Study Guide MA.docx – Test Bank Part 1 The Middle Ages 476 CEu2013Early Fifteenth Century You will need to read the chapters again and find the answers to
476 CE to the Early Fifteenth Century (Part 1 of Test Bank): The Middle Ages This means you’ll have to go back over the chapters and look for solutions to the study guide questions. The titles of the parts (Topics) that may be found in the book are provided beneath each individual question to assist you in locating the answers to your questions. Hildegard of Bingen is featured in Chapter 1 of this book. Satan does not sing in Hildegard’s Play of Virtues, but rather _shouts_ (as opposed to singing).
Hildegard’s Play of Virtuesis a dramatized _morality play_ about the struggle between good and evil.
Describe a musical situation in which each letter of the alphabet is represented by a different note.
The Clarity of Monophonic Texture is the subject of this paper.
- During the Middle Ages, the texture of Gregorian Chant was mostly _monophonic_ in nature.
- Topic: Hildegard von Bingen (1098–1179), a historical figure.
- _Hildegard von Bingen_ was a female composer who rose to prominence during the Middle Ages.
- What are their names?
- From Chapter 3 – Plainchant Alleluia, Hildegard von Bingen’s “Play of Virtues” is the topic of discussion.
- chanting in response to anything Soloist and chorus perform in a timbre that is appropriate for the topic.
Despite the presence of a choir, the texture of the “Caro mea” is monophonic due to the fact that they all sing in unison_.
In which Catholic church service is the Alleluia a significant part of the celebration?
Plainchant Alleluia, “Caro mea” is the subject of this article.
The Alleluia for the Feast of Corpus Christi is taken from the Gospel of _John6:55-56_.
Who is responsible for singing the section of the “Caro mea” Alleluia that contains biblical verses?
Throughout the year, which element of the Alleluia wording remains consistent is question 14.
decrease the level of blood pressure Performance: Chilling to Chant is the topic of discussion.
_Love_ was already the source of life in the Middle Ages, centuries before Shakespeare invented the expression.
17. A clergyman called Perotin, who served at the Cathedral of Notre Dame in the twelfth century, composed vast and comprehensive compositions that included the earliest harmonies, known as _organum_. In medieval times, _courtly_ love was considered to be the height of the etiquette.
African music – Multipart singing
Singing in several parts and using harmonic principles are fundamental to many African musical traditions, and these characteristics have been recognized by Western visitors since the earliest eras of interaction. Contrary to previous beliefs, “harmony” in African music is now recognized as a consequence of indigenous traditions rather than a result of acculturation in many regions of the continent. Ancient hunters in central and southern Africa very probably employed polyphonic singing techniques to communicate with their prey.
Questions expressed in the 19th and early 20th centuries over whether the hunting bow or the musical bow was conceived earlier are unimportant in the culture of southern African ancient hunters, who have a long history of using both.
Despite the fact that all melodic lines are pitched differently, all homophonic genres have the same rhythmic foundation, which means they begin and end at the same time. Individual vocalists consider their voice lines, which all convey the same text, to be similar in concept, with the sole difference being that they are performed at varying levels. Generally speaking, men sing “with a huge voice” (that is, with a deep voice), whereas women and children sing “with little voices” (i.e., high voices).
- In actuality, however, not only may parallel motion occur, but it can also occur in an oblique or opposing direction.
- For example, in eastern Angola, it is common practice to move in the opposite direction of the flow of traffic.
- In instance, along theGuinea Coast, homophonic multipart singing may be heard in high concentration.
- It is found among the Zande and other closely related peoples in northern central Africa.
- Homophonic vocal genres are frequently associated with the call-and-response (leader-chorus) type of composition.
In polyphonic genres, the complimentary individual lines differ in their rhythm and phrasing and convey a variety of texts or syllables that are different from one another. They may be of varying lengths, and the places at which they begin and end are not always the same. Such fashions are more constrained in terms of regional availability. The vocal music of the Sancommunities in southern Africa is largely polyphonic, as are the vocal styles of the Bambuti in the Ituri Forest and the Pygmygroups of the upperSangha River region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic, respectively.
- On the continent’s other coasts, rare islands of polyphonic singing can be found amid or between groups that are mostly homophonic.
- TheNyakyusachildren of southern Tanzania useyodelandpolyphony in a song style known askibota, which is sung by children of the Gogo tribe.
- There are five male vocal parts in this transcription, and the diagrammatic transcription shows the connections between them (here transposed one octave and five semitones higher).
- It is one pulse after the beginning of the last note played by voice 1 that voices 2 and 3 enter the stage for the first time.
- The cycle (which is continuously repeated) has 18 pulses and lasts for one second.
- The roots of these bichords, E A C / E G C, are shown above the top staff of the keyboard.
- South Africa and Swaziland are two more countries where polyphony is common.
- Solo and chorus are always considered to be the most important elements of a composition.
- To begin the Zulu bow song copied below, play the bow phrase, which replicates the beginning of a chorus portion.
- The lines mentioned below the song may be performed by extra singers, or by voices 2 and 3 as occasional modifications, depending on the circumstances.
- Pentatonic system based on two instrumental roots that are a semitone apart, it is a pentatonic variation of the Zulu hexatonic system discussed above.
Though there is a significant difference in tonal quality between Shona and Zulu songs, it is clear that they share an almost identical underlying formal structure, which is based on the principle of deliberately nonaligned, overlapping voice parts that maintain the same relationship to one another through all successive repetitions of the song.
All of the spoken music that has been discussed thus far has relied on some sort of tone system as its foundation.
A singsong kind of rhythmical recitation is employed in place of set musical pitches in such situations.
The usage of intermediate vocal styles, which are located midway between the extremes of speech and song, has been seen in a variety of African cultures from a wide range of geographical locations.
A significant number of African civilizations do not see a clear distinction between the two, suggesting that culturally unique definitions of music and song exist. Gerhard KubikDonald is a German actor and director. Keith Robotham is a fictional character created by author Keith Robotham.
Call and response (music) – Wikipedia
Each of the complementing individual lines in polyphonic styles differs in rhythm and phrasing, and they each contain a distinct text or number of syllables. They may be of varying lengths, and the places at which they begin and terminate may not be coincident with each other. Geographically, such fashions are more constrained. Voices of the San populations in southern Africa are largely polyphonic, as are the vocal styles of the Bambuti in the Ituri Forest and the Pygmy tribes of the upperSangha River region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Central African Republic.
- Within or between primarily homophonic societies in other regions of Africa, isolated islands of polyphonic singing can be found in isolation.
- TheNyakyusachildren of southern Tanzania useyodeland polyphony in a song style known askibota.
- There are five male vocal parts in this transcription, and the diagrammatic transcription depicts their connections (here transposed one octave and five semitones higher).
- It is one pulse after the beginning of the last note in voice 1 that voices 2 and 3 enter the stage.
- 18 pulses are required to complete the cycle (which is continuously repeated).
- Located above the top staff are the roots of these bichords, E A C / E G C.
- Many of the dance-songs of the Ngunipeople (which include the Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi, and Ndebele) have two or more voice parts that begin at various times in the cycle, and these voice parts frequently overlap significantly.
- Even while singing the entire song in one take, a solo vocalist seldom finishes a single voice part, instead shifting from one part to another as he approaches the entry point of each section.
- The bow phrase is meant to mimic a chorus portion.
- The lines mentioned below the song may be performed by extra singers, or by voices 2 and 3 as occasional modifications, depending on the situation.
- There are two instrumental roots that are one semitone apart in this pentatonic form of the Zulu hexachord system, which we discussed before.
Despite the obvious tonal differences between the Shona and Zulu songs, it is clear that they share an almost identical underlying formal structure, which is based on the principle of deliberately nonaligned, overlapping voice parts that maintain the same relationship to one another through all successive repetitions of the song (see Figure 1).
There is a tone system at the heart of every piece of vocal music discussed above.
In such instances, set musical pitches are missing, and a singsong type of rhythmical recitation is utilized in their place.
The usage of intermediate vocal styles, which are located midway between the extremes of speech and song, has been seen in a variety of African cultures from a variety of locations.
The author Gerhard KubikDonald has written a book about his experiences as a musician. The Keith Robotham Show is an annual event that brings together a diverse group of people to celebrate the arts.
In polyphonic genres, the complementing individual lines differ in their rhythm and phrasing and convey a variety of texts or syllables that are distinct from one another. They may be of varying lengths, and the places at which they begin and terminate may not be the same. Geographically, such fashions are more limited. The vocal music of the San people in southern Africa is largely polyphonic, as are the vocal styles of the Bambuti in the Ituri Forest and the Pygmy tribes of the upperSangha River region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic.
Polyphonic methods are used in thesaigwaandmsunyunhosongs of the otherwise homophonicGogopeople.
In most of the music of the peoples of the lower Zambezi valley, as well as in portions of Mozambique and Zimbabwe, a particular type of polyphonic singing may be heard, as demonstrated by the Karanga-Shona threshing song seen here: An example of diagrammatic transcription illustrating the connections between five male vocal components may be found here (here transposed one octave and five semitones higher).
- In the real performance, the voices come in one by one, each starting from the double bar in his or her own line and then constantly returning to the beginning of the line until the end of the song.
- When voice 1 repeats his line, the second syllable of his second syllable signifies the beginning of the line for voices 4 and 5.
- In many Shona compositions, the harmonic scheme consists of a succession of bichords in fourths and fifths, which is distinctive of the genre.
- The tone scheme used in this area is hexatonic.
- In the dance-songs of the Ngunipeople (who include the Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi, and Ndebele), two or more vocal parts, which begin at various places in the cycle and overlap significantly, are frequently heard in the same song.
- Even when singing the full song in one take, a solo vocalist seldom completes a single voice part, instead shifting from one part to another as he arrives at the entry point of each section.
During repetitions of thisostinato, the voices (sung in this transcription by Zulu princess Constance Magogo kaDinuzulu, her son ChiefMangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi, and several of his young children) enter in turn, each beginning at its double bar: first, voice 1, then, in subsequent repetitions of the 16-pulse cycle, voices 2 and 3.
This song sounds considerably different from the last Shona example, mostly because to the tone system used, which has two semitone intervals between each note.
The melodic line produced on the ugubhugourd bow utilises harmonic partials 3 and 4 of the two fundamentals B and C, with the open end of the gourd resonator being moved closer or farther away from the player’s chest to choose resonate these harmonic partials.
Concentric circles, in which clockwise rotation indicates a cycle, or strophe, of the song, which is continuously repeated, can be used to highlight the links between their sections.
However, among the Zulu and other Nguni peoples, certain non-melodic forms of chanting occur alongside melodic types of performance—even among things that fall into the same category as “dance-song”—in the same way that certain English nursery rhymes are sung while others are recited or chanted.
The similarity between these compositions and melodic songs is underlined by the fact that they both have a circular, multipart formal structure.
Many African societies do not have a clear distinction between the two, suggesting that culturally unique meanings of music and song exist. Gerhard KubikDonald is a German-born Canadian businessman. Keith Robotham is a fictional character created by writer Keith Robotham.
In the New World, enslaved Africans brought call and response music with them, and it has been passed down through the centuries in various forms of cultural expression, including religious observance, public gatherings, sporting events, even children’s rhymes, and, most notably, African-American music in all of its forms and descendants. Soul, gospel, blues, rhythm and blues, rock & roll, funk, and hip hop are some of the genres covered. Listen to, for example, the recordings entitled “Negro Folklore from Texas State Prisons,” which were gathered by Bruce Jackson and released on an Electra Records album.
Invoking and responding is a custom that stimulates discourse, and its legacy lives on today as it is an important component of oral traditions.
Additionally, it may be found in the music of the Afro-Caribbean communities of Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, and many other countries of the diaspora, particularly in the music of Brazil.
Cuban music (salsa, son, etc.)
Coro-pregón is a musical instrument that is widely employed in Cuban music and stems from African musical aspects. It is utilized both in secular rumba and in African religious rites (Santera), and it is known as the “mother of all instruments.”
Peruvian music (marinera, festejo, landó etc.)
African communities that had been imported to labor in coastal agricultural districts of Peru during colonial times took their musical traditions with them to the new location. The Afro-Peruvian musical heritage developed in Peru as a result of the mixing of those traditions with Spanish popular music from the nineteenth century, as well as indigenous music from the country, finally resulting in what is generally recognized as “Afro-Peruvian music.” Afro-Peruvian musical forms such as marinera, festejo, landó, tondero, zamacueca, and contrapunto de zapateo are all distinguished by the use of competitive call-and-response verses.
Known as “huachihualo,” it is characterized by competitive call-and-response verses.
Colombian music (Cumbia)
Cumbia is a dance and musical style that started with the enslaved African population of Colombia’s coastal area in the late 17th century and has spread around the world. Colombian fashion evolved as a result of the intermixing of three different civilizations. Drum percussion, foot dances, and call-and-response are all derived from Africa. While the gaita or caa de millo (cane flute) is used to reflect the Native Colombian influence, the attire indicates the Spanish influence, which is represented through the songs.
Originally created by the enslaved African population of Colombia’s coastal area in the late 17th century, cumbia is a dance and musical genre that has spread around the world. When three different civilizations came together in Colombia, a new style was born.
Drum percussion, foot dances, and call-and-response are all influenced by African music. The Native Colombian influence is shown by the tunes and the usage of the gaita or caa de millo (cane flute), while the Spanish influence is represented by the attire.
It is also a frequent form of songs and carols that have their roots in the Middle Ages, such as “All in the Morning” and “Down in yon Forest,” both of which are ancient Derbyshire carols.
Antiphony is a term used to describe call and answer in Western classical music. A definition from the New Grove Dictionary is “music in which an ensemble is separated into various groups, which are utilized in opposition to one another and frequently spatially, and which use contrasts in loudness, pitch, timbre, and so on.” Among the earliest instances may be found in the music of Giovanni Gabrieli, one of the most prominent practitioners of theVenetian polychoral style:Giovanni Gabrieli in Ecclesiis, which is a work by the 15th-century composer.
Listen Gabrieli also contributed a number of instrumental canzonas, each of which was created for a different set of players: Gabrieli Canzon (Gabrieli Canzon) Septimi Toni Gabrieli Canzon Septimi is a musical composition by Gabrieli Canzon.
The best-known of these pieces is “Saul, Saul, what verfolgst du mich?” (Saul, Saul, what verfolgst du mich?
Saul fell to the ground and heard a voice call to him, “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?” He fell to the ground again.” An instant response is provided by a pair of basses, who play the melodic phrase around which the majority of the concerto is formed.
Listen In order for the syncopated repetitions of the name Saul to be augmented intohocketsresounding back and forth between the choirs, they must be strategically placed so that they can achieve in sound something like the effect of the surrounding light described by the Apostle when the entire ensemble takes them up.
Bach introduced antiphonal exchanges into the musical world a century later.
According to John Eliot Gardiner, Bach “goes several levels beyond the manipulation of spatially discrete blocks of sound” in this “intimate and poignant” piece, and “finds means of weaving all eight lines into a rich contrapuntal tapestry.” Classical orchestration, which began in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, took advantage of the dramatic potential of antiphonal interactions between groups of instruments to achieve its full development.
In the developing part of the finale of Mozart’sSymphony No.
41, finale, bars 190-199 Mozart The Jupiter Finale project is currently in development.
The progression culminates in a “singularly dramatic piece” composed of a “strange series of block harmonics” that is described as follows: Development of the opening movement of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony Development of the opening movement of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony The second movement of Bartók’s Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (1936) and Michael Tippett’sConcerto for Double String Orchestra (1977) are examples of twentieth-century compositions that use antiphonal exchanges of notes (1938).
In the 1950s, KarlheinzStockhausen composed Gruppenfor Three Orchestras (1955–1957), which ends in a dramatic finale, which is still performed today “Build-up of brass “points” in three orchestras that is synced with one another ultimately culminating in an exchange of chords from orchestra to orchestra for a climax “…..
When the three orchestras come together, magnificent climaxes are created, including extended percussion solos, concertante trumpet solos, and strong brass sections that alternate and interpenetrat one other.”
An antiphony is a term used in Western classical music to describe a call and answer style. A definition from the New Grove Dictionary is “music in which an ensemble is separated into discrete groups, which are utilized in opposition to one another in a spatial context, and which use contrasts in loudness, pitch, timbre, and other elements.” Among the first instances may be found in the music of Giovanni Gabrieli, one of the most prominent practitioners of theVenetian polychoral style:Giovanni Gabrieli in Ecclesiis, which is a work by the 15th-century composer and polychoralist.
Listen Also included are a number of instrumental canzonas by Gabrieli, each created for a different set of musicians: Ignazio Canzoni’s biography Septimi Toni Gabrieli Canzon Septimi is a musical composition by Gabrieli Canzon (September Canzon).
In particular, “Saul, Saul, what verfolgst du mich?” is a dramatic setting of the story of Paul’s conversion as recounted in Acts 9 verses 3-4: “Saul, Saul, what verfolgst du mich?” is the most well-known of these compositions.
In the meantime, he had fallen on the ground and heard a voice asking to him: “Saul, Saul, why are you persecution?”” An instant response is provided by a pair of basses, who play the melodic phrase around which the majority of the concerto is based.
Listen “The syncopated repetitions of the name Saul are strategically planted so that, when the entire ensemble takes them up, they can be augmented intohocketsresounding back and forth between the choirs, adding to the impression of an enveloping space and achieving in sound something like the effect of the surrounding light described by the Apostle.” J.S.
- To achieve this effect, Bach used eight voices in the form of two antiphonal choirs in his motet Komm, Jesu, komm.
- In the developing portion of the finale of Mozart’sSymphony No.
- 41, finale, bars 190-199 (in the original version).
- It is at this point that the evolution peaks in what is described as a “singularly dramatic piece,” which is comprised of “a bizarre succession of block harmonies.” The genesis of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony’s opening movement.
- One of Bartók’s Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (1936) and Michael Tippett “Concerto for Double String Orchestra” (1997) are examples of twentieth-century pieces that use antiphonal exchanges (1938).
When the three orchestras come together, enormous climaxes are created, including extended percussion solos, concertante trumpet solos, and strong brass sections that alternate and interpenetrat one other.
Leader/chorus call and response
A single leader delivers a melodic message, to which the entire chorus reacts collectively. Muddy Waters, an American blues musician, makes extensive use of call and answer in one of his hallmark songs, ” Mannish Boy,” which is nearly completely comprised of leader/chorus call and response. “Now, when I was a small lad,” says Waters in his vocal performance. RESPONSE: (Riff from the harmonica/rhythm section) Call: Waters’: “At the age of five,” she says. RESPONSE: (Riff from the harmonica/rhythm section) Another example may be found in the song “School Day (Ring Ring Goes the Bell)” by Chuck Berry.
INTERVIEWER’S RESPONSE: (Guitar riff) CALL: You’ve got to get yourself something that’s incredibly popular right now.
CALL: Hi, I’m new here and I just met you.
INTERVIEWER’S RESPONSE: (Violins) This method is used numerous times in Jepsen’s song, including the chorus.
Question/answer call and response
A musical “question,” or a phrase that feels incomplete, is posed by one section of the band, and another section of the band “answers” (completes) the query. The B part of the blues is frequently structured in a question-and-answer format (dominant-to-tonic). For instance, the Christmas carol “Must Be Santa” from 1960 serves as an example: CALL: Who is it that laughs in this manner, ho ho ho? RESPONSE: “Ho ho ho!” says Santa, who chuckles in this manner. In the 1942 film Casablanca, a similar question-and-answer dialogue occurs between Sam (Dooley Wilson) and the band during the song ” Knock On Wood “: WHO GETS THE CALL: Who’s in trouble?
PHONE: How much difficulties are you having?
- The antiphon, the countersubject, the responsory, and the military cadence are all used in African-American women’s work songs.
- Courlander, Harold, and others A Treasury of Afro-American Folklore: The Oral Literature, Traditions, Recollections, Legends, Tales, Songs, Religious Beliefs, Customs, Sayings, and Humor of People of African Descent in the Americas is a collection of oral literature, traditions, recollections, legends, tales, songs, religious beliefs, customs, sayings, and humor of people of African descent in the Americas. It was published by MarloweCompany in New York in 1976. Orovio, Helio 2004. Orovio, Helio 2004. Cuban music from beginning to end. Sue Steward has made revisions to the text. ISBN0-8223-3186-1 A biographical dictionary of Cuban music, artists, composers, groups, and phrases, as well as their respective biographies. p191
- Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
- Tumi, Bath
- Ned Sublette published a book in 2004 called Cuba and its music: from the first drumbeats to the mambo, everything is there. Chicago.ISBN1-55652-516-8
- Shepherd, John abShepherd (2003). A C Black’s Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: VolumeII: Performance and Production, Volume 11, p. 146
- Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: VolumeII: Performance and Production, Volume 11, p. 146
- There are 43 innovations that Scotland has given the world, ranging from Charles Mackintosh’s waterproof to Dolly the sheep. The Independent, published on January 3, 2016
- Ian Russel is the author of this work (2012). The Derbyshire Book Of Village Carols is a collection of village carols from around the county of Derbyshire. “Antiphony,” an article in the New Grove Dictionary of Music, is on page 2 of Sheffield’s Village Carols (2001). Oxford University Press is a publishing house based in Oxford, England. The Oxford History of Western Music
- The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.Oxford University Press. abTaruskin, R. (2005, p. 69)The Oxford History of Western Music
- The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.Oxford University Press
- Taruskin, R. (2005, p. 68-69)The Oxford History of Western Music
- The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.Oxford University (2013, p.470) Music in the Castle of Heaven: a Portrait of Johann Sebastian Bach is available online. Grove, G. (1898, p.153) Beethoven and his Nine Symphonies. London: Allen Lane Publishing Company. The Nine Symphonies of Beethoven are published by Constable in London. Hopkins, A. (1981, p.137) describes Beethoven’s nine symphonies as follows: Heinemann, London
- Maconie, R. (1976, p. 111)The Works of Stockhausen. London: Heinemann. London, Marion Boyars
- Worner, K. H. London, Marion Boyars
- Worner, K. H. Worner, K. H. (1973). Stockhausen: A Biography and a Catalogue of Works p.163
- AbMiddleton, Richard, London, Faber & Faber (1990). Popular music is being studied. Open University Press, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, ISBN 0-335-15275-9, p. 49
- Call and Response in the Blues — with allusions to blues songs and the growth of the genre throughout history
- Call and answer in black gospel music is mentioned in the history of gospel music. Call and response and gospel music styles have their beginnings in several sorts of call and response and gospel music styles, according to the Gospel Music History section of the Gospel Music Encyclopedia.