses in the Roman Catholic Church, this chant is performed as a commemoration of the Epiphany, which commemorates Jesus Christ’s baptism. Epiphany is usually celebrated on January 6, however it is a moveable feast day in several areas of the world, and is most typically commemorated on a Sunday throughout the week of January 2 through January 8 in these regions. This hymn, which translates as “We have seen his star, praise be to God,” refers to the Biblical story of the star that hovered above the location of Christ’s birthplace.

Syllabic and melismatic styles are used in the singing, with the latter style predominating and imparting a sensation of floating, as if a feather were being wafted upward and downward by a soft breeze.

This small piece will be of interest to those who are knowledgeable about chants.

Kyrie

At Latin masses in the Roman Catholic Church, this chant is performed as a commemoration of the Epiphany, the baptism of Jesus Christ, and other Christian festivals. Even though the feast of the Epiphany is typically held on January 6, in certain regions of the world, it is celebrated on a Sunday throughout the week of January 2 through January 8. We have seen his star, praise be to God, which refers to the Biblical narrative of the star lingering above the location of Christ’s birth. Its soaring melody begins in the mid-ranges and weaves a serenely ascending course in its first phrase, then etches out exquisite arching contours in the following phrases as it progresses.

The secondary material that contrasts with the initial theme is short, and the original melody returns to bring this charming piece to a conclusion.

Alleluia

This Proper chant is performed after the Gradual during the Fore-Mass on liturgical days connected with penitence and fasting (most notably during Lent), and on liturgical occasions associated with sadness (such as the Requiem Mass), when it may be substituted by the Tract. During Paschal Time, which begins with Low Sunday and ends with High Sunday, the Gradual is skipped and two Alleluias are sung instead. After singing the word “alleluia” and closing with a prolonged melismatic flourish (the Jubilus), the Alleluia will be followed by a somewhat ornate verse, followed by another repetition of the phrase “alleluia.” The Alleluia will be done in a responsorial way.

Although there is no evidence of such participation by the chorus in the early sources, it is possible that the chorus sang at least the final iteration of the Alleluia at some point.

(Image courtesy of the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians on the Internet.) The audio element cannot be played because your browser does not support it. Dr. Kraybill’s Alleluia recital recording is available for purchase.

Antiphon

This form of liturgical chant was common to the Gregorian and other Western chant repertoires and was connected mostly with antiphonal psalmody, although it was also used in other contexts. When a Psalm or canticle is being sang, it is customary for the refrain to be composed in basic syllabic manner, and it is usually only a few measures in length. There were, on the other hand, several sorts of Antiphons that were not related with psalmody at all. In the processional Antiphons, which were first preserved in graduals and later in separate books and sung at processions on such occassions as the Feast of the Purification (Candlemas), the Greater Litanies, and Palm Sunday, there were verses after the fasion of responsories that were sometimes included in a processional.

It is still used in processionals at modern services, which is a testament to its longevity.

This one, from the Office of “Terce,” would have been at the church at 9 a.m.

This information is derived from the New Harvard Dictionary of Music.

Credo

This form of liturgical chant was common to the Gregorian and other Western chant repertoires and was linked primarily with antiphonal psalmody, among other things. When a Psalm or canticle is being sang, it is customary for the refrain to be composed in basic syllabic manner, and it is usually only a few bars long. But there were certain Antiphons that were not related with psalmody in any way. In the processional Antiphons, which were first preserved in graduals and later in separate books and sung at processions on such occassions as the Feast of the Purification (Candlemas), the Greater Litanies, and Palm Sunday, there were verses after the fasion of responsories that were occasionally included.

It is still used in processionals at modern services, which is a testament to its popularity.

There would have been a 9 a.m.

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