What Musical Era Is Gregorian Chant

Gregorian chant

Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.

The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.

The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.

The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.

  • TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
  • Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
  • The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
  • During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.
  • As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.
  • Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.
  • Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.
  • Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.
  • By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.
  • The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.
  • The song has a neumatic feel to it.

Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.

Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.

A brief history of Gregorian chant

A Gregorian chant rehearsal at the school’s St. Vincent Chapel was conducted on October 10 by Timothy S. McDonnell, director of music ministries at The Catholic University of America’s Institute of Sacred Music, Benjamin T. Rome School of Music in Washington. Gregorian chant is the chanting of the liturgy, and the texts are nearly completely drawn from the Bible. (CNS photo courtesy of Chaz Muth) (CNS) – Washington, D.C. – Whenever Erin Bullock walks in front of the altar at Washington’s Cathedral of St.

  • During an October Mass at the church, her function as cantor is as obvious as the priest’s, and much of the music she intones with her powerful soprano – together with the choir and those in the seats – is the unadorned resonances of Gregorian chant.
  • In their performance by a choir, the chants are normally chanted in unison and unaccompanied by any kind of rhythmic or melodic accompaniment, with the tones rising and falling in an ad libitum way.
  • McDonnell, director of the Institute of Sacred Music at The Catholic University of America in Washington, the history of sung prayer extends back to the first millennium, with Gregorian chant being the suitable music of the mature Roman rite.
  • Despite its resurgence in popularity in recent decades, the chant is not the primary musical accompaniment in most Catholic parishes in the United States, according to McDonnell of Catholic News Service.
  • According to Elizabeth Black, assistant music director at St.

As an example, when the priest sings, “the Lord be with you,” and the congregation responds in song, “and with your spirit,” they are participating in Gregorian chant because those holy texts are an essential part of the Mass, according to Black, who spoke to Catholic News Service in a recent interview about the practice.

  1. When you sing a component of the liturgy that is fundamental to the Mass, you’re singing Gregorian chant, according to Lang, who is an expert on the subject.
  2. Despite the fact that hymns, which are typically layered in rich harmonies, are liturgical in character, such melodies are intended to beautify the Mass with meditative spirituality rather than serving as a key component of the liturgy, according to Black.
  3. However, there are several exceptions to this unofficial chant rule, and certain choirs embellish their chants with harmonies and musical accompaniment on occasion.
  4. But, according to theologian John Paul II, it is only recently that Gregorian chant, which began to take shape in the ninth century, has been written down and kept for historical preservation.

The development of Gregorian chant is unlikely to have been a direct result of Pope Gregory I’s efforts, according to McDonnell, who described him as a “building pope” who helped reorder the liturgy in a more practical way, creating the artistic environment necessary for the establishment of some form of plainchant.

  1. Gregory the Great’s death that the music we know today as Gregorian chant began to develop, according to Dr.
  2. “In fact, most historians believe it was Pope Gregory II (715-731), who reigned about 100 years later, who was the Pope Gregory who actually had more of a hand in formulating this body of chants that we know today as Gregorian chant,” he said.
  3. Matthew the Apostle.
  4. John the Beloved, has made the chant a natural component of the liturgy.

McDonnell stated that “Gregorian chant has the potential to be extremely sophisticated, intricate, and convoluted, as well as possessing a high level of artistic merit.” However, much of its beauty may be found in the simplicity of the design and the fact that most of it is accessible to members of the congregation and children.” According to him, “everyone can learn to sing some amount of Gregorian chant,” and the church has organized the chants into categories based on their accessibility over the years.

  • There are numerous chants that are intended to be sung by the faithful as part of their participation in the liturgy, and those chants are every bit as much Gregorian chant as the more florid and complex ones,” says the author.
  • St.
  • The chant is more effective because of this technique, in some ways,” says the author.
  • According to him, the causes of these waves are unpredictable.
  • “When the popes returned from Avignon (a period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven popes resided in Avignon, France, rather than in Rome), the city was in utter disarray, and the culture of Rome had to be reconstructed,” he explained.

As a result, we witnessed the resurgence of Gregorian chant.” The Renaissance polyphony of the 16th century, with its intricate texturized harmonies, became the dominant music in the church and for a time superseded Gregorian chant, according to McDonnell, who believes that the Renaissance was a period of cultural restoration.

Then, in 1947, Pope Pius XII released his encyclical “Mediator Dei” (“On the Sacred Liturgy”), which encouraged active involvement by the laity in the liturgy while also strengthening the use of Gregorian chant, according to historian Black.

The use of Gregorian chant was advocated for in papers produced during Vatican II in the 1960s; but, as the Latin Mass was replaced by the vernacular, most parishes opted for music that was more in tune with popular culture, such as praise and worship and folk genres, according to McDonnell.

When “Chant,” an incredibly successful CD produced by the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos, Spain, was published in the 1990s, interest in the practice was once again piqued, according to him.

Gregorian chant is no longer the dominant force in parish life as it once was, but according to McDonnell, if history repeats itself, it is in the process of regaining its former prominence and might once again become a mainstay of church music.

What is Gregorian Chant? History, Characteristics and Composers

Since the 9th and 10th centuries, Gregorian chant has played an important role in the development of religious music. Despite its mournful beauty, its chorus could be heard throughout the immense worship halls of large early European cathedrals, and its echoes may still be heard in current music in classical forms that somehow yet seem authentic. In this piece, we’ll make an attempt to provide a thorough assessment of the history and qualities that have defined Gregorian chant throughout history and into the present day.

Background and History

St. Gregory the Great It is generally believed that Pope Gregory I, who is often credited with developing Gregorian Chant, was the first to use it in the 9th century following his death. Gregorian style chant as holy music may have been affected by Pope Gregory I (715-731 AD), who may have been the first to influence the establishment of the style after the music began as prayer enriched by art in song and read like poetry put to music. In the words of St. Augustine, transforming prayer into music “adds such strength that it is like praying twice.” Gregorian chant, on the other hand, began to lose popularity when secular values began to take precedence over religious beliefs throughout the first part of the first century.

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As the Holy Roman Empire’s strength and influence diminished in the 15th century, the seat of the pope was restored to Rome after several generations spent at Avignon, France, as the empire’s power and influence fell.

The resurgence of the clergy in Roman society resulted in the reintroduction of Gregorian chant to the general populace.

Characteristics and Style

Gregorian chant is a amonophonic type of music, which means that there is just one melodic line in the piece of music. Because there are no polyphonic harmonies, all of the vocalists sing in unison to the same single tune. Especially when performed in acoustically ideal places of worship such as St. Paul’s Cathedral in London or the Basilicas of Rome, the impact may be breathtaking and even eerie in places of devotion like these. Today, Gregorian chant is used in both Catholic and Protestant rituals, particularly in the call and answer liturgy of sermons.

In addition, current solfege singing has its roots in old Gregorian chant.

Instrumentation

Gregorian chant was traditionally sung only by human voices, according to tradition. This time, the choir sang without accompaniment, with a strong emphasis on the often sad, sometimes soaring melodic intonation of religious texts or vowel sounds as a key focus of the performance. Stringed or wind instruments, primarily flutes, harpsichords, organs, and violins, as well as electronic instruments like as keyboards and synthesizers, may be used to accompany modern versions of Gregorian chant, depending on the style.

Even current Gregorian chant does not include drums or bass instruments, due to the lack of an established rhythm section in Gregorian chant.

Form and Texture

The single melodic line is frequently performed by a group of voices singing in unison. Rhythmically, it ranges from Largo (slow) to Andante (“walking speed”), with a smooth and velvety texture, as well as being sluggish and flowing. Each note flows into the next like a river, with minimal pauses and no short or staccato notes in between. When performing Gregorian chant, breathing is an important aspect of the performance, and singers frequently purposefully alternate breaths with one another in order to keep the melodic flow uninterrupted.

Boys’ and all-female choirs perform Gregorian chant in a variety of tonalities ranging from alto to soprano, and, on occasion, falsetto, among other things.

Mixed choirs have the greatest range of adaptability, since they include members from all voice ranges in a single group.

Famous Composers

Usually, a single melodic line is performed by a group of voices singing in harmony. Rhythmically, it ranges from Largo (slow) to Andante (“walking speed”), with a smooth and velvety texture, as well as sluggish and flowing. Short and staccato notes are avoided in favor of tones that flow together like a river. When performing Gregorian chant, breathing is an important aspect of the performance, and singers will frequently actively alternate breaths with one another in order to keep the melodic flow uninterrupted.

In tones ranging from alto to soprano and, on rare occasions, falsetto, boys’ and all-female choirs perform Gregorian chant.

Mixed choirs have the greatest range of versatility since they include members from all voice ranges.

1. Stephen of Liège (850-920)

Stephen of Liege is one of the earliest known composers of Gregorian chant and is regarded as one of the greatest of all time. He served a number of lower roles in the church before being appointed Bishop of Liege in 901 AD and remained there until 920 AD. Aside from that, Stephen has written biographies of saints and other notable religious individuals.

2. Fulbert of Chartres (960-1028)

The intriguing beginnings of the French teacher and future Bishop of Chartres are still a mystery to this day. But some of Fulbert’s works have endured, notably many hymns praising the Virgin Mary and the still-popular Easter song “Chorus Novae Jerusalem,” which is dedicated to the city of Jerusalem.

3. Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179)

The intriguing beginnings of the French teacher and future Bishop of Chartres are still a mystery to this day..

But some of Fulbert’s works have endured, notably numerous hymns praising the Virgin Mary and the still-popular Easter song “Chorus Novae Jerusalem,” which is dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

4. Peter Abelard (1079-1142)

Peter Abelard was a theologian and scholar who was one of the most scandalous and well-known religious personalities of the medieval period. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time. But he was also a gifted composer of Gregorian chant, well known for his melancholy songs of lamentation for the loss of loved ones, which frequently made reference to Biblical and theological characters. The issue stems from his extramarital liaison with fellow professor Hélose, who happened to be a well-known nun at the time.

It’s possible that we’ve discovered further proof of Abelard’s musical talent, which was ahead of its day in terms of musical structure and melodic simplicity, in this work.

Famous Pieces

Despite the fact that it appears to be straightforward, the sacred subject matter and distinct melodic lines of Gregorian chant have continued to influence religious composers throughout the ages. The impact of the great composers may be seen and heard in subsequent works by legends such as Mozart, Beethoven, Handel, and Bach, as well as in works by lesser-known artists. In this century, classical artists continue to reinterpret, record, and present these and other ancient works on the stage in new ways, as well as in previous centuries.

1. Ordo Virtutum

Hailing from a tradition of ingenuity, Hildegard von Bingen’s 82-song Gregorian operaOrdo Virtutumbe was the world’s first morality drama, and her music went on to inspire a generation of Renaissance musicians.

2. “Chorus Novae Jerusalem”

Later recordings have re-interpreted several of Saint Fulbert’s holy songs, notably “Ye Choirs of New Jerusalem,” composed by English composer Henry John Gauntlettin the 19th century and still performed at Easter masses throughout the western world today.

3. “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha”

King Saul and his son, Prince Jonathan, were killed in Abelard’s “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha,” which was written to grieve Israel’s defeat at the hands of the Philistines and to lament the deaths of the two kings.

Conclusion

King Saul and his son, Prince Jonathan, were killed in Abelard’s “Planctus David super Saul et lonatha,” which was written to grieve Israel’s defeat at the hands of the Philistines and to lament the deaths of both Saul and Jonathan.

What is Gregorian Chant – GIA Publications

Before reviewing the main Gregorian chant books and resources, perhaps it is good to state what Gregorian chant is.Gregorian chant is the church’s own music, born in the church’s liturgy. Its texts are almost entirely scriptural, coming for the most part from the Psalter. For centuries it was sung as pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment, and this is still the best way to sing chant if possible. It was composed entirely in Latin; and because its melodies are so closely tied to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best to sing it in Latin. (Among possible exceptions are chant hymns, since the melodies are formulaic and are not intrinsically tied to the Latin text.) Gregorian chant is in free rhythm, without meter or time signature.Because the liturgy was sung almost entirely in Gregorian chant in the Middle Ages (with polyphony saved for special occasions), every type of liturgical text has been set in chant: readings, prayers, dialogs, Mass propers, Mass ordinaries, office hymns, office psalms and antiphons, responsories, and versicles. Although Pope St. Gregory the Great (590–604) certainly did not play a role in the creation or compilation of our chant melodies, popular legend led the church to name Gregorian chant after this great leader.Many other types and styles of music are similar to Gregorian chant or inspired by it, but one should distinguish them from Gregorian chant. Taizé chants, for example, are generally in Latin, similar to Gregorian chant antiphons. But the musical style is quite different: metered and with choral harmonies and/or instrumental accompaniments.Many psalm tones have been written since the Second Vatican Council. They are much like Gregorian chant psalm tones with their free rhythm and their repeatable melodic formulas. By Gregorian psalm tones, however, we mean a set of particular melodies, one for each of the Gregorian modes, always in the form of two measures. The Gregorian psalm tones are well suited to the Latin language, but do not work very well with English accents, unless one takes freedom in adapting them. For English psalm verses, it is probably wiser to use psalm tones written for the English language. Back to Gregorian Chant Resources
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Gregorian Chant: An Integral Part to Music History

Middle-eastern music dates from around 500 to 1400 and is considered to be the first period in the history of music. During this period, liturgical vocal music for the Catholic Church, as well as secular vocal and instrumental compositions, were popular forms of entertainment. It was Gregorian chant, which was one of the most important elements of liturgical music during the medieval period. Many forms of music, not simply liturgical music, have benefited from the usage of Gregorian chant as the foundation for their development.

  1. It takes its name from Pope St.
  2. Many chants take their text from the Mass Ordinary, the elements of the Catholic Mass that are always the same and that are, or were, often chanted throughout the celebration of the Mass.
  3. The Mass Proper, which is a collection of prayers for mass that vary according to the season or feast being observed, provides the other texts for Gregorian chanting as well.
  4. Our modern approach, on the other hand, was derived from this old technique of representation.
  5. They began in the Middle Ages, when the only music that was being recorded was for the Church, and progressed through the centuries.
  6. It had been some years since chanting had been learnt orally rather than being written down.
  7. At some point, a staff or some variation of a staff was incorporated into the procedure to show how far higher or lower to go.
  8. This featured the introduction of a staff with four lines and the beginnings of our solfège system, both of which helped us to indicate pitch more precisely.
  9. A book called the Liber Usualis, which contains all of the chants of the Mass, was published in the late nineteenth century by monks from Solesmes, France, and is still in use today.

In churches and monasteries today, chants from the Liber Usualis, which were initially chanted in the Middle Ages, are still being sung in certain variations. Sources:;;;

Medieval Music: Introduction to Gregorian Chant

Sonja Maurer-Dass contributed to this article. Gregorian chant is one of the most famous musical legacies of medieval Europe, distinguished by its free-flowing melodies, holy Latin lyrics, and distinctive monophonic texture. Gregorian chant, which was developed and propagated during the Carolingian dynasty, appears to be a world away from the much more contemporary epochs of Western music to which many of our ears are accustomed; however, it is from this ages-old liturgical tradition that our current understanding of Western music and its accompanying system of musical notation derives from.

This section will look at how Gregorian chant came to be and how it spread throughout the world.

Many medieval music fans nowadays are aware with Gregorian chant (also known as Frankish-Roman chant), which is the most well-known of the liturgical chant traditions; nevertheless, throughout early medieval Europe, there were numerous distinct styles of holy chant that differed according to area.

  1. When one considers the several diverse Western liturgical chant traditions that have existed throughout the centuries, one would wonder why Gregorian chant has become the most generally recognized and maintained of them all.
  2. The development of Gregorian chant took place between the seventh and ninth centuries CE, during a period in which Frankish monarchs, most notably Charlemagne, tried to bring liturgical consistency to their kingdoms.
  3. Charlemagne declared in 789 that all of his kingdoms would be consolidated under a single Roman liturgy and chant, which became known as the Roman Rite.
  4. In essence, Gregorian chant was, as Margot Fassler puts it, “the revised song of the Franks,” which arose from a fusion of Old Roman chant with the Gallican chant of the Franks, according to Fassler.
  5. So far, we’ve looked at how the Carolingians had a crucial part in the spreading and development of Gregorian chant, but what about the popular tale that claims that Pope Saint Gregory I (“Gregory the Great”) is responsible for the spread of Gregorian chant?
  6. Because it was sung to Gregory I by the Holy Spirit, who came to him in the guise of a white dove, it was considered the most sacred and true type of liturgical chant.
  7. Some musicologists, on the other hand, have speculated that Gregory may have had a role in the codification and consolidation of previous chants, which eventually served as the foundation for later Gregorian chant.

A common depiction of the dove is that it is singing its sacred songs to Gregory, while Gregory is concurrently dictating the dove’s melodies to a nearby scribe.

Gregorian Chant’s Texture and Melody are both beautiful.

“Monophonic” is a musical word that refers to the performance of a single tune with no accompaniment (that is, there is no harmony played with a melody).

In the opening minute of the following chant sample, which was produced by the twelfth-century abbess, philosopher, mystic, and composer Hildegard of Bingen, you can hear a drone that is repeated several times.

For those who have heard different recordings of Gregorian chant, you may have noticed that its melodies are quite flowing in comparison to many modern types of Western art music and popular music.

Classical Gregorian melodies were produced using the notes of an organized pitch system known as modes (which were distinct from the major and minor keys that are now employed in Western music), and they were set to sacred Latin texts from religious services such as the Mass and the Divine Office.

  • Gregorian Chant and Early Types of Medieval Musical Notation are two examples of medieval musical notation.
  • This necessitated the development of a method of recording tunes that could be correctly taught and conveyed without the limitations of human memory.
  • Instead, it made use of symbols known as “neumes,” which served as a kind of trigger for melodies that had previously been acquired and retained as part of an oral culture.
  • They reflect the relative rising and descending melodic motion of the text.
  • The St.
  • Gall in Switzerland, is one of the earliest existing sources of this notation (which was copied in the tenth century).
  • Sang.
  • Sang.
  • Sang.
  • Guido d’Arezzo, a prominent music theorist who lived in Arezzo in the eleventh century, continued to create the framework for modern music notation by developing a four-line musical staff divided by intervals of thirds (an interval is the distance between two pitches).

Guido described the manner in which his employees worked in the preface to his antiphoner (of which only the prologue has been preserved): As a result, the notes are organized in such a manner that any sound, no matter how many times it appears in a song, can always be located in the same row.

–Margot Fassler provided the translation.

As a singer or member of a chorus, you may be acquainted with the syllable pattern Do-Re-Mi-Fa Sol, etc., in which each syllable corresponds to a written note (Guido’s syllable pattern differed somewhat in that the first syllable he used was “Ut” instead of “Do”).

Square notation allowed for the inclusion of more melodic elements that may be interpreted by vocalists who were unfamiliar with the source material.

It’s possible that you’ve already seen some square notation in medieval chant manuscripts, such as punctum (a single note sung to a single syllable); podatus (two notes—one is written on top of the other and the lowest of the two notes is sung first followed by the second note which moves in ascending motion); clivis (contains two notes that are sung in descending motion); and torculus (three notes sung consecutively When compared to our modern experiences of melody and notation, the notation and melodies of Gregorian chant may appear to be foreign and unfamiliar at first glance and listen; however, upon closer examination, it is fascinating and possible to see how the earliest attempts to record and accurately transmit sacred chant evolved over many centuries and eventually matured into the comprehensive system that is widely used and understood in the modern day.

  • Sonja Maurer-Dass is a Canadian musicologist and harpsichordist who specializes in Baroque music.
  • In addition, she possesses a Master’s degree on Musicology from York University, where she specialized in late medieval English choral music and the Old Hall Manuscript, among other things (Toronto, Canada).
  • The paper was presented at the 9th International Medieval Meeting.
  • Read on for more information: Willi Apel is the author of this work.
  • Western Music in Context: Western Music in the Medieval West is a book on music in the Medieval West (W.W.
  • Carolingians and Gregorian Chant are two examples of medieval music (Princeton University Press, 1998) Richard Taruskin is the author of this work.

From the earliest notations through the sixteenth century, there has been music (Oxford University Press, 2010) Adiastematic gregorian aquitanian notation is seen in the top image. Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

IB Music/Music History/Medieval Period – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Return to the IB Music Archive Middle Ages (450-1450) Sacred and secular music were distinguished in the Medieval Period, which was divided into two distinct categories. Sacred music was music that was used by the Roman Catholic Church, whilst secular music was music that had no connection to the Church and was utilized by other organizations.

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Sacred Music

It is believed that sacred music emerged from a style known as theGregorian chant. A collection of chants named after Pope Gregory I, the Gregorian chants are considered to be the official compositions of the Catholic Church.

Characteristics of Gregorian chants

  • The melody of a Gregorian chant is highly free-flowing, as is the rhythm of the chant. The chant progresses upward and downward in little increments and jumps within a limited range. Melodies are frequentlymelismatic, meaning that syllables are stretched across numerous notes. Harmony- Because Gregorian chants have a monophonic texture, they do not include any harmony. Although drone (singing the same note over a lengthy period of time, generally in entire notes) was popular, it wasn’t always used. It is impossible to determine the exact timing of each word in a Gregorian chant. It is permissible to hold notes for a “short” or “long” period of time, but no complicated rhythms are employed. In terms of structure, several Gregorian chants are written in ternary (ABA) form. An incipit, or introduction solo, is performed by a cantor at the start of the composition. The piece is subsequently performed by the chorus, and at the conclusion, the cantor ends with a solo that was frequently performed at a lower dynamic level and with a more limited range of notes. Timbre- Sung by entirely male choirs in a hushed tone. However, they were occasionally composed as a teaching tool for women who were nuns in convents. Structure-Gregorian chants are one of the rare pieces of music that is totally monophonic, as seen by its texture. In a Gregorian chant, there is just one melodic line to be heard. The Gregorian chants were employed by the Church to help in the performance of prayers. They were sung by monks (and, on occasion, women in convents) in the past. In addition, because it was the official music of the Roman Catholic Church, all gregorian chants were just vocalists, as instrumentation was regarded to be Pagan by the Church. As a result, every text was written in Latin as a result of this. They were performed at the “office” and “mass” of religious ceremonies, and all gregorian chant was passed down orally because the use of written music was quite unusual at the time. Church Modes were the scales in which gregorian chants were performed, and they were divided into three categories. Up to the Renaissance period, they were in widespread usage during the middle ages. The phrase “what can we do with a drunken sailor” is an example of how they are used frequently in folk song. Church modes are composed of seven tones, with the eighth tone duplicating the tonic an octave higher than the tonic.

Organum

Around the year 700, the Gregorian chant began to take shape. From 700 to 900, composers would write a line in parallel motion to the chant at a predetermined interval of a fifth or a fourth above the original line, resulting in a total of nine lines. From 900 until 1200, this technology underwent considerable development. During this time, the upper line moved in its own right, independent of the initial chanting pattern. After 1100, top lines began to develop rhythmic independence and eventually became independent.

This is the name given to the Gregorian chant on which the higher lines are based, which is known as thecantus firmus.

Leonin and Perotin, two composers who worked together on organum, were important in its development.

It is therefore legitimate to speak to these two composers and their pupils collectively as theSchool of Notre Dame.

Significant Composers

  • Leonin – He is the first known composer to employ measured rhythm in his works
  • He is also the first known composer to utilize measured rhythm in his compositions. The composer Perotin is credited with being the first known composer to create three separate lines at the same time.

Sacred music was usually performed by singers. This was mostly owing to the association between instruments and paganic ceremonies. Although instruments were increasingly significant throughout the Medieval Period, this was not the case throughout the whole period. When it comes to holy music throughout the Medieval Period, the organ is the most essential instrument. Even while early organs were quite loud, they were significantly more difficult to operate and necessitated a considerable lot of physical power on the part of the player.

Secular Music

In contrast to religious music, secular music had a more clearly defined rhythm and a texture that was closer to homophony or polyphony than holy music. Because chords were merely inferred, it wasn’t pure homophony in this case. The texture was predominantly vocal, as was the case with holy music, albeit it did not treat instruments with the same level of distrust as the Church.

TroubadoursTrouvères

Religious music had a more clearly defined rhythm, whereas secular music had a texture that was closer to homophony or polyphony.

Because chords were just inferred, it was not real homophony. The texture was predominantly vocal, as was the case with holy music, however it did not hold instruments in the same respect that the Church did.

Significant Composers

  • Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine
  • Chastelain di Couci
  • Beatriz de Dia (a female troubadour)
  • Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine

Jongleurs

Jongleurs also created and performed secular music in addition to his religious works. Jongleurs were traveling minstrels who would go from town to town entertaining people with music, juggling, and theatre. They had no civil rights, yet they were vital members of society since they were responsible for spreading news from town to town. The estampie was one of the types of music that they performed. Anestampie is a quick dance in triple meter that is performed in a circle.

Ars Nova

Around the year 1350, a new type of music known as Ars Nova (New Art) began to emerge. The period known as Ars Nova encompasses both ecclesiastical and secular music, however secular music gained prominence during this time. The following are some of the most important aspects of Ars Nova:

  • The Ars Nova (New Art) style of music first appeared about the year 1350. Although secular music gained prominence during this era, both religious and secular music are included in Ars Nova. Aspects of Ars Nova that are noteworthy include:

Sacred Music

The emergence of a great form for religious music, themass ordinary, occurred during the Ars Nova period. The ordinary of the mass is made up of five prayers that are put to music in five separate movements. The prayers are as follows:

Secular Music

In part as a result of the Church’s declining power, secular music began to gain in popularity during the Ars Nova Period. Instruments were employed more often, while the majority of the song was still performed vocally. The ballata is a new secular form that emerged during the Ars Nova period. Theballatais a dance that takes the shape of the letters A BB AA. A ballata is also referred to as a falala due to the fact that it employs this line throughout its compositions.

Significant Composers

  • Works of significance
  • It is the first known polyphonic mass, and it is celebrated at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
  • Works of significance
  • Ecco la Primavera – This is an example of an Ars Nova ballata
  • It was composed in the early twentieth century.

Instruments of the Period

Work of significance; An example of an Ars Nova ballata may be found here: Ecco la Primavera (Here Comes Spring).

Acknowledgement

Important pieces of work; Ecco la Primavera – This is an example of an Ars Nova ballata; it was composed in the late nineteenth century.

The Author

Peter Kwasniewski has a B.A. in Liberal Arts from Thomas Aquinas College, as well as an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Philosophy from The Catholic University of America. He is a member of the American Philosophical Association. In addition to teaching at the International Theological Institute in Austria and the Franciscan University of Steubenville’s Austrian Program, he was a member of the founding team of Wyoming Catholic College in Lander, Wyoming. He was in charge of the choir and schola, and he also served as the college’s dean of academics.

His books include Resurgent in the Midst of Crisis: Sacred Liturgy, the Traditional Latin Mass, and Renewal in the Church, A Missal for Young Catholics, and Noble Beauty, Transcendent Holiness: Why the Modern Age Needs the Mass of the Ages.

His webpage may be found here.

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