The Middle Ages
The men’s basketball team at Alcorn State was at its peak in the late 1970s, and it hasn’t been topped since. From 1978 through 1980, the Braves went 56-3 overall and defeated Mississippi State in the NIT, becoming the first historically black college team to win a game in the NCAA Tournament. When the team played the Braves, its fans chanted, “Who dat say dey going to beat dem Braves?” during the game. Soon after, the slogan was adopted by numerous Louisiana teams, with the New Orleans Saints being its most well-known representative.
In a statement, producer and director Gil Thompson announced that “The Original Who Dat” will be available for digital download on July 5 at the web site originalwhodat.com.
A huge aspect of that movie is the shout “Who Dat?” said Thompson, who played point guard for Alcorn State from 1978 to 1981.
“It began in January 1979 and was televised in March when we competed in the NIT versus Mississippi State,” says the coach.
- Was it Alcorn that gave it its start?” was the inquiry.
- All of the institutions in the Southwestern Athletic Conference were initially members of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), and they did not become members of the NCAA until the late 1970s.
- Whitney led Alcorn to national prominence during his stint as head coach.
- A perfect 27-0 record was achieved by the 1978-79 club throughout the regular season.
- The Braves defeated Mississippi State 80-78 in the first round of the NIT before falling to eventual tournament champion Indiana 73-69 in the second round of the same tournament.
- 13, 1979, during the Bulldogs’ 100-86 victory over Grambling State.
- An illustration with the words “Who dat talkin’ ’bout beating dem Braves?” and the year 1979 on it is displayed.
Nobody knows for sure who in our stands began it, but we were thrashing opponents so badly that our fans became so engrossed in the game that they were boasting,” Thompson said.
Thompson found it difficult to turn a tale into tangible evidence for the film.
Following the death of Whitney’s coach, who was interviewed for the film, a copy of the letter was finally discovered by Whitney’s family and forwarded to Thompson.
As a result of the lengthy search for the footage and the subsequent restoration procedure, the film’s production took a long time to complete, according to him.
A bottleneck occurred because no one had the Mississippi State film on hand at the time of my arrival.
“I couldn’t continue pushing past those hurdles because of my day-to-day responsibilities.” ” A shout known as “Who Dat?” swept across Louisiana during the 1979-80 season, according to the documentary “Who Dat?” Alcorn concluded the season with a 26-1 record — their lone loss came in an early-season rematch with Mississippi State — and made history by receiving an at-large berth to the NCAA Tournament for the first time.
- As the first historically black college to be invited to the NCAA tournament, the Braves created even more history by defeating South Alabama in the first round of the competition.
- “Who Dat?” echoed across the arena throughout that heartbreaking defeat.
- It was impossible not to glance around as it broke out and see the Alcorn supporters swaying and dancing in time,” Abernathy said.
- “Hey, that was Alcorn’s idea, dude!” With a giggle, Macklin expressed his delight.
- So that’s how it all began, with Alcorn and LSU.
- Augustine High School, assert that the “Who Dat?” chant was first used in the 1960s.
- This became an official motto for the NFL franchise, which later acquired the license to use it.
- Thompson’s first step into the world of filmmaking was with the television series.
- He explained that this initiative satisfied his need to do something new and present a narrative that was both intimate and not well recognized.
We are living in a period in history. I enjoy informing others about stuff they aren’t already aware of or understand. And my inspiration for this comes from my love for my teammates, my passion for Alcorn State University, and my love for history.
Medieval Music: Timeline and History
During the medieval period, also known as the Middle Ages, which lasted from 500 A.D. to approximately 1400 A.D., musical notation was introduced, as was the development of polyphony, which occurred when many sounds were combined to make different melody and harmony lines. In France, Spain, Italy, and Germany, church (liturgical or holy) music dominated the scene, however some secular, folk music proclaimed by troubadours could be heard in various locations around the country. Some of the most popular genres of music were Gregorian chants, which are a monophonic vocal line performed by monks, as well as choral music for a group of people.
|Significant Dates||Events and Composers|
|590—604||During this time the Gregorian chant was developed. It is also known asplainchantor plainsong and named after Pope St. Gregory the Great. This pope was credited with bringing it to the West.|
|695||The organum was developed. It is an early form ofcounterpoint, which eventually led to polyphony. This type of song had a plainchant melody with at least one added voice to enhance the harmony. There is no real independent second voice, so, it is not yet considered polyphony.|
|1000—1100||During this time of liturgical musical drama unfolds throughout Europe. Also, the music of the troubadour and trouvère, a vernacular tradition of monophonic,secular songis accompanied by instruments and singers. Guillaume d’Aquitaine was one of the well-known troubadours with most themes centered around chivalry and courtly love.|
|1030||It was around this time when a new method to teach singing was invented by a Benedictine monk and choirmaster namedGuido de Arezzo.He is regarded as the inventor of modern musical notation.|
|1098—1179||The lifetime ofHildegard von Bingen, a highly regarded abbess who was conferred the title of “doctor of the church” by Pope Benedict XVI. One of her works as a composer, the ”Ordo Virtutum,” is an early example of liturgical drama and arguably the oldest surviving morality play.|
|1100—1200||This period is the age of the Goliards. The Goliards were a group of clergy who wrote satirical Latin poetry to mock the church. Some knownGoliardswere Peter of Blois and Walter of Chatillon.|
|1100—1300||This period was the birth of minnesang, which were lyrics and songs writing in Germany much like the troubadour tradition of France. Minnesingers mainly sang of courtly love and some known minnesingers were Henric van Veldeke, Wolfram von Eschenbach, and Hartmann von Aue.|
|1200s||The spread of geisslerlieder or flagellant songs. The practice of flagellation was practiced by people whipping themselves with various instruments as a way to repent to God with hopes of ending the disease and wars of the time. Geisslerlieder music was simple and closely related tofolk songs.|
|1150—1250||The Notre Dame school of polyphony firmly takes root. Rhythmic notation first appears during this period. Also known as thearsantiqua; it is during this time when the motet (a short, sacred, choral song) initially developed.|
|1300s||The period ofars nova, or “new art,” coined by Philippe de Vitry. During this period, secular music acquired polyphonic sophistication. The most notable practitioner of this style was Guillaume de Machaut.|
|1375—1475||Known composers during this time were Leonel Power, John Dunstable, Gilles Binchois, and Guillaume Dufay. Dunstable is credited with thecontenance angloise,or “English manner,” which was his stylistic trait of using full triadic harmony. It is a distinctive style of polyphony.|
Chapter 3: Polyphony through the Thirteenth Century
Much of western Europe had a period of affluence and cultural renaissance throughout the eleventh and twelfth centuries, particularly in the fields of scholarship and the arts. One outcome was the development of polyphony in church music, which accentuated the grandeur of chant to an even greater extent. Despite the fact that monophony continued to be the primary medium of performance and composition, the rise of written polyphony introduced four concepts that have remained central to Western music ever since: counterpoint, harmony, the centrality of notation, and composition (as opposed to improvisation).
I. Early Organum (CHWM 53–56, NAWM 14–16)
It was in the treatiseMusica enchiriadis that polyphony was originally described, in which the termorganum was used to refer to two separate types of polyphony.
- Organum ad parallelem The organum inparallel is a secondary melody (organal voice) that emerges below the chant melody (primary voice). The extra voice moves in parallel fifths or fourths and makes modifications to avoid the tritone. Either one or both voices may be multiplied up an octave if necessary. NAWM 14a–b are the pieces of music. Motion in the opposite direction and at an angle The organal voice sings above the chant in the eleventh century (although the voices may cross), moving in an opposing, oblique, parallel, and comparable motion to the chant and producing consonant intervals with it (unison, fourth, fifth, and octave)
- Organum liberum et floridum instructions for improvising free organum are recorded in the work Ad organum faciendum (On the Art of Improvising Free Organum) (On Making Organum, ca. 1100). Polyphonic chant was used only for portions of the chant that were sung by soloists, so that throughout the performance, pieces of polyphonic chant would be interspersed with sections of monophonic chant performed by the chorus. A new form of offlorid organum, known as the Aquitanian organum, first arose in Aquitaine, a region in southern France, towards the beginning of the twelfth century. During the performance of florid organum, the chant is sustained in lengthy notes in the lower vocal (referred to as the tenor), and the upper voice sings ornate phrases of various length. NAWM 15
- Organum purum and discant are the musical accompaniment. The two primary types of polyphony in the twelfth century areorganum purumororganum duplum (in which the upper voice sings many notes for each note in the lower voice) anddiscantum purumororganum duplum (in which the upper voice sings many notes for each note in the lower voice) (both voices move together at about the same rate). Jubilemus and exultemus make use of two different sorts of organum. NAWM 16 is the music. Organum is written in italics. Despite the use of score notation (one part above the other, with notes that sound together aligned vertically), manuscripts for organum do not include indications of rhythm or duration.
II. Notre Dame Polyphony (CHWM 56–61, NAWM 17–19)
During the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, theNotre Dame Cathedral in Paris experimented with a more intricate style of composed polyphony, which was eventually adopted.
- Leoninus The Magnus liber organi (the “great book of polyphony”), composed by Leoninus, contains two-voice arrangements of the solo sections of the responsorial chants for the major feasts of the church year, as well as other works. Leoninus’ organum (for soloists) is in two voices and alternates passages in organum form with sections in discant style. It is written in the manner of the organum. The plainchant passages for chorus are sung in unison, and the solo sections are performed in unison. The portions in discant style make use of the rhythmic modes in both voices and are more likely to emerge in places where there are melismas in the original chanting. NAWM 17A is the piece of music. In-Depth Look of Modal Rhythm During the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, a notation system was established to distinguish between patterns of long and short notes. It was decided that these patterns would be codified as the sixrhythmic modes, which were derived from the principles of classical poetic meter.
- Leoninus For the major feasts of the church year, Leoninus composed the Magnus liber organi (the “great book of polyphony”), which contains two-voice arrangements of the solo sections of responsorial chants for the major feasts. Leoninus’ organum (for soloists) is in two voices and alternates portions in organum form with sections in discant style. It is written for two singers. It is plainchant, and it is sung in unison, that is used in the choral passages of the piece. Distant-style parts make use of the rhythmic modes in both voices and are more likely to arise if there are melismas in the original chant. NAWMA 17A is the music. The Modal Rhythm: A Closer Look During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, a notation system for indicating patterns of long and short notes was established. It was decided that these patterns should be formalized as the sixrhythmic modes, which were derived from the rules of traditional poetry meter.
III. The Motet (CHWM 61–64, NAWM 21–22)
- Leoninus For the important feasts of the church year, Leoninus composed the Magnus liber organi (the “great book of polyphony”), which contains two-voice arrangements of the solo sections of responsorial chants for significant feasts. Leoninus’ organum (for soloists) is in two voices and alternates portions in organum form with sections in discant style. For the choir, plainchant is used throughout, and the sections are sung in unison. The portions in discant style make use of the rhythmic modes in both voices and tend to emerge when there are melismas in the original chant. NAWM 17A is the music. Taking a Closer Look: Modal Rhythms During the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, a notation system for indicating patterns of long and short notes was established. These patterns were defined as the sixrhythmic modes, which were derived from the rules of ancient poetry meter.
IV. Polyphonic Conductus (CHWM 64–67, NAWM 20)
Leoninus Leoninus composed the Magnus liber organi (the “great book of polyphony”), which contains two-voice versions of the solo sections of the responsorial chants for the major feasts of the church year. Leoninus’ organum (for soloists) is written in two voices and alternates portions in organum form with sections in discant style. The portions for choir are plainchant, and they are sung in unison. The portions in discant style make use of the rhythmic modes in both voices and tend to emerge in places where there are melismas in the original chant.
Taking a Closer Look: Modal Rhythm During the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, a notation system for indicating patterns of long and short notes was established.
» Polyphony Beyond the Notes
Vocal Music in the Medieval and Renaissance Periods: A Guide to the Literature Orlando di Lassus composed the music. (Click here to see the source) Polyphony is a term that can be used to describe a general style of music from the Medieval and Renaissance periods, or it can be used more broadly to refer to any musical texture that contains more than one distinct, simultaneous melodic lines. During the 12th century, with the creation of the organum, polyphony developed from Medieval church music (chant) and became popular (the earliest named composers of organum were Leonin and Perotin, both working at Notre Dame in Paris).
Motets, masses, and madrigals were the prominent genres of vocal group music during the 14th-16th century, and polyphony may be heard in all of them.
What to listen for in Renaissance polyphony:
- Polyphony is characterized by the use of primarily contrapuntal textures (often combined with brief passages of homophony, in which all the voices sing in the same rhythm but with different pitches), rather than the use of melody-and-accompaniment-type textures (what we think of as “song” in our culture).
- Polyphony is characterized by the use of mostly contrapuntal textures (sometimes combined with brief sections of homophony, in which all the voices sing in the same rhythm but with different pitches), rather than the use of melody-and-accompanist textures (what we think of as “song”).
- Canon, a creative method based on imitation counterpoint, is frequently used in polyphony, in which two or more voices sing the same, or melodies that are extremely similar, in a series of overlapping entrances and exits. Alternatively, think of the phrase “Row, Row, Row Your Boat.” Transposition (beginning on a different pitch) and other alterations are sometimes made to the melodies.
- The harmonic system employed in this music was drawn from the church modes (see chant for more information), and as a result, it sounds notably different from the tonal music of the Baroque and Classical periods in which it was composed.
Seeorganumto hear some of the very first polyphony, which is aesthetically and technically distinct from the music you’re hearing now. Polyphony in the late Middle Ages:
- Mass of Our Lady, created by Machaut in France before 1365 (precise date unknown)
- Missa L’homme arme, by Dufay in Franco-Flemish, composed in the mid-1400s (exact date unclear)
- Messe de Nostre Dame, by Machaut in French, composed before 1365 (exact date unknown)
Renaissance polyphony is characterized by the following characteristics:
- Missa pro defunctis, LassusFranco-Flemish, composed 1577
- Missae Papae Marcelli, PalestrinaItalian, composed 1567
Polyphony is discussed in detail in the Wikipedia page. This item was posted on January 30, 2012 at 6:40 pm and is filed under Medieval, Music, Renaissance, and Renaissance Music, Renaissance Music, and Renaissance Music. Tags for this entry include Dufay, Lassus, Machaut, medieval music, Palestrina, polyphony, and Renaissance music. You can keep track of any replies to this article through the RSS 2.0 feed. You have the option of leaving a response or creating a trackback from your own site.
Dr. Michael Delahoyde is a professor at the Washington State University. THE MUSIC OF THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD: EARLY POLYPHONY Polyphony is a type of music that is composed of two or more separate lines of melody that is derived from techniques for enhancing plainchant. Medieval religious music investigated the following topics without jeopardizing the purity and supremacy of the chant line: Responsorial in nature (alternate soloist and group) Antiphonal phrasing (alternate between equal groups, monasteries were usuallyset up like this anyway) It’s a procession (movement so sound emanates from various places) Octaves are intervals of time between two notes (boys in monasteries with higher voices) Organum is a Latin word that means “organ” or “organism” (natural divisions of octaves occur at fourths and fifths; tothe “vox principalis” was added a line moving at a constant interval andcalled the “vox organalis”).
- Polyphony first appeared in the 8th or 9th centuries and occurs in an earlyelementary form in “parallel organum,” which is chant that follows a nearly perfectly parallel pattern.
- It lends an interesting resonance to the composition.
- In certain instances, the two voices begin in unison and then the vox organalis ascends to its interval, returning to the unison at the end of each phrase or phrase group.
- A practice known as “oblique organum” refers to the practice of remaining on a note in order to avoid the tritone.
- Ad organum faciendum(“On the Making of Organum”), a treatise written around the year 1100, demonstrates that the “vox organalis” had gotten more elaborate over the course of the century and had moved to a higher register than the initial chant line.
- Melismaticorganum is created when the lower chant notes are sustained over a longer period of time and the top voice becomes more ornate.
- Flower organum = melismatic organum = organum duplum = organum purem = floral organum In the 11th and 12th centuries, an unmeasured melismatic duplum over lengthy tenor notes first arrives on the scene.
- During a stanza, the two voices will enter an arhythmic mode – either a 6/8 or a 9/8 feel – and sing at a tempo that is more or less the same as one another.
- Because it is formed of two perfect intervals, the 1-5-8structure was traditionally used as the concluding sonority.
Magnus liber organi (“The Big Book of Organum”) was created by composers working at Notre Dame in Paris in the 12th century, and an English student at the University of Paris known later only as Anonymous IV reports that Léonin was the great innovator behind the project, only to be surpassed later by Perotin, who revised the book.
- In the latter, the two voices travel at a roughly equal tempo throughout the piece.
- In addition, he employed more controlled rhythms in the uppervoice to contrast with the long tenor notes.
- These rhythms were distinguished by the use of “ligatures,” which were symbolic groups of a few notes.
- The tenor was placed above the triplum, which ran along the bottom of the page with its typical long notes, and the tenor appeared above the triplum.
- During his lifetime (1270-1300), Petrus de Cruce (Pierre de la Croix) was a French composer who invented two note values that were quicker than the standard: the minim (a diamond with a stem) and the semiminim (a tail on the stem).
Philip de Vitry (1291-1361) would invent the word “ArsNova” in his dissertation, indicating that this 13th-century polyphony was “Ars Antiqua,” which means “old music.” Index to the Middle Ages
Music History Placement Flashcards
A Gregorian mode (also known as a church mode) is one of the eight systems of pitch organization used in Gregorian chant. It is also known as a church mode. Dmode I Dorian D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E – – finalis is Dmode II Hypodorian A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A – – finalis is Dmode III Phrygian (fridg’-ian) E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E – – finalis is Dmode IV Hypophrygian B, C, D, E, F, GI In the 16th century, the eight-mode system of the Gregorian Chant was enlarged to include four more modes, two of which began on A and two of which began on C, resulting in a total of ten modes.
Take note that, in their genuine form, these are analogous to our major and minor scales!
Just the way it sounded, they didn’t like for it.
Modern composers then introduced the 13th and 14th modes, which are based on the B: Mode XIII Locrian B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B – – finalis is Bmode in mode XIII Locrian B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B XIV Hypolocrian Finalis is composed of the letters F, G, A, B, C, D, E, and F.
As a result, when composers speak about modes, they are typically referring to the true modes or: Ionian (major) C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F, Carolinian (Dorians), (E), (F), (G), (A), (B), (C), (Dorians) DPhrygian A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, A, F, G, ELydian F, G, A, B, C, D, E, FM are all ELydian letters.
ixolydian the letter combinations G, A, B, C, D, E, F, and F GAeolian (minor) A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z ALocrian B, D, C, E, F, G, A, B, ALocrian B, D, C, E, F, G, A, B, ALocrian B, D, C, E, F, G, A, B, ALocrian B, D, C, E, F, G, A, B, ALocrian B, D, C, E, F, G, A, B, ALocrian B, D, C, E, F
Earliest known piece of polyphonic music discovered
The first known practical example of polyphonic music – a piece of choral music created for more than one part – has been discovered in a manuscript in the British Library in London, and it is believed to date from the fifth century. The inscription, which is thought to have been written around the beginning of the 10th century, is the setting of a brief chant dedicated to Boniface, the patron saint of Germany, and is in German. A piece of polyphonic music (the word used to describe music that combines more than one separate melody) has been discovered for the first time, and it is the oldest practical example of such music ever discovered.
- Giovanni Varelli, a PhD student from St John’s College, University of Cambridge, came upon the piece while on an internship at the British Library.
- He came upon the text by chance and was immediately taken aback by the unique notation style used.
- Polyphony dominated much of European music up until the twentieth century, however it is not clear when it first appeared on the scene.
- According to Varelli’s study, the composer of the newly discovered work – a brief “antiphon” with a second voice giving vocal accompaniment – was composing around the year 900 when the item was discovered.
- This implies that composers were playing with form and breaching the conventions of polyphony even at this early level, virtually at the same time that the pieces were being created.
- This has an impact on our understanding of that development exactly because whomever authored it was breaking the rules in the process.
- For most modern readers, the fact that it was an early example of music for two parts would have gone undetected since the author utilized a very early style of musical notation for the polyphonic composition, which would have been indecipherable.
- When the melody travels up or down, the chant notation effectively tells us which way the melody is going.
- The reason for this is that at the time, the form of plainchant notation – often referred to as Eastern Palaeofrankish – was the most widely employed in Germany.
- When taken along with the music notation itself, it appears that whomever composed the music was based in that part of the world.
For the following thousand years, the principles that were being applied here created the groundwork for those that would evolve and control the majority of western music history.” When they were discovered around the year 900, it revealed their evolution and how they existed in a continual state of alteration.
When this manuscript was initially cataloged in the eighteenth century, no one was able to make sense of the strange markings on the pages of the book.
who were the composers of medieval plainchant?
Plainchant is also referred to as Gregorian Chant, after Pope Gregory I, who popularized the style. While the majority of early motets were liturgical or religious in nature, by the end of the thirteenth century, the genre had broadened to encompass secular subjects such as courtly love and other similar topics. According to which of the following statements is NOT a reason why chant is still occasionally used today? Plainchant is a type of church music that does not have any musical accompaniment and consists only of vocal chanting.
- MUSIC OF THE HEAVENLY.
- 1150 AD to 1450 AD are usually accepted as the dates for the Medieval period.
- During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church was the primary conduit for the distribution of money, education, and resources.
- The “Middle Ages” or “Medieval” period in European history encompasses a significant period of time.
- Hildegard von Bingen, Leonin, Perotin, and Guillaume de Machaut were four of the most significant composers of the Medieval Period, and they were all from France.
- In this lesson, you will learn about their contributions to music as well as some of their most important musical masterpieces.
- Stephen of Liège (St.
Stephen of Liège lived during the Early Medieval period, which lasted from 500 to 1150 AD.
It is a style of liturgical music that was prominent throughout the Medieval era known as Gregorian Chant.
She has a master’s degree in Educational Media and Design Technology.
As the abbess of a convent, her music was almost definitely utilized for private devotion and prayer among her sisters, despite the fact that she was not married.
The major types of music were Gregorian chanting and plainchant, which were both popular throughout the time period.
Beginning with the original Plainchant, they would eventually add a second, and later even a third and fourth vocal component to the composition.
Guillaume de Machaut is a character in the drama.
Bach, history, and so forth.
The motet, which originated from the clausula genre of medieval plainchant and would go on to become the most popular form of medieval polyphony, was a work of higher intricacy.
and, by extension, other comparable religious chants “Gregorian chant” derives from the 13th-century Latin term cantus planus (“plain song”), which refers to the unmeasured rhythm and monophony (single line of melody) found in Gregorian chant as opposed to the measured rhythm of polyphonic (multipart) music, which is referred to as cantus mensuratus, or “measured music.” According to general consensus, as chant progressed from the medieval era into the contemporary age, its rhythm grew more consistent and less diverse.
- chanting in the open (Gregorian chant) The identities of the composers were often kept secret.
- The motet, which emerged from the clausula style of medieval plainchant and eventually became the most popular variety of medieval polyphony, was a more refined form of music.
- saints in their own time C.
- always highly educated musicians A.
- This form is used for songs in which all of the stanzas of a poem are put to the same melody, and it is abbreviated as (a a b).
- Throughout Western history, music has progressed at such a slow and hesitant pace that works from the end of this period are distinguishable from those from the beginning only by a few minor stylistic and technical advances that are notable more for their historical significance.
30 seconds are allotted.
All of the composers were members of religious orders, and all of the musicians had their early training as church choirboys.
Despite the fact that the Greeks had a complex system of musical notation, the skills were most likely lost to medieval musicians because there is no recorded music from the Middle Ages until the ninth century.
However, if it hadn’t been for the application of ordered rhythm to musical composition, multipart music would never have progressed beyond the most rudimentary phases of counterpoint.
During the period known as the Middle Ages, which lasted from 500 AD to 1400 AD, music was written and created.
The decision to use an all-male ensemble was made.
How many different voices do you hear?
The motet, which originated from the clausula genre of medieval plainchant and would go on to become the most popular form of medieval polyphony, was a work of higher intricacy.
Medieval music was mostly vocal in nature, but Renaissance music had both instrumental and vocal elements; flutes, harps, and violins were among the instruments employed.
Here is a little sample of Plainchant from the Middle Ages.
Plainsong was the only type of Christian church music available until the ninth century, when polyphony was introduced into the tradition.
The Middle Ages saw the development of compositional techniques.
While early motets were primarily liturgical or religious in nature, by the end of the thirteenth century, the style had broadened to include secular subjects such as courtly love and other such topics.
It is vital to note that each period differed from the others in significant ways.
The motet, which originated from the clausula genre of medieval plainchant and would go on to become the most popular form of medieval polyphony, was a work of higher intricacy.
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|Dark Ages ca. 500-1000||later Middle Ages ca. 1000-1400||Renaissance ca. 1400-1600|
|music||Gregorian chant||polyphonic vocal music (sacred and secular)|
|notation||crude notation (approximate indication of pitch)||staff notation (precise indication of pitch and rhythm)|
The shift from the medieval to the Renaissance periods in the structure of Western music was a watershed moment in history. As time progressed through the Middle Ages, monophony evolved into polyphony (seeMusical Texture). During the Renaissance, the shell harmony of the Middle Ages was replaced with genuine harmony, which is still in use today.
|monophonypolyphony||shell harmonytrue harmony||church modesmajor/minor scales|
A major and a minor scale were used in Western art music during the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods, respectively (seeTonality). Thechurch modes were a collection of eight scales that were used in medieval and Renaissance music, as opposed to the scales used in modern music. 4 Benjamin D. Esham “>The church modes proved to be quite useful in the composition of pleasant tunes. They proved unsuitable for the task of producing harmony, which became increasingly difficult as the practice of harmony-writing got more widespread and complicated.
Between the years 500 and 1400 During theEarly Christianperiod (ca. 200-500), sections of scripture were put to customary Roman tunes, a practice that continues today. As a result of Pope Gregory I’s efforts, these pieces were gathered into an official Church repertory throughout the Dark Ages (about 500-1000). As a result, they are referred to as Gregorian chant. 2 Gregorian chants are monophonic vocal pieces that have traditionally been sung at a variety of Roman Catholic rituals. An individual soloist to a whole choir performs chants on various scales and styles.
- It was during the late Middle Ages that the development of polyphony started, when some musicians began to enhance Gregorian chants with a parallel melodic line.
- In practice, lines were never exactly parallel throughout the duration of a piece; otherwise, some unpleasant-sounding intervals would surely be produced.
- When each line acquired independent pitch movement and rhythm, fully-developed polyphony arose in the later medieval period (ca.
- The number of lines increased as well, leading to the widespread use of three- and four-part polyphony.
- The roots of staff notation may be traced back to the Middle Ages, when melodies were approximated by simple marks on the page.
|Dark Age notation||addition of staff lines||modern notation|
500 to 1400 years ago In theEarly Christianperiod (ca. 200-500), sections of scripture were put to customary Roman songs, which are still used today. As a result of the efforts of Pope Gregory I, these pieces were gathered into an official Church repertory during the Dark Ages (ca. 500-1000). As a result, they are referred to as “Gregorian chant.” 2 Roman Catholic rituals have traditionally included the performance of Gregorian chants, which are monophonic vocal compositions. An one soloist to a whole choir performs chants on different scales.
- A parallel melody line was added to Gregorian chants in the late Middle Ages, which marked the beginning of the development of polyphony.
- In practice, lines were never exactly parallel throughout the duration of a piece; otherwise, some unpleasant-sounding intervals would surely be created.
- When each line acquired independent pitch movement and rhythm, fully-developed polyphony arose in the late medieval period (ca.
- Line length increased as well, resulting in polyphonic compositions that were often composed in three or even four parts.
- The roots of staff notation may be traced back to the Middle Ages, when melodies were approximated by simple marks on a page of manuscript.
In the Middle Ages, improvements in music practice and theory were primarily driven by holy music, which continued to be the case today. Over the course of centuries, these developments helped to spread secular music (non-religious music). I61,3 Since antiquity, secular vocal music has been written for the purpose of public amusement and recreation. This type of composition was popular from antiquity to the early Middle Ages, and its common subjects included heroic narratives, love romances, and sarcastic reflections (see Musical Texture).
I18,3 Later on in the Middle Ages, minstrels were joined by groups such as thetroubadours (from southern France), thetrouveres (from northern France), and minnesingers and meistersingers (from Germany) (Germany).
Up until the Baroque era, polyphonic secular works were frequently based on pre-existing melodies (rather than being composed entirely from scratch) in the same way that their sacred counterparts were.
Approximately 1400-1600 The term “Renaissance” refers to the resurgence of classical culture in the Western world (i.e. Greco-Roman culture). In other circumstances, this resurgence was relatively straightforward; for example, sculptors resurrected the classical statue by analyzing old originals. Because there was no extant ancient music to model their work by, composers participated in the Renaissance by adhering to the generalclassical ideals of simplicity, balance, order, and clarity, among other things (seeWestern Aesthetics).
- Renaissance composers were in the forefront of this trend, favoring melodies and harmonies that were simpler and more straightforward.
- It is via the use of imitation that a melody may be expanded and amplified, and it also acts as an uniting factor throughout a musical composition.
- There are two pieces to “shell harmony”: the root note and the fifth note of the root note.
- I86-89,3 Generally speaking, France held the reins of Western civilization throughout the latter Middle Ages, while Italy held the reins during the Renaissance.
- However, while later medieval music was actually dominated byFrance, Renaissance music was dominated by three regions, all of which were in succession: Burgundy, the Low Countries, and Italy.
Music for vocal works (both holy and secular) dominated the musical landscape during the Middle Ages and Renaissance periods, with instrumental music serving mostly as an accompaniment for vocal pieces or dancers. Nonetheless, the Renaissance saw the emergence of autonomous instrumental music as a distinct genre. Most Renaissance instrumental compositions were written for the lute, keyboard instruments (organs, harpsichores, and clavichords), or small ensembles (stringed instruments and/or brass instruments) rather than large orchestras.
4 – “Diatonic,” according to the Encyclopedia Britannica.
5 – “Church mode,” as defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica. This page was last updated in September 2010. 6) “Musical notation,” Encarta 2004.7 “Josquin Desprez,” Encarta 2004.8 “Claudio Monteverdi,” Encarta 2004.9 “Opera,” Encyclopedia Britannica This page was last updated in September 2010.
Music History Exam 3 Flashcards
The fundamental practice that early Judaism and early Christianity had in common was circumcision. The Christian Mass is centered on a symbolic recreation of the Crucifixion. The singing of psalms was encouraged by the Church Fathers because it elicited pious sentiments and ideas of heavenly beauty in the listener. The calendar is a list of days that commemorate significant events in the lives of Christ and the saints, as well as certain seasons of the year. The Catholic liturgy was attempted to be standardized by popes and secular rulers beginning in the ninth century, in order to concentrate political and spiritual authority in Rome.
What was the motivation for the development of a method for notating chant?
Which mode is distinguished by a particular semitone interval above the finala melody that fills a range from a fourth or fifth below the final to a sixth above the final is referred to be a fourth or fifth mode.
the note that appears the most frequently or dominates a chant The Feast of the Annunciation is a cycle of feasts honoring events in the life of Christ and saints that takes place every three years.
The daily cycle of prayers recited at monasteries and convents throughout the day is referred to as the Chanting the Office was a major part of the liturgy during this time.
a piece of poetry from anywhere in the Bible other than the Book of Psalms that is considered sacred poetry A style of performance in which a soloist alternates singing with a chorus is referred to as alternating singing.
With the exception of melodies, which normally advance to the cadence, The presence of solo singing of some chants during the Middle Ages may be traced back to instructions in liturgical texts.
Except for the first, all of the following are examples of tropes.
The author of Ordo virtutumis is a composer.
The majority of composers in the Middle Ages were exclusively known in their own region.
except Match the following chant style definitions to the appropriate chant sample provided in the document: Doxology is of a lesser caliber.
Name one patron of the Troubadours who has written the most troubadour and trouvere songs.
Choose the most appropriate phrase to describe a poet-singer in the Celtric tradition.
The language of the trouveres was a dialect of French.
In manuscript collections titledTroubadour and trovere songs, which were affiliated with which class?
What distinguished minstrels from other sorts of professional musicians that came before them?
What, in the opinion of academics, was the function of instruments in troubadour and trouvere music?
What is a common thread running between troubadour and trouvere song?
What exactly is the distinction between a troubadour and a trobairitz?
What is the formal structure of Adam de la Halle’s Jeu de Robin et de Marion?
When it comes to troubadour and trouvere song, what is the most typical text-setting style to be found?
What distinguishes Comtessa de Dia’s “A chanter” from other works of art?
What was the occupation of the goliards?
Which of the following is the proper definition of contrafactum?
What exactly is organum, according to anonymous ninth-century treatises on the subject?
Name one source for the note-against-note organum that, according to Anonymous IV, Perotinus penned fresh clausulae that might have replaced earlier ones.
in a number of different manuscripts, all of which were completed after Leoninus’ death.
The top voices of descant clausualae have been enriched by the addition of fresh text by Notre Dame musicians.
Approximately how many of the fundamental unit are generally placed together in Franconian notation?
What exactly is a perfection in Franconian notation?
Compared to earlier types of organum, note-against-note organumsingers had greater independence in the construction of the organal voice in this style.
As written polyphony grew more prominent in the Middle Ages, notation became increasingly important in Western music.
The existing music in a motet, which was mostly plainchant at the time, became known as the motetum in the thirteenth century The vast majority of alternative clausulae are An early source for polyphonic practice in the Western tradition is found in the book of Genesis.
A specific stylistic characteristic of early English polyphony may be identified.
When it comes to organum, one manner in which Guido of Arezzo’s approach to MIcrologus varies from that of Musica enchiriadis is that the former is more formal.
With mixed parallel and oblique organum, what problems may singers of early organum avoid?
After ancient Greece, who was the first person in the Western tradition to notate rhythmically?
detailed information on the accomplishments of Leoninus and Perotinus When it came to polyphonic chansons during the Ars Nova period, which line was the most prominent one?
Which mensural sign denoted large or complete prolation in the fourteenth century, and when did it appear?
During a significant portion of the 14 century, the Pope lived in: What is the difference between the Ars Subtilior and the Ars Nova?
The Ars Subtilior was characterized by a high level of rhythmic and harmonic intricacy.
What is the proper definition of the word hocket?
Which of the following allowed for the development of the Ars Nova musical style?
Which of the following is considered to be one of Guillaume de Machaut’s greatest achievements?
Is it possible to identify which of theformes fixed has a refrain that is composed solely of music from the third and final segment of the stanza melody?
Italian madrigals from the Trecento period are distinguished by the use of which of the following compositional devices?
The Italian ballata has a shape that is comparable to the American ballata.
the one with the Landini cadence (in this case): C, B, and D are the first three notes of the eighth note.
Haught (high) and bass (low) are two categories that refer to the relative loudness of instruments (true or false) Many polyphonic songs from the fourteenth century, both in France and Italy, do not contain words in the bottom parts of the song.
What is the difference between temperaments and just intonation?
The Aeolian and Ionian modes were first established by Heinrich Glareanus in Dodekachordon.
Where did the majority of musicians receive their training throughout the Renaissance?
Which of the following voices was added to the previously existing three-voice texture during the Renaissance?
What is one musical repertoire that has been significantly influenced by the invention of the printing press?
In compared to previous composers, what was the nature of the interaction between Renaissance composers and the text they were working with?
On what date did Ottaviano Petrucci publish the first piece of music using moveable type?
The most extensively used tuning or temperament system in the Western world today is .
Thirds and sixths sounded out of tune when using Pythagorean intonation.
When did the Hundred Years’ War officially come to an end?
The melody in the top staff of each pair of systems is connected to the melody in the bottom staff of each pair of systems, as seen in the example below.
Except for the last item, all of the following may be found in Dunstable’s sacred works.
(either true or false) Cantilenas in English are based on chants that have already been performed.
3rds and 6ths are abundant, and they are frequently in parallel motion.
a three-voice polyphonic composition with plainchant in the middle vocal, one voice a fourth above the chant, and another voice a third below the chant If you’re familiar with the English carol, “Burden” is a refrain sung at the beginning of the song and repeated at the end of each verse.
A chant melody is embellished with ornaments and given a beat.
Which of the following was the most prevalent form of chanson in the fifteenth century?
What ways does Du Fay’sResvellies vousreflect the musical traditions of the French?
equal treatment for both the tenor and the cantus The top voices have been written, and the middle voice is a 4th below the top voices in pitch.
It had been around for a century, and composers only used it for grave occasions at the time.
the cohesion of the Mass Ordinary’s settings When it came to establishing coherence amongst mass movements, which of the following methods did composers of the fifteenth century use?
In three movements, he extends the piece by doubling the lengths of the notes.
Most of the masses had the same number of voices, but the ranges of the voices are wider in Ockeghem’s masses, notably in the lower registers of the voices.
The usage of imitation has risen in recent years.
What was the treatment of the most popular chansons by Ockeghem and Busnoys when they were being disseminated?
What was the most common manner for Ockeghem and Busnoys to form a mass?
Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of Ockeghem’s style?
In Ockeghem’sMissa De plus en plus, what is the cantus firmus (core tune)?
Despite the fact that it is written in two lines, the inclusion of different clefs and mensuration sings implies that it should be played with four voices. the inverse of a linea work that has been previously or concurrently heard in which several portions are derived from a single voice