The city of Huntington is a popular tourist destination. The Herald-discussion Dispatch’s boards have been buzzing with activity, and a flood of e-mails has been pouring in with inquiries about what actually transpired in the genuine story of “We Are Marshall.” Following a 1970 aircraft disaster that killed all 75 people on board, including the majority of the Marshall University football team, its coaches, and many supporters, the Warner Bros. Pictures film depicts the narrative of the squad’s recovery.
A: Yes, according to Jack Lengyel, a former Marshall football coach.
As a result, we didn’t see it as a hindrance.
- Others followed suit, including West Virginia University (WVU).
- As Matthew McConaughey reveals in the film, the coaching staff did use some ingenuity in recruiting, using numerous basketball players and at least one soccer player to round out the team’s starting lineup.
- Q: In a manner that differs from the film’s depiction, Ernie Salvatore and Jack Hardin describe how they discovered that the Marshall jet had gone down.
- He was a senior reporter for The Herald-Dispatch at the time of the collision and arrived on the site immediately afterward.
And then I realized what it was and who was responsible for it all.” “Salvatore, who was the executive sports editor for the Huntington newspapers at the time of the collision, recalled Hardin using a radio device to inquire as to whether the name “John Young” meant anything to anyone in the office at the time of the accident.” As a result, I responded with ‘yes.'” It was just a few weeks ago that he scored on a touchdown throw,” Salvatore explained about the finish.
- It was only then that we realized it was the Marshall plane.” We knew it was the Marshall plane even though you won’t see it in the movie, and I’m not condemning the movie in any way.” Do all of the characters in the movie depict actual people?
- A: No, I’m afraid not!
- Screenwriter Jamie Linden explained that the rationale for creating two (primary) composite characters was due to the large number of participants.
- Griffen worked in a steel plant and had a son who was a member of the 1970 football team and perished in the accident.
- According to Linden, “everyone’s story has to be shared.” We were going to take over you, but I couldn’t look them in the eyes and say that.
- When Matthew McConaughey visits the Spring Hill Cemetery to leave flowers at the graves of six players who were not recognized after the crash, he experiences an emotional moment that is both moving and inspiring.
- It was the first time the new players were exposed to the plot.
In order to assist them comprehend the gravity of this tragedy and the role they must play in the future in order to establish the groundwork for future generations of Marshall football, I conducted this exercise.
the day before the first game of the season with just the players, coaching staff, and team managers in attendance.
Every time the squad went, the school would erect a tribute to Marshall, but Lengyel claimed the team couldn’t continue to develop and flourish under such circumstances.
Marshall?” when they were on the streets?
Marshall” is well-known in Huntington and has the potential to become well-known throughout the country, it was not utilized in 1970 or 1971, according to historical records.
This is a declaration that binds ‘we’ and everyone in the town, the community, and the football team together.” “It came later, but it’s incredibly suitable for the movie.” It has a unifying effect on the entire community.” In the Marshall against Xavier University game, how accurate was the team’s performance?
- Final score: 15-13 in favor of the underdogs.
- According to Dave Wellman, director of communications at Marshall, “I was at the game in 1971 when Marshall defeated Xavier.” The fact that everyone was out on the field in the dark appeared to be a little weird in the movie.” In the stands, many were sobbing.
- Many others chose to remain in the audience.” In the last scene of the film, is Nate Ruffin actually buried at the memorial alongside the unnamed players as shown?
- Ruffin was a football player at Marshall University from 1968 to 1971, when he was named captain of the Young Thundering Herd.
- QUESTION: Was Fairfield Stadium used as the location for the Marshall v.
- Fairfield Stadium was the site of Marshall’s final home game, which was held in November 1990.
- Up to the merger of Huntington High School and Huntington East High School in the autumn of 1996, Fairfield was utilized as a football practice facility by both teams.
The stadium was demolished in November 2004 to make room for Marshall University’s Clinical Education and Outreach Center, and it was completely demolished by the time the production for the movie began in December 2004.
Productions in Atlanta.
A: Screenwriter Jamie Linden penned the following: “Ah, Jim’s.
However, because they were our composite pieces, the personalities of Paul Griffen and Annie Cantrell were rather ambiguous.
It worked out well.
The steel plant was visited by McG a few weeks before production began; he fell in love with it, and we decided to make Paul an executive in the steel industry.
The owner role was therefore given to Lloyd Boone, who had previously worked as a booster, and the restaurant was renamed Boone’s, for better or ill.
We just ran out of time, both logistically and financially.
For as long as I live, it will always be Jim.
A: No, I’m afraid not!
The former assistant coach under Joe Paterno at Penn State went on to become the school’s head coach for a period of 12 years.
Q: Was Jack Lengyel, the first coach to be hired for the post, truly the first person to be hired?
A: No, I’m afraid not! In the process of replacing Georgia Tech head coach Rick Tolley, assistant coach Dick Bestwick was the first person hired. However, after two days, he changed his mind and returned to Georgia Tech to complete his studies there.
History of Chant
Pope St. Gregory the Great is credited with giving the name Gregorian chant. Despite the fact that he is credited with being the creator of chant, historical study demonstrates that he acted as a major link between the early Church and the Middle Ages instead. So, in the seventh and eighth centuries, he came to represent the chant of the churches in Rome, which later extended to England and Gaul, respectively. With the encouragement of Charlemagne (768-814) and his Carolingian renaissance, musicians were inspired to write new and more intricate chants for the masses.
Types of Chant
This music may be split into three categories, each of which is distinguished by the degree of difficulty. Using simple chants allowed everyone in the congregation to join in, and some could readily trace their roots back to Gregory’s time, and maybe even back to the music of the synagogue. The antiphons for lauds and vespers are more difficult to learn. Nonetheless, they are not prohibitively tough for a monastic community with members of varied abilities to complete. The antiphons beginning with the letter “O” for Advent are included in this second set.
These intricate chants are composed of structural sounds that are tied together by an intricate interlacing of notes, similar to the Celtic knots found in the art of the Book of Kells, and are performed by a choir of singers.
During the ninth century, a system of notation was devised to aid cantors in their performances. In contrast to current notation, which just denotes pitch and rhythm, this system of dots and lines attempted to maintain the subtleties of the oral performance by careful placement of the dots and lines. As time progressed, memory deteriorated, and it became essential to express pitch, which resulted in the development of the four-line staff and its square notation. A loss of nuance may be seen in the new system; with the old system, a collection of square notes represented five or more separate indications.
As polyphony progressed, it was necessary to keep time accurately measured, and the major and minor keys were the most common keys.
Modern research has attempted to recoup the oral performance that had been lost.
The subject of rhythm has consumed a significant portion of the scholarly debate.
Saint Meinrad Chant
The Solesmes school, on the other hand, has stressed the natural word rhythm as the foundation for chant, whilst some have advocated for the use of meters. Dominican monk Dom Eugène Cardine of Solesmes, together with his pupils at the Musica Sacra in Rome, has chronicled this essential idea throughout the history of the manuscript tradition. As a result of this approach, we have begun to recapture the subtlety of medieval chant. Fr. Columba Kelly, OSB, a monk of Saint Meinrad and a composer of chants, received his doctorate under the guidance of Dom Cardine.
Attempts are being made to replicate the vibrancy of the Latin chant as it appears in the oldest manuscripts through the interpretation of the chant.
The English chant that Fr. Columba has composed is based on the natural word rhythm of the English language as well as the emphasis of the words used. The outcome is a weirdly contemporary piece of music: modal, free rhythm music.
What is Gregorian Chant – GIA Publications
|Before reviewing the main Gregorian chant books and resources, perhaps it is good to state what Gregorian chant is.Gregorian chant is the church’s own music, born in the church’s liturgy. Its texts are almost entirely scriptural, coming for the most part from the Psalter. For centuries it was sung as pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment, and this is still the best way to sing chant if possible. It was composed entirely in Latin; and because its melodies are so closely tied to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best to sing it in Latin. (Among possible exceptions are chant hymns, since the melodies are formulaic and are not intrinsically tied to the Latin text.) Gregorian chant is in free rhythm, without meter or time signature.Because the liturgy was sung almost entirely in Gregorian chant in the Middle Ages (with polyphony saved for special occasions), every type of liturgical text has been set in chant: readings, prayers, dialogs, Mass propers, Mass ordinaries, office hymns, office psalms and antiphons, responsories, and versicles. Although Pope St. Gregory the Great (590–604) certainly did not play a role in the creation or compilation of our chant melodies, popular legend led the church to name Gregorian chant after this great leader.Many other types and styles of music are similar to Gregorian chant or inspired by it, but one should distinguish them from Gregorian chant. Taizé chants, for example, are generally in Latin, similar to Gregorian chant antiphons. But the musical style is quite different: metered and with choral harmonies and/or instrumental accompaniments.Many psalm tones have been written since the Second Vatican Council. They are much like Gregorian chant psalm tones with their free rhythm and their repeatable melodic formulas. By Gregorian psalm tones, however, we mean a set of particular melodies, one for each of the Gregorian modes, always in the form of two measures. The Gregorian psalm tones are well suited to the Latin language, but do not work very well with English accents, unless one takes freedom in adapting them. For English psalm verses, it is probably wiser to use psalm tones written for the English language. Back to Gregorian Chant Resources|
The Middle Ages
Historically, the traditions of Western music may be traced back to the social and theological changes that occurred in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, which corresponded to the period roughly spanning 500 to 1400 years before the present. Because of the dominance of the early Christian Church during this time period, religious music was the most common type of music heard. The development of church music began with Gregorian Chant and progressed to a polyphonic melody known asorganum, which was sung at Notre Dame in Paris around the eleventh century.
- Before the Middle Ages, music had been a part of the world’s civilizations for hundreds of years, if not thousands of years.
- The term music stems from the ancient Greek muses, who were nine goddesses of art and knowledge who were worshipped in ancient Greece.
- Pythagoras and others were responsible for establishing the Greekmodes, which are scales composed of entire tones and halfsteps.
- The early Church was able to assert ultimate control over these feudal lords primarily via the use of superstitious terror.
- In these days and times, western music was almost the exclusive property of the Christian Church.
- Christianplainchant, like all music in the Western culture until to this point, was monophonic: that is, it consisted of a single melody with no harmonic support or accompaniment.
- The melodies are loose and appear to roam, as if they are being guided by the Latin liturgical texts to which they have been composed.
In the sixth century, it was claimed that Pope Gregory I (reigned 590-604) standardized them, ensuring universal usage across the Western Church.
In the Easter hymn, Victimae paschali laudes, you may get a sense of the clear, floating melody that it has.
(Insert audio clip) The Ars Antiqua and Notre Dame are two of the most famous buildings in the world.
Organum was the name given to the hollow-sounding music that resulted as a result of this process during the following hundred years.
This was followed by a slow singing of the original chant tune in the tenor voice, with additional melodies weaving around and embellishing the resultant drone.
1163-1190), who produced organa for two voices, and his successor Pérotin (fl.
Pérotin’s work is an exceptional example of this extremely early type of polyphony (music for two or more voices that sound at the same time), as may be heard in his arrangement of Sederunt principes (Sederunt principles) (sound clip).
The Trouvères and the Troubadours are two types of street performers.
There were no restrictions on this music because it did not follow the traditions of the Church, and it was not even written down until sometime after the tenthcentury.
Even so, hundreds of these songs were written and performed (and much later recorded) by bands of musicians that flourished across Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, the most renowned of whom were the French trouvères and troubadours, who were the most famous of all.
It is love, in all its incarnations of joy and agony, that is the theme of the vast majority of these songs.
Additionally, he has been recognized as the author of a large number of songs and verses, someof which take the form of themotet, a musical composition in which two or more separate lines are stitched together at the same time, without regard to what we now consider normal harmonies.
(sound clip) is an example of such a work.
Guillaume de Machaut and the Ars Nova Guillaume de Machaut was born in the Champagne area of France about 1300 and died in Rheims in 1377.
He remained at the court of John until the monarch’s death in battle at Crécy in 1346, during which time he worked as the king’s secretary.
Several significant patrons, including the future Charles V of France, sought out his talents as a composer and conductor.
Machautis is arguably most known for being the first composer to construct a polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Catholic Mass, which he did in 1845.
The “Gloria” from Machaut’s Messe de Notre Dame exemplifies the new style of the fourteenthcentury, which was dubbed theArs Nova by composers of the time (sound clip).
Despite the fact that the Mass is perhaps his most well-known work today, Machaut also penned scores of secular love songs, many of which were in the manner of the polyphonic Ars Nova or “new art,” which he admired.
The secular motets of the Middle Ages eventually developed into the massive quantity and outpouring of music produced by the great RenaissanceMadrigalists of the Renaissance period. Jason R. Ogan conducted research in 2001.
Gregorian Chant, A Beginner’s Guide
The music of the Middle Ages is often classified into two primary categories: secular music and religious music. Anyone who has delved into the complicated world of medieval music has almost certainly come across religious chants, which are also known as Gregorian Chants in some circles. While it may appear that all chants are essentially the same (particularly to those who are unfamiliar with medieval liturgical music), there is a broad range of genres, subjects, and purposes to be found within the genre.
Medieval Church Music
It is nearly hard to comprehend what Gregorian chants are without at least a passing familiarity with the Catholic Church. rather than attempt to describe theology and millennia of religious ceremonies and traditions, I will just clarify some basic terms that will be useful in the future…. Remember that the definitions and descriptions in this section are specific to Western Christianity (Roman Catholicism) and may not have the same meaning in the Eastern Orthodox Church (or vice versa). The Cantate Domino is an illustration for Psalm 97, composed in 1380.
- The Mass/Holy Eucharist and the Divine Office are the two most important services offered by the Roman Catholic Church.
- The overall structure of these services remains rather consistent, although the precise content varies based on the time of year and the season.
- Observances of religious festivals, which are religious celebrations or commemorations of events and/or persons, include Festivities are a time for feasting.
- The first is referred to as Proper of the Time, Temporale, or Feasts of the Lord in some circles.
- The second feast cycle is known as theProper of the Saintssorthe Sanctorale, and it is devoted to the lives of specific saints and their sanctified properties.
- A number of feasts are held on the same day each year.
- Mass is the most important liturgy in the Roman Catholic Church, and it is held every Sunday.
During the Mass, there are musical and nonmusical portions, some of which are taken from the Proper and others which are taken from the Ordinary.
These eight sets of prayers and services (referred to as “canonical hours”) are performed on a daily basis and are distinct and separate from the celebration of the Mass.
Hymns, psalms, canticles, responsories, and antiphons are some of the musical genres that are employed in the Office/Liturgy of the Hours.
Even though the melodies may alter according on the preferences of the local clergy, the text remain consistent.
There are no changes to these songs and chants because they are permanent aspects of the Mass and do not vary with the seasons.
In the Mass and the Office services, the Proper are the texts, chants, and music that vary from one feast to the next, and they are made up of the Proper.
There are several forms of music in the Proper that are used during Mass, including the introit, the Gradual, the Alleluia, the Offertory, and the Communion Song. Tropes, sequences, and processionals are some of the other types of chants that are utilized for special events.
Are you confused? Keep reading!
As a result, the usual Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Bendictus, and Agnus Dei would be included in the ordinary Mass. (Ordinary). It would also be necessary to conduct a feast-specific Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offering, and Communion depending on whatever day of the liturgical calendar it was and which feast cycle it was during (Proper). As part of the Divine Office, specific prayers, canticles, psalms, and hymns would be performed throughout the day, distinct from Mass, as part of the daily routine.
- Psalmodic and non-psalmodic religious/liturgical music may be distinguished in the Middle Ages (with traditions extending into the Modern era) and can be divided into two categories: psalmodic and non-psalmodic.
- They are as follows: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, Agnus Dei, Introit, Gradual, Offertory, Communion, Alleluia, Canticle, Antiphon, Responsory, Psalm, or Hymn, Introit, Gradual, Offertory, Communion, Alleluia, Canticle, Antiphon, Responsory, Psalm, or Hymn.
- Some forms of chants have been in use from the beginning of Christian chant, while others were introduced into the liturgy over time.
- For example, the Kyrie (a prayer from the Ordinary of the Mass) can be performed in a variety of styles.
- “Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison,” the choir sings.
- Every piece of religious Medieval music that fits under the umbrella term “Gregorian chant” is often referred to as such by the general public.
- Remember that the texts themselves have significant religious importance as you learn more about Gregorian chants and how they came to be canonized as you progress through your studies.
Not to mention the fact that there is an enormous range of chants, and that many liturgical melodies of the Middle Ages are not genuinely chants in the traditional sense. As you go more into the realm of Gregorian chant, you’ll come to appreciate how distinctive and lovely they truly are.
Gregorian Chant, a Brief History
In religious rituals, early Christians were already practicing unaccompanied singing and chanting even before Christianity was officially authorized in the 4th century AD. Plainchant and Plainsong are two terms used to describe these chants. As Christianity expanded across the Roman Empire, a number of musical traditions and plainchant repertories arose on their own, independently of one another. Mozarabic (Roman Spain), the Gallicanchants of Gaul (France), Ambrosianchant (Milan, Italy), Beneventan (Italy), Anglo-Saxon and subsequently theSarum (England), Old Roman, and Gregoryian were among the Western traditions that were known to scholars (Rome).
- Other liturgical variants, such as the Celtic rite in Ireland and the Slavonic rite in Scandinavia, existed in other parts of the world.
- There is a great deal of controversy about Pope Gregory’s role in the establishment and development of the Gregorian tradition in Rome.
- Regardless of who originated this liturgical practice, it gained widespread acceptance throughout the empire in a very short period of time.
- Charlemagne, in particular, was a staunch proponent of the abolition of all non-Roman customs and the replacement of such practices with Roman ceremonies.
- A papal edict had effectively outlawed the use of Gallican and Slavonic languages by the 9th century.
- Local customs were eventually displaced by Gregorian calendars, or they had evolved to the point where they could co-exist with Roman rituals, at least to some extent.
- Ambrosian chant, along with Gregorian chant, is the only kind of chant that has been officially sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church.
What makes a Gregorian chant a Gregorian chant?
Early Christians used solo singing and chanting in religious ceremonies even before Christianity was officially authorized in the 4th century. Plainchant and Plainsong are terms used to describe these types of chants. As Christianity expanded across the Roman Empire, a diverse range of musical traditions and plainchant repertories arose on their own, independently of one another. Mozarabic (Roman Spain), the Gallicanchants of Gaul (France), Ambrosianchant (Milan, Italy), Beneventan (Italy), Anglo-Saxon and subsequently theSarum (England), Old Roman, and Gregoryian were among the Western traditions that were known to us (Rome).
- Other liturgical variants, such as the Celtic rite in Ireland and the Slavonic rite in Scandinavia, existed in other parts of the world..
- Regarding Pope Gregory’s role in the establishment and formation of the Gregorian tradition in Rome, there is a great deal of disagreement.
- No matter who was responsible for creating this liturgical practice, it gained widespread acceptance across the empire in a very short period of time.
- Especially influential was Charlemagne, who advocated for the abolition of all non-Roman customs and the adoption of Roman ceremonies in their place.
- A papal edict in the 9th century outlawed the use of Gallican and Slavonic in all their forms.
- Local customs were eventually displaced by Gregorian calendars, or they had evolved to the point where they could coexist peacefully with Roman practices, at least to some extent.
Beyond Gregorian chant, Ambrosian is the only type of chant that has been sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church on a formal basis. Both of these words are still in common usage.
Sources and Further Reading
Early Christians used solo singing and chanting in religious rituals even before Christianity was made lawful in the 4th century. Plainchant and Plainsong are terms used to describe these chants. As Christianity expanded across the Roman Empire, a diverse range of musical traditions and plainchant repertories arose on their own in various parts of the country. Mozarabic (Roman Spain), the Gallicanchants of Gaul (France), Ambrosianchant (Milan, Italy), Beneventan (Italy), Anglo-Saxon and subsequently theSarum (England), Old Roman and Gregoryian were among the Western traditions that were known (Rome).
- Other liturgical forms, such as the Celtic rite in Ireland and the Slavonic rite in Scandinavia, were in use elsewhere.
- There is a great deal of controversy about Pope Gregory’s role in the establishment and formation of the Gregorian tradition in Rome.
- Regardless of who originated this liturgical practice, it gained widespread acceptance throughout the empire in a short period of time.
- Charlemagne, in particular, was a staunch advocate for the abolition of all non-Roman customs and the replacement of such practices with Roman ceremonies.
- A papal edict in the 9th century outlawed the use of Gallican and Slavonic in all of their forms.
- Local customs were eventually displaced by Gregorian calendars, or they had evolved to the point where they could coexist peacefully with Roman rituals, at least to some extent.
- Beyond Gregorian chant, Ambrosian is the only kind of chant that has been officially sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church.
- Breviary Hymns, Fides Quaerens Intellectum, Chantblog, and GIA Publications, Inc. are some of the resources available. Music for the Church
- National Association of Pastoral Musicians
- Schola Cantorum Bogotensis
- Gregorian Chant Resources and History: Music Outfitters
- Gregorian Chant Resources and History: Encyclopaedia Britannica
- Mark Everist is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Music is a reference work on medieval music. Randel, Don Michael, et al., eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2011. The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a concise reference work on music and musicians. The President and Fellows of Harvard College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 1999. Print
The main image for this piece is an illuminated manuscript from a 14th-century choir book, which is worth mentioning in its own right. The picture is a carving of St. Lawrence in the letter “C,” which is seen in the letter “C.” The Introit to the Mass for the Feast of St. Lawrence begins with this opening syllable.
Medieval Church Music: Gregorian Chant & Plainchant – Video & Lesson Transcript
The arts were associated with the liturgy during the Middle Ages (500-1450), according to the church.
They were powerful and wealthy, and they were in charge of the majority of choices, including dictating the job and paying musicians.
The arts were associated with the liturgy during the Medieval period (500-1450), according to the church. Their position as rulers was enhanced by their wealth and power, which allowed them to dictate labor and pay musicians in large quantities.
According to legend, the standardizing components It came from a dove who spoke in hushed tones to Pope Gregory. This may seem absurd, but it is the only record available, and as a result, the probable myth has endured for years. We’ll never know where it originates from in its true form. As a result, the tale continues to exist as status quo, with the belief that he is the one who established the cans and can’ts, which is why we refer to it as Gregorian Chant. Plainchant is a style of song that is sung in unison.
There was no harmony or instrumental accompaniment; they all sang the same song.
It was derived from other ancient religions, and perhaps simply a few inflections were borrowed from them.
Long, free-flowing rhythms were created from such a little quotation.
Organum and Interval Definitions
As time went on, the music became monotonous. One melody has missing notes, but they wanted it to be complete. Their hopes and ambitions came fulfilled in the year 900. Rather than simply one note, they might have two notes instead. The organum was composed of two melodic lines. Songs are sung at parallel intervals that have been properly defined The distance between two pitches on a football team’s field. You just read the notes as if they were a graph on a computer screen. It is possible to calculate the interval by counting the number of lines and spaces, which includes both notes and empty spaces.
- The clergy conferred at three different intervals: the fourth, fifth, and octave were all deserving of the title.
- It makes no difference whether you begin with a space or a line.
- Thefifthis is another one that’s regularly encountered.
- Both of the pitches lie on lines or spaces, which makes it easier to distinguish the fifth from the other pitches.
- In between, there is a pitch range of eight different pitches.
- This wonderful sound is produced by an octave.
Saint Meinrad Seminary and School of Theology
The music became monotonous as time went on. There is one melody that is completely vacant, but they wanted it to be completely filled up. Their fantasies came true around the year 900. Perhaps two notes would be preferable to just one. Each of the two melodic lines comprised the Organum. Sung at parallel intervals—as determined by the composer Distance between two pitches on a football field. You just read the notes as if they were a graph on the screen. Finding the interval may be accomplished by counting the number of lines and spaces, including both notes and unfilled space between them.
The clergy conferred at three intervals: the fourth, fifth, and octave were all deserving of the title.
The fact that you begin with a space or a line does not make a difference to me.
From the bottom, stacked to five, and this is how it sounds, comes thefifthis another one that’s frequently encountered.
Finally, the octave is the span with the greatest length. Eight different pitches are available between them. It’s ideal for men’s and boys’ choruses alike. This wonderful sound is produced by an octave..
Types of Chant
Chant can be split into three categories, each of which is distinguished by the degree of difficulty. Simple chants permitted the whole congregation to join, and some of them were able to stretch back into antiquity with little difficulty. The antiphons for Lauds and Vespers are more difficult to learn. Nonetheless, they are not prohibitively tough for a monastic community with members of varied abilities to complete. The antiphons beginning with the letter “O” for Advent are included in this second set.
Structured notes are used to construct these intricate chants, which are then ornamented with ornate strings of melody, much like the Celtic knots found in the Book of Kells’ imagery.
A chant’s difficulty level may be classified into three categories: easy, medium, and challenging. Using simple chants allowed everyone in the crowd to participate, and some of them could be traced all the way back to ancient times. The antiphons for Lauds and Vespers, on the other hand, are more difficult to understand. Nonetheless, they are not insurmountably tough for a monastic community with members of varied abilities to complete. It is this second group of antiphons that are used throughout Advent.
Finally, Structured notes are used to construct these intricate chants, which are then ornamented with ornate strings of melody, much like the Celtic knots seen in the Book of Kells’ art and architecture.
Chapter 2: Chant and Secular Song in the Middle Ages
Chant can be split into three varieties, each of which is distinguished by the degree of difficulty involved. Simple chants permitted the whole congregation to join, and some of them were able to stretch back into antiquity with relative ease. The antiphons for Lauds and Vespers, on the other hand, are more difficult to learn. Nonetheless, they are not insurmountably challenging for a monastic community with members of diverse levels of ability. The antiphons beginning with the letter “O” for Advent are included in this second category.
Structured notes are used to construct these intricate chants, which are then ornamented with ornate strings of melody, much like the Celtic knots found in the Book of Kells’ iconography.
I. Western Christian Chant and Liturgy (CHWM 29–34, NAWM 3)
Music for religious services, chant was a source of inspiration and a source of information for later music in the Western artistic heritage. The form of each chant is defined by its function throughout the ceremony.
- Music for religious ceremonies, chant was a source of inspiration and a source of information for subsequent music in the Western art tradition. The form of each chant is dictated by its function within the ceremony….
- Chant notation in notational notation Notation aided in the standardization of chant melodies and the promotion of homogeneity. For over 1,000 years, all of the most significant advances in European music took occurred north of the Alps
- This was the case until the end of the Middle Ages.
II. Genres and Forms of Chant (CHWM 34–42, NAWM 3 and 4)
Chants can be classed in a variety of ways, including:
- Texts are classified according to their kind (biblical or nonbiblical, prose or poetry)
- By the way in which it is performed (antiphonal, responsorial, or direct)
- Music is classified according to musical style (syllabic, primarily with one note per syllable
- Neumatic, with one to seven notes per syllable
- Ormelismatic, with several notes per syllable)
- And by musical genre.
Texts are classified according to their genre (biblical or nonbiblical, prose or poetry); and It can be distinguished by the mode of performance (antiphonal, responsorial, or direct); Music is classified according to musical style (syllabic, with mostly just one note per syllable; neumatic, with one to seven notes per syllable; ormelismatic, with several notes per word);
- Chant melodies frequently reflect both the intonation and rhythm of the words they are intended to accompany as well as their function in the liturgy. Melodic structure is defined as follows: Each tune is divided into phrases and periods, which correspond to the punctuation in the accompanying text. Phrases have a tendency to be archlike in shape, rising, holding, and then dropping. In the Context of: In the Monastic Scriptorium, manuscripts of music were kept by the monasteries. A scriptorium was a group of monks or nuns who were involved in the production of manuscripts throughout the Middle Ages. Scriptoria were responsible for the copying of text and music, the decoration and illustration of pages, and the binding of books. The entire process was time-consuming and quite expensive.
- Chant melodies frequently reflect both the intonation and rhythm of the words they are intended to accompany as well as their role in the liturgy. Structure of the melody Following the punctuation in the text, each melody is divided into phrases and periods. It is common for phrases to be archlike, ascending and then maintaining before dropping. In the Real World: Manuscripts of music were maintained in the Monastic Scriptorium by the monasteries themselves. A scriptorium was a group of monks or nuns who worked together to create manuscripts. Bookbinding was done by Scriptoria, who also duplicated text and music while also decorating and embellishing pages. All of the steps were time-consuming and quite expensive.
- Tones from the Psalms Psalm tones are musical formulae that are used to sing psalms. a psalm tone is made up of the following elements: anintonation, a recitation on the reciting tone or the tenor, amedianto indicate that you have reached the middle of the verse, a continuation of the reciting tone, and atermination. Doxology At the conclusion of each psalm, the Lesser Doxology is sung, which is an expression of praise to the Trinity. NAWM 4a is the music. Psalmody with antiphons If two choirs are singing the same psalm verse, the first choir sings the first half of the verse, while the second chorus sings the second half
- This is known as antiphonalpsalm singing. Antiphons Each psalm is preceded and followed by an antiphon, which is chanted before and after the psalm, respectively. In the office, responsories begin with a choralrespond, are followed by a soloist singing the psalm verse, and are concluded with the response.
- Tone of Psalms Psalm tones are formulae that are used to recite psalms in a certain order and rhythm. a psalm tone is made up of the following elements: anintonation, a recitation on the reciting tone or the tenor, amedianto indicate that we have reached the middle of the verse, a continuation of the reciting tone, and atermination. Doxology After each psalm is completed, the Lesser Doxology (a hymn of praise to the Trinity) is sung. NAWM 4a is the music used. Hymnody with antiphons If two choirs are singing the same psalm verse, the first choir sings the first half of the verse, while the second chorus sings the second half
- This is known as antiphonalpsalm singing
- Antiphons To each psalm comes a prelude and postlude performed before and after the psalm, called an antiphon. In the office, responsories begin with a choralrespond, are followed by a soloist singing a psalm verse, and are concluded with the response.
- Vocalizations from the Ordinary TheGloria and the Credohave lengthy sentences that are primarily syllabic in nature. The Kyrie, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei are all three-part sectional arrangements
- The Sanctus and Agnus Dei are two-part sectional arrangements. The Kyrie is frequently sung in an antiphonal fashion. Between the ninth and twelfth centuries, new antiphons were added to the repertoire. The music is NAWM 3b, and the tropes are Expansions were made to pre-existing chants in three different ways: by including new words and music, by including new music alone, or by including new words just. Tropes were popular in the tenth and eleventh centuries, but they were subsequently outlawed by the Council of Trent (1545–1563) in the fifteenth century. The music is by NAWM 6
- The sequences are by Beginning as motifs in the ninth century, sequences evolved into autonomous compositions in the twentieth century. The Council of Trent abolished all but a few sequences from the liturgy, leaving just the essentials. Music: NAWM 5
- Dramatization of the liturgy The troping tradition also gave rise to liturgical plays. Naumburg Academy of Music (NAWM) 6
- Hildegard of Bingen Hildegard of Bingen (c. 1098–1179) composed both the lyrics and the music for the religious music play The Last Supper. Virtutum et virtutum et virtutum (The Virtues, ca. 1151). Her stay in a convent provided her with artistic outlets and leadership opportunities that were not available to her outside of the convent’s walls. NAWM 7 is the composer’s seventh studio album. Hildegard of Bingen (Hildegard of Bingen) Hildegard of Bingen entered a monastery when she was fourteen years old, and she later created her own convent in 1150. She communicated with a slew of influential individuals who were intrigued by her forecasts, and she composed music for her own religious poems, which she published. This is the oldest known music play that is not associated with the liturgy
- It is called HerOrdo virtutum.
III. Medieval Music Theory and Practice (CHWM 42–44)
Practical issues such as how to sing intervals, learn chants, and read notes at a glance were addressed in subsequent Middle Ages treatises, but Boethius did not.
- Modes of worship According to medieval theory, there are eight modes, each determined by the arrangement of whole tones and semitones in relation to afinal (Latin,finalis), which is generally the final note of the piece, as well as arange. Authentic modes have a range that extends up an octave from the final
- Plagaric modes have a range that extends from a fourth below the final to a fifth above it, and so on. Each mode also has a tenor, which is the tone used when reciting the mode. Solmization During the time of Guido of Arezzo (ca. 991–after 1033), solmizationsyllables were developed to assist vocalists in remembering when full tones and semitones occur. A guide to the Guidonian hand Guiding notes to each joint of the left hand served as a method for teaching notes and intervals, according to the Guidonian. The musical staff allowed for exact pitch notation
- This was made possible by the musical staff.
IV. Medieval Song (CHWM 44–50, NAWM 8, 9, 11, and 12)
- Modalities in the Church According to medieval theory, there are eight modes, each determined by the arrangement of whole tones and semitones in relation to afinal (Latin,finalis), which is generally the final note of the piece, as well as a range. A fourth below the final to a fifth above it is the range of authentic modes
- A fifth below the final to a fifth above it is the range of plagal modes. A tenor, often known as the reciting tone, is assigned to each mode as well. Solmization Solmization syllables were developed by Guido of Arezzo (ca. 991–after 1033), to aid vocalists in remembering where full tones and semitones occur. This is the hand of Guidonia. Guiding notes to each joint of the left hand served as a teaching technique for notes and intervals, according to the Guidonian. The musical staff allowed for exact pitch notation
- This was enabled by the musical staff.
- CantigasCantigaswere Spanish monophonic melodies with repeated refrains that were popular in the 19th century. The most well-known collection, Cantigas de Santa Mara, has almost four hundred cantigas in praise of the Virgin Mary, and is the most widely read. NAWM 12 is the music.
A brief history of Gregorian chant
CantigasCantigaswere Spanish monophonic songs with repeated refrains that were popular in the 18th century and afterwards. Cantigas de Santa Mara, the most well-known collection, has more than four hundred cantigas written in honor of the Virgin Mary. NAWM 12 is the musical score.