Texture and Instruments of Medieval and Renaissance Music
courtesy of Kathykonkle / Getty Images A single melodic line was used to create the musical texture throughout the Middle Ages, which is known as monophony. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, sacred vocal music, such as Gregorian chants, was put to Latin text and sung without accompaniment. Because it was the only sort of music that could be played in churches, composers made sure that the melodies were plain and straightforward. More melodic lines were introduced to Gregorianchants later on, thanks to the efforts of church choirs.
The Texture of Medieval Renaissance Music
In the Gregorian chants, the inclusion of extra melodic lines resulted in a polyphonic texture, which means that it has two or more melodic lines. It was during the Renaissance that the church began to have less influence on musical activities. Instead, the Kings, Princes, and other notable members of the courts had greater power than the common people. When church choirs grew in number, it also meant that more vocal parts were added, resulting in music that sounded richer and deeper. During this time period, polyphony was frequently employed, but shortly after, music began to become homophonic.
The melodies become increasingly complicated and sophisticated as a result of this.
One aspect that contributed to these developments was the influence of the Church.
Instruments Used in Medieval and Renaissance Music
During the Middle Ages, the majority of the music was performed solo and without accompaniment. Because it is less distracting, the church preferred to keep the music clean and serious in nature. Music was later permitted in churches, and instruments like as bells and organs were employed primarily to commemorate key days in the liturgical calendar. Traveling musicians, often known as minstrels, played on street corners and in courthouses, using musical instruments. Fiddles, harps, and lutes are among the instruments that they used to perform.
During the Renaissance period, the majority of musical activity went away from the church and toward the courtroom.
As a result, more composers began to incorporate musical instruments into their works as a result of this.
For outdoor events, louder and more brilliant-sounding instruments were favored over more subdued ones.
Dance music and outdoor festivities were made possible by the usage of a musical instrument known as the shawm. The shawm is considered to be the forerunner of the oboe. Roger Kamien’s Music An Appreciation, 6th Brief Edition is the source for this information.
Music 1200: Exam 1 Flashcards
|Term||Definition Sound resolves itself, it returns to whole notes, returns home.|
|Term Each melody is broken into||Definition|
|Term Phrases move by _ or _||Definition|
|Term||Definition A to B, B to C, C to D, etc.|
|Term What is a climax in music?||Definition The highest part of the music, loudest point, most interesting part of the phrase.|
|Term||Definition It is the home note. Key of C (tonic note = C)|
|Term||Definition When composers take the melody and base the rest of the piece off of this theme.|
|Term Way chords are constructed and the way they follow each other is known as.||Definition|
|Term Harmonic construction is when you add.||Definition|
|Term How many notes are in a chord and what are these known as?||Definition|
|Term What are the two categories chords can fall into?||Definition|
|Term||Definition When the chord sounds restful and stable|
|Term||Definition Create unstable sound, drives music|
|Term Where melody and harmony comes together is known as||Definition|
|Term What are the 3 types of texture in classical music?||Definition Monophonic, polyphonic, and homophonic|
|Term One instrument or multiple in unison, one note at a time||Definition|
|Term 2 or more independent lines playing different melodies at the same time is known as||Definition|
|Term Monophonic line with chords||Definition|
|Term What is imitation and in which texture is this found?||Definition Imitation is like a canon. One melody starts and the same melody starts a bar or 2 later. Found in polyphonic texture.|
|Term What are the 2 basic forms in music?||Definition Ternary form and binary form.|
|Term A, BA and B are relatedStill gives complete feeling||Definition|
|Term What are the 3 basic forms that a composer uses when composing?||Definition Repitition, contrast, and variation|
|Term Playing something over and over is known as:||Definition|
|Term Introducing completely new material is known as:||Definition|
|Term First time plain melody, second time melody and chords, third something else, etc.||Definition|
|Term What is the time period of medival music?||Definition|
|Term What were the 3 classes of people in the medival times?||Definition Peasant, nobility, clergy|
|Term Who were the most important people in music during the medival times?||Definition|
|Term What was the main form of music during the medival ages?||Definition|
|Term What is the texture of Gregorian chant?||Definition Monophonic, no real rhythm, passed on through oral tradition.|
|Term What language is Gregorian Chant in?||Definition|
|Term What are the two types of mass music?||Definition Ordinary (sung at every service) and Proper (seasonal, changes)|
|Term Who was one of the most famous composers during the medival ages?||Definition Hildegard. She was a nun in the convent and advised The Pope. Created liturgical dramas.|
|Term What was the date of the introduction of secular music?||Definition|
|Term Who were troubadors/traveres?||Definition Nobleman who sang secular songs about love|
|Term What was the music of troubadors like?||Definition Monophonic, had a drone, about love|
|Term What was the texture of an estampie?||Definition Mostly monophonic, musicians would make up melody on the spot, accompanied with percussion and drones|
|Term||Definition Performed secular music, lower than peasants in standing|
|Term||Definition First choirmaster of Notre Dame. Began polyphonic music into sacred music.|
|Term||Definition Polyphonic chant, rhythmic modes were introduced. A lot of rhythms represented the trinity|
|Term||Definition Next choirmaster of notre dame. Composed polyphonic music for 3/4/5 voices. Wrote more complex music.|
|Term Where was the music center once polyphonic music came about?||Definition|
|Term What does Ars Antigua mean?||Definition|
|Term When was the transition into the Ars Nova?||Definition|
|Term Who was the originator of the Ars Nova?||Definition|
|Term What did Guillaume Machaunt introduce in terms of rhythm?||Definition|
|Term With the introduction of syncopation and polyphony, what type of music did we see a transition into?||Definition|
|Term When did Renissance music begin?||Definition|
|Term Which was more important during the Renaissance? Vocal music or instrumental?||Definition|
|Term Trying to create music that matches the text is known as.||Definition|
|Term What was the new composition category in sacred music known as during the Renissance?||Definition|
|Term||Definition Where a composer would take a part of a mass chant and compose music off of it.|
|Term What composer was famous for his motets during the Renissance?||Definition|
|Term What musical style was seen commonly in motets?||Definition|
|Term What was the church going through during the Renissance that brought many changes including changes to music? And what council did it lead to?||Definition Counter-Reformation, Council of Trent|
|Term What was decided at the Council of Trent?||Definition The church wanted songs that enhanced worship and that weren’t necessarily pleasing to the ears. They tried to move away from polyphonic music.|
|Term||Definition Composer during Renissance that met at middle ground on music with the church. Italian. Wrote the Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass.|
|Term Polyphonic Music that originated during the Renaissance about love, very popular in England||Definition|
|Term Who was a famous composer of Madrigals?||Definition|
|Term Shawm was a predecessor of what instrument?||Definition|
|Term Recorders were the predecessors of what instruments?||Definition|
|Term Sackbut’s were predecessors of what instruments?||Definition|
|Term Lutes were predecessors of what instruements?||Definition|
|Term Known for composing and playing songs on the Lute. Wrote “Flow My Tears”||Definition|
|Term German Composer who wrote instrumental music. Famous for terpsichore?||Definition|
|Term||Definition Music used for dancing, originated in Renaissance. Collection of over 300 dance tunes for instrumental ensemble.|
What is the texture of Gregorian chant answer? – dengenchronicles.com
Answer: Texture – Gregorian chants are one of the rare pieces of music that are totally monophonic, as is the case with most other types of music. In a Gregorian chant, there is just one melodic line to be heard.
Which texture is normally used in Gregorian chant?
Homophonic The texture of Gregorian chant is homophonic in nature.
What is polyphonic texture in Gregorian chant?
Homophonic Homophonic texture characterizes the Gregorian chant.
What is the role of Gregorian chant?
Homophonic The texture of Gregorian chant is homophonic.
What does the Gregorian chant Kyrie eleison mean?
A Gregorian chant, Kyrie Eleison is performed by the group in the following manner: eleison” and signify “Lord have mercy, Christ have mercy.” Interestingly, Libera’s version only included the first phrase.
What kind of texture does Gregorian chant have?
If everyone is singing at the same pitch at the same time, it is referred to as a monophonic texture. If everyone is hearing one tune, it is referred to as a hiss sound. what comes after the s? As opposed to monophonic textures, multivoiced textures are composed of two or more melodic lines that are merged to create a multivoiced texture.
How many masses are there in the Kyriale?
The Kyriale is a collection of Gregorian chant settings for the Ordinary of the Mass that was composed in the early twentieth century. It consists of eighteen Masses (each of which has the Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei), six Credos, and a number of ad libitum chants, among other things.
What is the setting for Kyrie XI notated in neumes?
It is a collection of Gregorian chant settings for the Ordinary of the Mass that is known as the Kyriale (Kyrie in Latin). Six Credos, as well as ad libitum chants and a total of eighteen Masses (each of which includes the Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei) are included.
IB Music/Music History/Medieval Period – Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Return to the IB Music Archive Middle Ages (450-1450) Sacred and secular music were distinguished in the Medieval Period, which was divided into two distinct categories. Sacred music was music that was used by the Roman Catholic Church, whilst secular music was music that had no connection to the Church and was utilized by other organizations.
It is believed that sacred music emerged from a style known as theGregorian chant. A collection of chants named after Pope Gregory I, the Gregorian chants are considered to be the official compositions of the Catholic Church.
Characteristics of Gregorian chants
- The melody of a Gregorian chant is highly free-flowing, as is the rhythm of the chant. The chant progresses upward and downward in little increments and jumps within a limited range. Melodies are frequentlymelismatic, meaning that syllables are stretched across numerous notes. Harmony- Because Gregorian chants have a monophonic texture, they do not include any harmony. Although drone (singing the same note over a lengthy period of time, generally in entire notes) was popular, it wasn’t always used. It is impossible to determine the exact timing of each word in a Gregorian chant. It is permissible to hold notes for a “short” or “long” period of time, but no complicated rhythms are employed. In terms of structure, several Gregorian chants are written in ternary (ABA) form. An incipit, or introduction solo, is performed by a cantor at the start of the composition. The piece is subsequently performed by the chorus, and at the conclusion, the cantor ends with a solo that was frequently performed at a lower dynamic level and with a more limited range of notes. Timbre- Sung by entirely male choirs in a hushed tone. However, they were occasionally composed as a teaching tool for women who were nuns in convents. Structure-Gregorian chants are one of the rare pieces of music that is totally monophonic, as seen by its texture. In a Gregorian chant, there is just one melodic line to be heard. The Gregorian chants were employed by the Church to help in the performance of prayers. They were sung by monks (and, on occasion, women in convents) in the past. In addition, because it was the official music of the Roman Catholic Church, all gregorian chants were just vocalists, as instrumentation was regarded to be Pagan by the Church. As a result, every text was written in Latin as a result of this. They were performed at the “office” and “mass” of religious ceremonies, and all gregorian chant was passed down orally because the use of written music was quite unusual at the time. Church Modes were the scales in which gregorian chants were performed, and they were divided into three categories. Up to the Renaissance period, they were in widespread usage during the middle ages. The phrase “what can we do with a drunken sailor” is an example of how they are used frequently in folk song. Church modes are composed of seven tones, with the eighth tone duplicating the tonic an octave higher than the tonic.
Around the year 700, the Gregorian chant began to take shape. From 700 to 900, composers would write a line in parallel motion to the chant at a predetermined interval of a fifth or a fourth above the original line, resulting in a total of nine lines. From 900 until 1200, this technology underwent considerable development. During this time, the upper line moved in its own right, independent of the initial chanting pattern. After 1100, top lines began to develop rhythmic independence and eventually became independent.
This is the name given to the Gregorian chant on which the higher lines are based, which is known as thecantus firmus.
Leonin and Perotin, two composers who worked together on organum, were important in its development.
Leonin was the director of music of Notre Dame Cathedral, and Perotin, a student of Leonin’s, took over as the director after him. It is therefore legitimate to speak to these two composers and their pupils collectively as theSchool of Notre Dame.
- Leonin – He is the first known composer to employ measured rhythm in his works
- He is also the first known composer to utilize measured rhythm in his compositions. The composer Perotin is credited with being the first known composer to create three separate lines at the same time.
Sacred music was usually performed by singers. This was mostly owing to the association between instruments and paganic ceremonies. Although instruments were increasingly significant throughout the Medieval Period, this was not the case throughout the whole period. When it comes to holy music throughout the Medieval Period, the organ is the most essential instrument. Even while early organs were quite loud, they were significantly more difficult to operate and necessitated a considerable lot of physical power on the part of the player.
In contrast to religious music, secular music had a more clearly defined rhythm and a texture that was closer to homophony or polyphony than holy music. Because chords were merely inferred, it wasn’t pure homophony in this case. The texture was predominantly vocal, as was the case with holy music, albeit it did not treat instruments with the same level of distrust as the Church.
During the Medieval Period, a great deal of secular music was composed by troubadours and troubavères. These were nobility from France, and they were known for writing music in order to earn status.
- Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine
- Chastelain di Couci
- Beatriz de Dia (a female troubadour)
- Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine
Jongleurs also created and performed secular music in addition to his religious works. Jongleurs were traveling minstrels who would go from town to town entertaining people with music, juggling, and theatre. They had no civil rights, yet they were vital members of society since they were responsible for spreading news from town to town. The estampie was one of the types of music that they performed. Anestampie is a quick dance in triple meter that is performed in a circle.
Around the year 1350, a new type of music known as Ars Nova (New Art) began to emerge. The period known as Ars Nova encompasses both ecclesiastical and secular music, however secular music gained prominence during this time. The following are some of the most important aspects of Ars Nova:
- The Ars Nova (New Art) style of music first appeared about the year 1350. Although secular music gained prominence during this era, both religious and secular music are included in Ars Nova. Aspects of Ars Nova that are noteworthy include:
The emergence of a great form for religious music, themass ordinary, occurred during the Ars Nova period. The ordinary of the mass is made up of five prayers that are put to music in five separate movements. The prayers are as follows:
In part as a result of the Church’s declining power, secular music began to gain in popularity during the Ars Nova Period. Instruments were employed more often, while the majority of the song was still performed vocally. The ballata is a new secular form that emerged during the Ars Nova period. Theballatais a dance that takes the shape of the letters A BB AA. A ballata is also referred to as a falala due to the fact that it employs this line throughout its compositions.
- Works of significance
- It is the first known polyphonic mass, and it is celebrated at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
- Works of significance
- Ecco la Primavera – This is an example of an Ars Nova ballata
- It was composed in the early twentieth century.
Instruments of the Period
Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.
- The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.
- The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.
- The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.
- TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
- Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
- The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
- During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.
As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.
Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.
Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.
Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.
By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.
The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.
The song has a neumatic feel to it.
Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.
Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.
Is Gregorian chant monophonic?
Roman Catholic liturgical music consisting of monophonic or unison parts that is used to accompany the text of the mass and the canonical hours, or divine office, is known as Gregorian chant. Saint Gregory I, Pope from 590 to 604, is credited for collecting and codifying the Gregorian chant throughout his pontificate. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) introduced Gregorian Chant into his realm, which had previously practiced a different liturgical style known as Gallican chant. During the eighth and ninth centuries, a process of assimilation occurred between Gallican and Gregorian chants, and it is this developed version of the chant that has survived to the current day.
- Neumatic (patterns of one to four notes per syllable) and melismatic (patterns of any number of notes per syllable) styles are used in the chanting of the Kyrie.
- Using psalm tones, which are basic formulae for intoned recitation of psalms, in the recital of early Glorias attests to their antiquity and ancient provenance.
- In certain ways, the Credo’s melodies recall psalm tones, which were integrated into the mass during the 11th century.
- Neumatic chants are used in the traditional Sanctus chant.
- The final Ite Missa Est and its alternative, Benedicamus Domino, both take the melody from the opening Kyrie as a basis for composition.
- Originally a psalm with a refrain repeated in between verses, the Introit has evolved into a processional chant.
- It was also evolved from a refrain between psalm lines when it was first presented in the 4th century.
Originally from the East, the Alleluia dates back to the 4th century.
If you’re in a good mood, the Tract can take over for the Alleluia.
It was mostly throughout the 9th to 16th centuries when thisquence thrived in its entirety.
During the second line of the stanza, the melody was repeated, with a new melody being introduced for the next line of the stanza; the music is syllabic in structure.
Melisma pervades the compositions.
TheCommunion is a processional chant, much like the Offertory.
Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline are the eight services that make up the canonical hours: Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas, and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s shape and style are influenced by the sponsor’s role.
In the most recent revision and update, Amy Tikkanen provided further information.
Is Gregorian chant monophonic? – Related Questions
The development of polyphony was greatly aided by the use of Gregorian chant. It was customary for choirs of men and boys to sing Gregorian chant in churches, as well as by ladies and men of monastic orders in their own chapels. It is the music of the Roman Rite, which is used in the celebration of the Mass and the monastic service.
What is the purpose of Gregorian chant?
Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music that is either monophonic or unison in nature, and it is used to accompany the text of the mass and the canonical hours, also known as the holy office.
Why does Gregorian chant sound so different?
What is it about Gregorian chant that makes it sound so distinct from other styles of Western music? There is no sense of harmony. When it comes to the Mass, what is the predominant language? Identify which of the following women was a religious leader who was also a well-known figure in literature and music.
What historical period is Gregorian chant?
The practice of Gregorian chant started in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, which refers to the era from about the 5th century and the 15th century. Because it was Catholic Church music, the objective of the performance was ceremonial in nature. It is named after Pope Gregory I, who reigned as head of the Catholic Church from 590 to 604, and is referred to as a “Gregorian.”
How do you tell if a song is monophonic polyphonic or homophonic?
In music, monophony refers to music having a single “part,” and a “part” is often defined as a single vocal melody, although it might also refer to a single melody played on an instrument of any type. Polyphony refers to music that has more than one component, and hence this signifies notes that are played at the same time.
Are Gregorian chants healing?
Gregorian Chant is used for healing meditation, deep relaxation, spa treatments, sleep, massage, spiritual meditation, and music therapy, among other things. Being in the presence of the Gregorian Chants is an uplifting and soothing experience.
What is the character of Gregorian chant?
The melody of a Gregorian chant is highly free-flowing, as is the rhythm of the music. The chant progresses upward and downward in little increments and jumps within a limited range. Melodies are frequently melismatic in nature, in that syllables are stretched across numerous notes. Harmony – Because Gregorian chants are monophonic in texture, they do not contain any harmonic elements.
What key are Gregorian chants in?
The Gregorian notation system was created largely for the purpose of committing holy chants from the beginning of the second millennium on paper. The scale that was employed is as follows in current notes: C, D, E, F, G, and A. There are no differences in the intervals between these notes and those in current notation. Notes are written on a four-line staff to keep them organized.
Is chant a type of music?
A chant is a form of song that has a repeated, monotonous pattern. It is popular in India. It is also something that sports fans like doing. The term “to chant” has come to denote “to repeat things in a monotonous or repetitive manner” as a result of this sort of music. Chants are devoid of harmony or instrumental accompaniment, instead relying on a basic rhythm and a great deal of repetition.
What language is Gregorian chant?
It is a form of musical composition in which the melody is repeated over and over again in a monotonous fashion. Sporting events are also something that many sports enthusiasts enjoy participating in.
The term “to chant” has come to denote “to repeat things in a monotonous or repetitive manner” as a result of this kind of music. Songs without harmony or instruments are known as chants. Chants are distinguished by their repetitive nature, basic rhythm, and lack of instrumental accompaniment.
What is the religion of Gregorian?
Classical Western plainchant, or Gregorian chant, is an unaccompanied monophonic holy music that originated in the western Roman Catholic Church and is still practiced today. The Gregorian rite. The Brotherhood of Saint Gregory is a religious order of friars that exists within the Anglican Communion. The community’s members, referred to as “Gregorians,” are made up of clergy and laypeople.
Why do monks chant?
Chanting and reciting mantras are methods of learning about and demonstrating dedication to Buddhist teachings and practices. They are associated with meditation because they are yet another method of concentrating the mind. Chanting is the repetitive repetition of particular phrases over and over again. Mayahana Buddhists, who use prayer beads known as malas, will occasionally chant mantras as they work on their meditation.
What does the word Gregorian mean?
1: pertaining to or associated with Pope Gregory I 2: pertaining to, resembling, or exhibiting the qualities of Gregorian chant
What is the difference between Gregorian chant and troubadour music?
During the 12th and 13th centuries, the troubadours wrote the majority of secular music that has survived today. More than 1650 troubadour tunes have survived to this day. Even though they do not have a distinct rhythm, they do have an established regular meter and a defined beat. Gregorian Chant, on the other hand, has no meter at all, which distinguishes them.
What is the difference between Gregorian chant from Madrigal?
Gregorian chant is monophonic rather than polyphonic (i.e., one part rather than numerous parts), and it has a holy theme to its composition. Renaissance madrigals are secular (i.e., non-religious), and they are performed by a number of voices. Both are performed mostly a cappella, however madrigals may include one or more instrumental elements in addition to the vocals.
How does a Gregorian chant sound?
It is a type of vocal music in which the singer sings without any musical accompaniment. Songs are performed in unison, without rhyme or meter, and are known as chants. In an unstructured manner, the tones increase and fall in pitch. Melody that is free-flowing.
What is Gregorian chant tempo?
There is no set speed for Gregorian Chant, as there is no definite tempo for any other type of music. However, there is no usage of complicated pace and notes can be held for a length of “short” or “long.” In terms of structure, several Gregorian chants are written in ternary (ABA) form.
Who wrote Gregorian chants quizlet?
Plainchant, often known as Gregorian Chant, was regulated by Pope Gregory I between 800 and 1400 C.E. (9th-15th centuries).
How can you tell if a song is homophonic?
A homophonic texture is a type of music in which there are several notes played at the same time, but they all move in the same beat. Homophonic music consists of a single distinct melodic line, which is the component that attracts your attention, with the other sections serving as background accompaniment.
What are the 4 textures in music?
Music with a homophonic texture is composed of several notes played at the same time, all of which move in the same time signature. A distinct melodic line, the portion that catches your attention, is present in homophonic music, and all other sections serve to support it.
Why is Gregorian chant so relaxing?
“However, there’s more to it than that,” he explains further. He says that Gregorian chant is performed by a rhythmic kind of breathing that is similar to yogic breathing.
“The chant does not have a metrical beat; instead, it has a more flowing rhythm.” Because it gives “a technique of coping with time,” Gregorian chant is particularly well suited for meditation.
Four Types of Texture in Music
In your mind’s eye, what pictures come to mind when you hear the word “texture”? Is it better to be soft or hard? Is it better to be dry or wet? Is it a living being or an inanimate object? Slimy? Sticky? What do you prefer: fur, skin, or scales? It is possible that the word “texture” will bring up pictures in your mind of the smooth sands of a wide desert, the rough brick wall of a dilapidated city structure, the rolling waves of the ocean, or the repeating patterns of plant life as shown in the image above.
- What is the effect of these various textures on the sound produced?
- a few examples of Instruments that produce a broad variety of “timbres.” A piece of music (or a musical performance) is composed of a large number of individual building components.
- When all of these distinct building elements, as well as speed and timbre, are combined, they form a musical texture.
- When many instruments or voices are playing or singing at the same frequency or musical pitch, it is this characteristic that identifies them.
- In order to create musical textures that distinguish one piece of music from another, it is critical to combine timbres in the right way.
- These four textures may be found in a variety of musical styles from throughout the world.
Monophony is a musical texture composed of a single melodic line that is repeated over and over again. This old musical texture may be found in the few instances of Ancient Greek music that have survived, such as The Epitaph of Seikilos, which you can listen to and examine the score for in the video above, as well as in other pieces from the period. Aside: TheEpitaph of Seikilosis the world’s oldest full and notated musical piece still in existence. It is believed to have been built about the first century CE.
- It was written by Seikilos in memory of his late wife, who passed away.
- Double-reed instruments were prevalent in the ancient world, and they are the forerunners of the contemporary oboe and bassoon, among other instruments.
- For example, Byzantine and Gregorian chants, the songs of French troubadours and trouvères, and the minnesingers and meistersingers are all examples of chants from the past.
- Note: From 901 to 920 CE, Étienne deLiège served as the bishop of Liège, which is located in present-day Belgium.
- Even now, monophony can be heard in musical compositions.
- Play Bach’s Cello Suite No.
Take note to how many different emotions the artist is able to convey with a single musical line. THE FIRST ASSIGNMENT Choose a specific feeling or tale to depict, and then compose a short (12 to 32 bar) monophonic tune to describe that emotion or story.
Polyphony is a musical texture made up of two or more melodic lines that are played at the same time. The first polyphonic music was made simply by having two separate songs played or sung by two different musicians at the same time. When polyphony was first formed in the late Middle Ages, it quickly rose to prominence and eventually became the dominant musical texture during the Renaissance. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c.1525 – 2 February 1594), an Italian musician, was one of the most important composers of polyphonic music during his lifetime.
- Play the music numerous times, following a different vocal line each time, and note how the various works generate consonance and discord in the overall composition.
- Western music has been enriched by this invention, which marks the birth of contemporary harmonies.
- Musical compositions in counterpunctal forms, such as the Baroque Invention and Fugue, were written by composers like Johann Sebastian Bach and Antonio Vivaldi, among others.
- Take note of how the left hand imitates the material of the right hand, and how this imitation results in harmony between the two instruments.
- ASSIGNMENT 1: Download the score from the IMSLP.
When two or more melodic lines are played at the same time, this is known as polyphony. Simple polyphonic music was made by having two separate tunes played or sung concurrently by two different artists. When polyphony was first formed in the late Middle Ages, it quickly rose to prominence and eventually became the dominant musical texture in the Renaissance. The Italian musician Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c.1525 – 2 February 1594) was one of the most important composers of polyphonic music.
– Several times, following a different vocal line each time, pay attention to how the various works generate consonance and discord in the overall composition.
Western music has been marked by this breakthrough as the beginning of contemporary harmonies.
Musical compositions in counterpunctal forms, such as the Baroque Invention and Fugue, were developed by composers like Johann Sebastian Bach and Antonio Vivaldi.
Take note of how the left hand imitates the material of the right hand, and how this imitation results in harmony between the two hands! THE SECOND ASSIGNMENT DOWNLOAD THE SCORE FROM IMSLP AND EXAMINE THE HARMONIC STRUCTURE OF THE WORK
It is a type of musical texture in which a main melodic line is backed by one or more secondary musical lines that provide harmonic support to the main melodic line. This is the type of musical texture that we hear the most frequently these days. When all voices play or sing in (approximately) the same beat, this is known as traditional homophony, and it results in a rich texture. Chorales (such as Christmas carols or patriot songs) sung in a conventional four-voice “hymnal” arrangement) are the most fundamental homophonic form, and they are the most common.
- As a result, students of music theory study his chorales in order to have a thorough understanding of the notions of Western harmony.
- ASSIGNMENT NUMBER THREE Analyze the harmonies in the whole score below, paying close attention to the sharps that have been added, the transpositions, and the crucial locations.
- The term “Monody” refers to a guitarist who is strumming chords and singing a tune while playing a guitar.
- Take a look at the video below and listen to Chopin’s Waltz in A minor as you go along.
- Homophony is not just present in Western music, where it is employed in conjunction with Western harmonies.
- Listen to the rich texture created by this in the video below, which features the Zolokere Choir from Malawi.
Heterophony is the final type of musical texture, and it may be found in musical civilizations all across the world. It is, however, less frequently heard in Classical Western music than the other two instruments. Traditional music, particularly that of the Middle East, Asia, and Europe’s folk traditions, is replete with this instrument. H eterophony is a texture formed by altering the pitch of a single melody at the same time. It may be viewed of as a more intricate form of Monophony, and it is frequently seen as the first texture to develop after Monophony in the musical world.
Winter Sun can be heard on the radio.
Even in classical music, heterophony can be present in the compositions.
Mozart used it in his Piano Concerto in C minor, which was composed in 1791. Beginning at min. 211-214, listen to the music and follow along with the score. Create a Heterophonic version of your Monophonic piece from assignment 1 and submit it to the instructor.
Going Forward: Multiple Textures
Music cultures from all around the world use heterophony as the final musical texture to express themselves. It is, however, less frequently heard in Classical Western music than the other two types of classical music. Traditional music, particularly that of the Middle East, Asia, and Europe’s folk traditions, is characterized by this characteristic. In music, heterophony is a texture that is formed by playing many versions of one tune at the same time. It may be thought of as a more sophisticated variant of Monophony, and it is frequently seen as the first texture to develop after Monophony in terms of appearance.
- Stream Winter Sun on Soundcloud!
- It is also possible to find heterophony within the classical canon.
- The score begins at mm.
- Create a Heterophonic version of your Monophonic work from assignment 1 for this project.
Music Crash Courses
Heterophony is the last musical texture, and it may be found in musical civilizations all across the world. It is, however, less frequently heard in Classical Western music than the other two. It may be heard in a lot of traditional music, notably in Middle Eastern, Asian, and European folk music. H eterophony is a texture formed by altering a single melody at the same time. It may be thought of as a more sophisticated form of Monophony, and it is frequently seen as the first texture to arise after Monophony.
- WATCH THE VIDEO: Winter Sun Pay close attention to the way the players switch between homophonic and heterophonic textures in the video above.
- It was used by Mozart in his Piano Concerto in C minor.
- 211-214, start listening and following along with the score.
- ASSIGNMENT 5:
When a piece of music consists solely of a melody, this is referred to as monophony in musical terms. One voice or instrument (monophony literally translates as “one sounding”) or a group of voices and instruments all performing the same line of music are both possible in a monophonic setting. When all of the artists are playing or singing the same notes at the same time, this is referred to as performing in harmony. Men frequently sing the tune an octave lower than women when a roomful of people sings “Happy Birthday,” which means they are no longer singing in unison but rather at an octave apart.
As a result of octave equivalence (see the section onpitch), a melody that is repeated in a different octave still sounds the same, and so singing at the octave is also termed monophony. Most of the liturgical chant from the Middle Ages, known as “Gregorian chant,” is monophonic in nature.
Monophony is the term used to describe the texture created by a piece of music consisting just of a melody. One voice or instrument (monophony literally translates as “one sounding”) or a group of voices and instruments all playing the same line of music are both possible in a monophonic composition. Performing in unison occurs when all of the artists are playing or singing the same notes at the same time. Typically, when a group of people sings “Happy Birthday,” the males are singing the tune an octave lower than the ladies, thus they are no longer singing in unison, but rather at the octave.
Monophonic chant dominates the corpus of Medieval religious chant known as “Gregorian chant.”
“Row, Row, Row Your Boat”
Afugue is another another polyphonic form that imitates its predecessors. Fugues are less rigorous than canons in that the multiple voices begin by mimicking one another, but progressively diverge and become distinct from one another. This sort of imitative polyphony may be heard in Bach’s “Little” G Minor Fugue, which is in the key of G Minor. The video below will help you to follow the fundamental outlines of the individual portions without having to refer to music notation or other resources.
In contrast, free polyphony may be found in classic New Orleans jazz and in the first polyphony of the late Medieval and early Renaissance periods, as well as in contemporary jazz.
It is performed by Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five and is a classic example of New Orleans jazz.
In addition to Afugue, there is another polyphonic form that is imitative in nature. As opposed to canons, fugues are less strict: the multiple voices begin by mimicking one another, but eventually diverge and become distinct. A good example of this style of imitation polyphony is Bach’s “Little” G Minor Fugue. Using the video below, you can follow the basic outlines of the various pieces without the need for any musical notation. More information about the fugue may be found in the section on form in popular and art music, which is linked above.
The independent voices in this texture are all distinct from one another and do not sound like any other voices in the same texture.
It is performed by Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five and is a classic example of New Orleans jazz. It opens with a part of free polyphony and then moves into solos that are entirely improvised (trumpet, clarinet, voice, then trombone).
A Historical Approach to the Elements of Music
While there are many various techniques to describe the fundamental parts of music, we commonly divide music down into five basic elements: melody, texture, rhythm, form, and harmony (or a combination of these). However, while it is true that not every piece of music has all of the components listed above, it is extremely possible that every piece of music you have recently listened to does. There are two aspects in particular that nearly usually appear first among these five: melody and rhythm.
Whether the very first music consisted of a melody being sang or a beat being tapped is just conjecture at this point, but it is simple to believe that these two experiences were among the very first human musical compositions.
The first of these parts, melody, will be the subject of our brief examination — not because it is more significant than rhythm, but because the first piece of music we will explore in the Middle Ages will be Gregorian chant. Gregorian chant, also known as plainsong or plainchant, is a musical form in which the element of melody is emphasized to the exclusion of all other aspects.
By moving on to texturenext, we will continue to let history to inform our examination of musical aspects. One of the most significant musical advances occurred during the Middle Ages, when a new melodic line was added to an old Gregorian chant tune as part of an experiment. As you’ll soon discover, this approach was known as organum, and it was responsible for introducing a new texture to sacred music throughout the Middle Ages, known as polyphony, into a genre that had previously been dominated by the monophonic texture of plainchant.
For the most part, Gregorian chant was sung without a regular beat, according to what we can determine from the historical record. Plainchant is characterized by a flowing, unstructured freedom that might be loosely defined as without rhythm. This is, without a doubt, the most typical style in which we hear chants sung nowadays. However, with the introduction of organum, it became vital for the singers who were delivering the two melodic lines to be able to maintain a sense of cohesiveness. This necessitated the use of a more regular beat or pulse (rhythm).
When singing in this way, one holds out the notes of the Gregorian chant while another sings an extremely energetic new melody over it.
This might be looked of as the beginning of an important component of rhythm: the meter of the piece in question.
The essential concepts of form in music are repetition, contrast, and variety, which are all related. The way portions of a musical work are ordered is referred to as the piece’s form. Later stages of music history saw a significant increase in the specialization and standardization of musical form and structure. In light of the fact that we are starting with music from the Middle Ages and Renaissance, for the time being we shall confine ourselves to general notions of form.
The importance of form was not placed in the forefront of composers’ minds until later times, and we shall examine specific structural elements later in this course.
The fundamental concepts of musical form are repetition, contrast, and variety. The way portions of a musical work are structured is referred to as its form. In later periods of music history, the form, or structure, of a piece becomes considerably more specialized and uniform. We shall, however, limit ourselves to broad notions of form for the time being, as we are starting with music from the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The importance of form was not placed in the forefront of composers’ minds until later times, and we shall discuss specific structural elements later in this course.
What is Gregorian Chant – GIA Publications
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Taizé chants, for example, are generally in Latin, similar to Gregorian chant antiphons.
They are much like Gregorian chant psalm tones with their free rhythm and their repeatable melodic formulas.
The Gregorian psalm tones are well suited to the Latin language, but do not work very well with English accents, unless one takes freedom in adapting them.
Back to Gregorian Chant Resources