Music Quiz 2 – Subjecto.com
|The beginning of the Middle Ages was marked by the_.||fall of the Roman Empire|
|During the Middle Ages, all power came from whichreligious organization?||The Roman Catholic Church|
|Which secular leader in the Middle Ages promoted astrong, centralized government?||Charlemagne|
|The main European port for cultural exchange ofEastern luxuries was:||Venice|
|The violent series of events that took place aspart of an attempt to capture the Holy Land from the Muslims is known as:||the Crusades|
|During the Renaissance, lands new to the Europeanswere discovered, including _.||the Americas|
|One of the major advancements in the Renaissancewas the invention of printing, pioneered by:||Johannes Gutenberg|
|Which of the following was a Renaissance artist?||Leonardo da Vinci|
|The most universally idealized woman in Westernculture during the Middle Ages was _.||the Virgin Mary|
|Who were the most prominent performers of secularmusic in medieval France?||troubadours and trouvères|
|Musicians could find employment in which of thefollowing professions?||instrument building, teaching, copyists|
|The early Christian church had very little power inEurope during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.||False|
|The Middle Ages spanned nearly one thousand years.||True|
|Our understanding of the musical culture of ancientcivilizations is limited by the few fragments of music that have survived.||True|
|Trade flourished in the later Middle Ages, when amerchant class arose outside of feudal society.||True|
|The Renaissance marks the passing of Europeansociety from a predominately secular society to a more sacred one.||False|
|Compared to the MiddleAges, more professional womenmusicians made their mark in society in the Renaissance.||True|
|The literature of ancient Greece and Rome was oflittle interest to artists and writers of the Renaissance.||False|
|The Middle East had no influence on Europeanmusical styles.||False|
|The major narrative of Western musical developmentbegins with notated music.||True|
|Music performed with exchanges between a soloistand chorus is called _.||responsorial singing|
|Which of the following is NOT true of Gregorianchant (plainchant) melodies?||They are in Hebrew and Syrian|
|Hildegard of Bingen was born into a _ noblefamily.||German|
|Modal melodies of the early Christian church aresimilar to melodies and scales from _.||The Middle East|
|In chant from the Middle Ages, if there are manynotes per syllable, the style is called _.||melismatic|
|When multiple people sing a monophonic chanttogether, it is called singing in_?||unison|
|Hildegard’s collection of poetry and visions iscalled:||Scivias|
|How many Gregorian chants survive?||over three thousand|
|What musical aspect is found in Hildegard’s praisesongs, but is not found in most Gregorian chant?||wide leaps|
|What might explain why medieval chants can soundunfamiliar to a modern listener?||they are modal|
|The term liturgy refers to the set order of churchservices and the structure of each service.||True|
|Gregorian chant features regularly phrased melodiclines supported by instrumental accompaniment.||False|
|The chants of the church used only the major andminor scale patterns found in later music.||False|
|Hildegard’s chant Alleluia, O virga mediatrix wasintended for performance on a feast day of the Virgin Mary.||True|
|The text setting in Alleluia, O virga mediatrix ismostly syllabic.||False|
|Hildegard’s Alleluia, O virgo mediatrix is aGregorian chant.||False|
|In the Middle Ages, it was assumed that women weredivinely connected.||False|
|Hildegard took her vows at age fourteen.||True|
|Pope Gregory the Great composed all of theGregorian chant melodies.||False|
|Music, mathematics, geometry, and astronomy werethe four topics considered essential to medieval _.||education|
|Which secular medieval musicians entertainedaudiences at the higher social levels?||troubadours|
|What was the period that immediately preceded theArs nova called?||Ars antiqua|
|How does Machaut convey the medieval fascinationfor puzzles in Ma fin est mon commencement?||palindromic structure|
|Which of the following is/are poetic forms used inmedieval chansons?:||all of these choices|
|Which of the following is NOT a medievalwriter/poet?||Pythagoras|
|Where did Machaut work as a priest?||Reims Cathedral|
|Which of the following topics might be found inmedieval lyrics?||unrequited love, politics, songs of the Crusades|
|Machaut’s own poetry often centers around the ideaof:||medieval chivalry|
|With whom did Machaut exchange poems and letters?||Peronne|
|Religious wars and medieval explorations enhancedcultural exchange.||True|
|The last part of the Middle Ages is referred to asthe Ars nova.||True|
|In the Western tradition, music historically hasnot been linked to mathematics and geometry.||False|
|Composers in the Ars nova style wrote both sacredand secular songs.||True|
|Machaut took holy orders, but worked for multipleFrench courts.||True|
|Machaut was the first composer to self-consciouslyattempt a compositional legacy.||True|
|There was an interest in both the regularity andcomplexity of musical patterns during the Ars nova.||True|
|All chansons are monophonic||False|
|The Ars Nova began around the early 1400s in Italy.||False|
|Machaut only wrote sacred music||False|
|The mood of Farmer’s madrigal Fair Phyllis can bestbe described as _.||light and pastoral|
|Farmer’s Fair Phyllis is written for _ voices.||four|
|Farmer “paints” the first line of thetext, “Fair Phyllis I saw sitting all alone,” through the musicaluse of _.||monophony|
|At which point in the text of Fair Phyllis does thework change to an imitative texture?||“Up and down he wandered”|
|Which of the following instruments was likely foundin prosperous homes during the Renaissance?||lute|
|In addition to the Italian madrigal, what othergenre arose from the union of poetry and music?||French chanson|
|In which of the following ways did Renaissancecomposers enhance the emotional content of madrigals?||through the use of madrigalisms|
|Which of the following composers was influential inthe later Italian madrigal tradition?||Claudio Monteverdi|
|Which of the following statements are true inregard to typical English madrigals?||All choices are correct|
|The performing forces for Farmer’s madrigal consistof a four-voice SATB ensemble.||True|
|The English madrigal preceded the development ofthe Italian madrigal by some twenty years.||False|
|The text of John Farmer’s Fair Phyllis refers toreal historical figures.||False|
|Both Italian and English madrigals often featureword-painting.||True|
|Sometimes humorous madrigals would have a refrainof syllables such as “fa la la.”||True|
a Greek 2 Hildegard of Bingen was born into a noble family a German 3 Hildegards
Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more. The term “Get response to your query and much more” refers to music that is performed with exchanges between a soloist and a chorus 12.The musical characteristics of plainchant contain all of the elements listed below, with the exception of Pope Gregory the Great is credited with the composition of all of the Gregorian chant tunes. Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more. Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
- Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
- Alleluia, O virga mediatrix has a mostly syllabic text arrangement (see page 18).
- 19.During the Middle Ages, many who sang Gregorian plainchant thought that it had been produced by the divine, rather than by the human intellect.
- Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
- 21.What exactly does the term antiphonal mean?
- Find the solution to this and many more questions on this page.
- 23, What musical element is present in Hildegard’s praise songs but is absent from the majority of Gregorian chant?
- Which of the following statements about Gregorian chant (plainchant) melodies is NOT correct?
25._, a series of little rising and descending signs placed over the phrase “Get an answer to your query and much more.” aided vocalists in remembering the broad outlines of the different melodies by pointing out the contour of the melodic line Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
Sonic Metaphors: Music, Sound, and Ecofeminist Theology:
|Anderson, JF (1953) An Introduction to the Metaphysics of St. Thomas Aquinas.Chicago, IL:Henry Regnery.Google Scholar|
|Aquinas, T (2012) Summa Theologiae: Complete Set (trans. Aquinas Institute).Dubuque, IA:Emmaus Academic.Google Scholar|
|Augustine (2009) Confessions (trans. H Chadwick).Oxford:Oxford University Press.Google Scholar|
|Bartel, D (2017) Andreas Werckmeister’s Musicalische Paradoxal-Discourse: A Well-Tempered Universe.London:Lexington Books.Google Scholar|
|Baumann, P (1999)Listening to nature. The World of Music 41(1):97 – 111.Google Scholar|
|Berry, T (1988) The Dream of the Earth.New York:Random House.Google Scholar|
|Bertoglio, C (2013)A perfect chord: trinity in music, music in the trinity. Religions 4:485 – 501.Google Scholar|Crossref|
|Bingen, H (1988) Symphonia: A Critical Edition of the “Symphonia Armonie Celestium Revelationum” (Symphony of the Harmony of Celestial Revelations) (trans. and ed. B, Newman).Ithaca, NY:Cornell University Press.Google Scholar|
|Bingen, H (1990) Scivias (trans. C, Hart, J, Bishop).New York:Paulist Press.Google Scholar|
|Braun, J (2002) Music in Ancient Israel/Palestine: Archaeological, Written, and Comparative Sources.Grand Rapids, MI:William B. Eerdmans Publishing.Google Scholar|
|Brennan, B (1988)Augustine’s “ De Musica.” Vigiliae Christianae 42(3):267 – 281.Google Scholar|
|Buszin, WE (1946)Luther on music. The Musical Quarterly 32(1):80 – 97.Google Scholar|Crossref|
|Cano, S (2019)Art/theo/logy: theological arts-based research. In: Clay, M (ed.) The Feminist Imagination: Enfleshing the Unconscious.Winchester:Institute for Theological Partnerships, 31–46.Google Scholar|
|Chicago, J (2006) The Dinner Party: From Creation to Preservation.New York:Merrill Publishing.Google Scholar|
|Christ, CP, Plaskow, J (1979) Womanspirit Rising: A Feminist Reader in Religion.New York:HarperRow.Google Scholar|
|Daly, M (1973) Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women’s Liberation with an Original Reintroduction by the Author.Boston, MA:Beacon Press.Google Scholar|
|Daly, M (1978) Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism.Boston, MA:Beacon Press.Google Scholar|
|Epstein, H (2004) Melting the Venusberg: A Feminist Theology of Music.New York:Continuum.Google Scholar|
|Fassler, M (1998)Composer and dramatist: melodious singing and the freshness of remorse. In: Newman, B (ed.) Voices of the Living Light: Hildegard of Bingen and Her World.Berkeley, CA:University of California Press,149 – 175.Google Scholar|
|Fassler, M (2010)History and practice: the opening of Hildegard’s Scivias in a liturgical framework. ReligionLiterature 42(1/2):211 – 227.Google Scholar|
|Friedmann, JL (2013) Music in Biblical Life: The Roles of Song in Ancient Israel.Jefferson, NC:McFarlandCompany.Google Scholar|
|Google (2019)Celebrating Johann Sebastian Bach. Google Doodles,21March. Available at: 24 June 2020).Google Scholar|
|Harrison, C (2011)Augustine and the art of music. In: Bigbie, E (ed.) Resonant Witness: Conversations between Music and Theology.Grand Rapids, MI:Eerdmans, 31–34.Google Scholar|
|Haynes, HM (ed.) (2017) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.97th ed.Boca Raton, FL:CRC Press.Google Scholar|
|Holsinger, BW (1993)The flesh of the voice: embodiment and the homoerotics of devotion in the music of Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179). Signs 19(1):92 – 125.Google Scholar|Crossref|
|Holsinger, BW (2001) Music, Body, and Desire in Medieval Culture: Hildegard of Bingen to Chaucer.Stanford, CA:Stanford University Press.Google Scholar|
|Idelsohn, AZ (1929) Jewish Music: In Its Historical Development.Mineola, NY:Courier Dover Publications.Google Scholar|
|McFague, S (1975) Speaking in Parables: A Study in Metaphor and Theology.Minneapolis, MN:Fortress Press.Google Scholar|
|McFague, S (1982) Metaphorical Theology: Models of God in Religious Language.Philadelphia, PA:Fortress Press.Google Scholar|
|McFague, S (1993) The Body of God: An Ecological Theology.Minneapolis, MN:Fortress Press.Google Scholar|
|McKinnon, JW (1979)The exclusion of musical instruments from the ancient synagogue. Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 106:77 – 87.Google Scholar|Crossref|
|Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2020) Numinous. Available at: 15 June 2020).Google Scholar|
|Newman, B (1987) Sister of Wisdom: St. Hildegard’s Theology of the Feminine: With a New Preface, Bibliography and Discography.Berkeley, CA:University of California Press.Google Scholar|
|Plato (2001) Plato’s Republic (trans. B Jowett).Baltimore, MD:Agora Publications.Google Scholar|
|Rosen, S (2011) Signals and Systems for Speech and Hearing.2nd ed.Boston, MA:Brill Publishing.Google Scholar|
|Ruether, RR (1983) Sexism and God-Talk: Toward a Feminist Theology.Boston, MA:Beacon Press.Google Scholar|
|Ruether, RR (1992) GaiaGod: An Ecofeminist Theology of Earth Healing.San Francisco, CA:Harper.Google Scholar|
|Ruether, RR (2015) Ecofeminism and globalization (Garrett-evangelical theological seminary). Available at: 5 June 2020).Google Scholar|
|Schneider, S (1990)God is more than two men and a bird. U.S. Catholic 55(5):20 – 27.Google Scholar|
|Shore-Goss, RE (2016) God Is Green: An Eco-Spirituality of Incarnate Compassion.Eugene, OR:Wipf and Stock.Google Scholar|
|Ursic, E (2014) Women, Ritual and Power: Placing Female Imagery of God in Christian Worship.Albany, NY:SUNY Press.Google Scholar|
|Ursic, E (2017 a)Dancing with Gaia Suite. Available at: 6 July 2020).Google Scholar|
|Ursic, E (2017 b)Imagination, art, and feminist theology. Feminist Theology 25(3):310 – 326.Google Scholar|SAGE Journals|ISI|
|Weekes, ME (2005)This house, this music: exploring the interdependent interpretive relationship between the contemporary black church and contemporary gospel music. Black Music Research Journal 25(1/2):43 – 72.Google Scholar|
|Weiss, P, Taruskin, R (2008) Music in the Western World: A History in Documents.Boston, MA:Cengage Learning.Google Scholar|
|Wiskus, J (2016)Rhythm and transformation through memory: on Augustine’s confessions afterDe Musica. The Journal of Speculative Philosophy 30(3):328 – 338.Google Scholar|Crossref|
Hildegard of Bingen
The next step is to study about Hildegard of Bingen, who is one of the most remarkable personalities to emerge from this time period. Hildegard was an exception to the rule, as most plainchant was composed in the first person. She also wrote books on a variety of themes ranging from medicine to spiritual discoveries, all of which were ultimately authorized by church officials once they were published.
Hildegard is a fascinating historical character, and the majority of the Wikipedia page on the medieval musician and abbess is offered below; nonetheless, it is advised that you read the whole article. Having stated that, the Introduction and Music portions are the most crucial for your research.
In 1098, Saint Hildegard of Bingen, abbess of the Benedictine order, died on September 17, 1179, and was known as Saint Hildegard andSibyl of the Rhine. She was a German writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic who was also a Benedictine abbess, visionary, and polymath who lived during the Middle Ages. The convent at Rupertsberg, founded in 1150, and the monastery at Eibingen, founded in 1165, were founded by Hildegard, who was voted magistra by her fellow sisters in 1136. One of her compositions, theOrdo Virtutum, is considered to be the earliest surviving example of liturgical theater as well as the oldest existing morality play.
However, despite the fact that the history of her formal consideration is confusing, she has been venerated as a saint by several branches of the Roman Catholic Church for centuries.
The actual date of Hildegard’s birth is unknown at this time. She was born around the year 1098 to Mechtild of Merxheim-Nahet and Hildebert of Bermersheim, a family of free lower nobility serving the Count Meginhard of Sponheim. Her father was a member of the Count’s household. Hildegard was born sick and is typically regarded as the family’s youngest and tenth child, despite the fact that she had seven elder siblings according to historical documents. Hildegard of Bingen writes in her Vita that she had had visions since she was a very small child.
Hildegard’s parents offered her to the church as an oblate, whether as a result of Hildegard’s visions or as a measure of political positioning on their own. This is a difficult issue because the date of Hildegard’s confinement in church is not known for certain. HerVita claims that she was placed with an elder nun, Jutta, when she was eight years old. Jutta’s enclosure, on the other hand, is confirmed to have taken place in 1112, when Hildegard would have been fourteen years old. At the age of eight, some academics believe that Hildegard was left in the care of Jutta, the princess daughter of Count Stephan II of Sponheim.
- Hildegard is mentioned in the written record of Jutta’s life as having supported her in reciting the Psalms, working in the garden, and ministering to the ill, according to the written account.
- Jutta was also a visionary, which drew a large number of followers who came to pay her a visit at the enclosure.
- During the hours of the Divine Office, Hildegard and Jutta most likely prayed, thought, studied texts such as the Psalter, and worked on crafts such as embroidery.
- Volmar, who was a frequent visitor, is thought to have taught Hildegard the basics of psalm notation.
- When Jutta died in 1136, Hildegard was unanimously chosen by her sister nuns to the position of “magistra” (chief) of the community.
- Hildegard, on the other hand, desired greater freedom for herself and her nuns, and she petitioned Abbot Kuno to grant them permission to relocate to Rupertsberg.
- Upon the abbot’s rejection of Hildegard’s proposal, Hildegard went above and above to obtain the blessing of Archbishop Henry I of Mainz.
- Hildegard ascribed the sickness to the wrath of God for not obeying his directions to relocate her nuns to Rupertsberg, and she died as a result.
- Consequently, in 1150, Hildegard and around twenty other nuns relocated to the St.
Rupertsberg abbey in the Netherlands, where Volmar acted as provost and confessor as well as Hildegard’s scribe. Hildegard created a second monastery for her nuns in Eibingen in 1165, which is still in operation today.
Hildegard’s parents offered her to the church as an oblate, whether as a result of Hildegard’s visions or as a measure of political maneuvering. The exact date of Hildegard’s enclosing in the cathedral is the topic of a heated discussion. When she was eight years old, herVita claims she was placed in the care of an older nun named Jutta. It is known, however, that Hildegard would have been fourteen years old when Jutta’s confinement occurred in 1112. The Countess Jutta of Sponheim, the daughter of Count Stephan II of Sponheim, is said to have taken care of Hildegard when she was eight years old, and the two ladies were confined together six years later.
- However, Hildegard and Jutta were confined at Disibodenberg, which is located in what is now Germany’s Palatinate Forest.
- As Hildegard explains, she was instructed in reading and writing by Jutta, but that she was unlearned and hence unable to instruct Hildegard in biblical interpretation.
- Hildegard may have learnt to play the psaltery, a ten-stringed instrument, around this period.
- It’s possible that the time she spent studying music was the genesis of the works she would go on to write.
- The nuns and Hildegard, on the other hand, desired greater freedom, and so they petitioned Abbot Kuno to enable them to transfer from Rupertsberg to Rupertsburg.
- In response to the abbot’s rejection of Hildegard’s proposal, Hildegard went above and above and obtained the consent of Archbishop Henry I of Mainz.
- Hildegard ascribed the sickness to the wrath of God for not obeying his directives to relocate her nuns to Rupertsberg.
Consequently, in 1150, Hildegard and around twenty other nuns relocated to the St. Rupertsberg abbey in the Netherlands, where Volmar served as provost and confessor as well as Hildegard’s scribe and confessor. A second monastery for her nuns was established in Eibingen in 1165 by Hildegard.
In recent decades, there has been a resurgence of interest in the music of Hildegard of Bingen, thanks to a renewed focus on women in the medieval Church. The Ordo Virtutum is not the only musical work that has survived; sixty-nine other compositions, each with its own unique lyrical text, have also been discovered, and at least four other texts are known, though their musical notation has been lost. This is one of the most extensive collections of works by medieval composers. Listen to the songO frondens virga from the albumOrdo Virtutum.
The songs from the Symphonia are set to Hildegard’s own text and include antiphons, hymns, sequences, and responsories, among other types of compositions.
With soaring melodies that sometimes push the bounds of the more staid ranges of conventional Gregorian chant, it is distinguished by its own style.
Another characteristic of Hildegard’s music is that it is strongly melismatic, with repeating melodic elements being a common occurrence.
As is true of all medieval chant notation, Hildegard’s music lacks any indication of pace or rhythm; the surviving manuscripts utilize late German style notation, which employs highly ornamented neumes, to represent tempo and rhythm.
Ordino Virtutum (The Virtues), one of her more well-known works, is a morality drama on the virtues.
The monophonic melodies for the Anima (the human soul) and the 16 Virtues make up the morality play’s score.
Scholars believe that Volmar would have played the role of the Devil, while Hildegard’s nuns would have performed the roles of Anima and the Virtues, respectively.
The notion of viriditas, or ‘greenness,’ is an earthy embodiment of the divine in a way that transcends dualisms and maintains its integrity. It is this “greenness” or “life-giving strength” that may be found regularly in Hildegard’s writings.