When Multiple People Sing A Monophonic Chant Together, It Is Called Singing In

Music Quiz 2 – Subjecto.com

The beginning of the Middle Ages was marked by the_. fall of the Roman Empire
During the Middle Ages, all power came from whichreligious organization? The Roman Catholic Church
Which secular leader in the Middle Ages promoted astrong, centralized government? Charlemagne
The main European port for cultural exchange ofEastern luxuries was: Venice
The violent series of events that took place aspart of an attempt to capture the Holy Land from the Muslims is known as: the Crusades
During the Renaissance, lands new to the Europeanswere discovered, including _. the Americas
One of the major advancements in the Renaissancewas the invention of printing, pioneered by: Johannes Gutenberg
Which of the following was a Renaissance artist? Leonardo da Vinci
The most universally idealized woman in Westernculture during the Middle Ages was _. the Virgin Mary
Who were the most prominent performers of secularmusic in medieval France? troubadours and trouvères
Musicians could find employment in which of thefollowing professions? instrument building, teaching, copyists
The early Christian church had very little power inEurope during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. False
The Middle Ages spanned nearly one thousand years. True
Our understanding of the musical culture of ancientcivilizations is limited by the few fragments of music that have survived. True
Trade flourished in the later Middle Ages, when amerchant class arose outside of feudal society. True
The Renaissance marks the passing of Europeansociety from a predominately secular society to a more sacred one. False
Compared to the MiddleAges, more professional womenmusicians made their mark in society in the Renaissance. True
The literature of ancient Greece and Rome was oflittle interest to artists and writers of the Renaissance. False
The Middle East had no influence on Europeanmusical styles. False
The major narrative of Western musical developmentbegins with notated music. True
Music performed with exchanges between a soloistand chorus is called _. responsorial singing
Which of the following is NOT true of Gregorianchant (plainchant) melodies? They are in Hebrew and Syrian
Hildegard of Bingen was born into a _ noblefamily. German
Modal melodies of the early Christian church aresimilar to melodies and scales from _. The Middle East
In chant from the Middle Ages, if there are manynotes per syllable, the style is called _. melismatic
When multiple people sing a monophonic chanttogether, it is called singing in_? unison
Hildegard’s collection of poetry and visions iscalled: Scivias
How many Gregorian chants survive? over three thousand
What musical aspect is found in Hildegard’s praisesongs, but is not found in most Gregorian chant? wide leaps
What might explain why medieval chants can soundunfamiliar to a modern listener? they are modal
The term liturgy refers to the set order of churchservices and the structure of each service. True
Gregorian chant features regularly phrased melodiclines supported by instrumental accompaniment. False
The chants of the church used only the major andminor scale patterns found in later music. False
Hildegard’s chant Alleluia, O virga mediatrix wasintended for performance on a feast day of the Virgin Mary. True
The text setting in Alleluia, O virga mediatrix ismostly syllabic. False
Hildegard’s Alleluia, O virgo mediatrix is aGregorian chant. False
In the Middle Ages, it was assumed that women weredivinely connected. False
Hildegard took her vows at age fourteen. True
Pope Gregory the Great composed all of theGregorian chant melodies. False
Music, mathematics, geometry, and astronomy werethe four topics considered essential to medieval _. education
Which secular medieval musicians entertainedaudiences at the higher social levels? troubadours
What was the period that immediately preceded theArs nova called? Ars antiqua
How does Machaut convey the medieval fascinationfor puzzles in Ma fin est mon commencement? palindromic structure
Which of the following is/are poetic forms used inmedieval chansons?: all of these choices
Which of the following is NOT a medievalwriter/poet? Pythagoras
Where did Machaut work as a priest? Reims Cathedral
Which of the following topics might be found inmedieval lyrics? unrequited love, politics, songs of the Crusades
Machaut’s own poetry often centers around the ideaof: medieval chivalry
With whom did Machaut exchange poems and letters? Peronne
Religious wars and medieval explorations enhancedcultural exchange. True
The last part of the Middle Ages is referred to asthe Ars nova. True
In the Western tradition, music historically hasnot been linked to mathematics and geometry. False
Composers in the Ars nova style wrote both sacredand secular songs. True
Machaut took holy orders, but worked for multipleFrench courts. True
Machaut was the first composer to self-consciouslyattempt a compositional legacy. True
There was an interest in both the regularity andcomplexity of musical patterns during the Ars nova. True
All chansons are monophonic False
The Ars Nova began around the early 1400s in Italy. False
Machaut only wrote sacred music False
The mood of Farmer’s madrigal Fair Phyllis can bestbe described as _. light and pastoral
Farmer’s Fair Phyllis is written for _ voices. four
Farmer “paints” the first line of thetext, “Fair Phyllis I saw sitting all alone,” through the musicaluse of _. monophony
At which point in the text of Fair Phyllis does thework change to an imitative texture? “Up and down he wandered”
Which of the following instruments was likely foundin prosperous homes during the Renaissance? lute
In addition to the Italian madrigal, what othergenre arose from the union of poetry and music? French chanson
In which of the following ways did Renaissancecomposers enhance the emotional content of madrigals? through the use of madrigalisms
Which of the following composers was influential inthe later Italian madrigal tradition? Claudio Monteverdi
Which of the following statements are true inregard to typical English madrigals? All choices are correct
The performing forces for Farmer’s madrigal consistof a four-voice SATB ensemble. True
The English madrigal preceded the development ofthe Italian madrigal by some twenty years. False
The text of John Farmer’s Fair Phyllis refers toreal historical figures. False
Both Italian and English madrigals often featureword-painting. True
Sometimes humorous madrigals would have a refrainof syllables such as “fa la la.” True

Monophony – Wikipedia

Amelody (or “song”), often sung by a single voice or played by a single instrument player (e.g., a fluteplayer), without accompanying harmony or chords, is the most basic of musical textures in the world of music. There are many monophonic folk tunes and traditional songs. Monophonic melodies are also regarded to be monophonic when they are performed by a group of singers (for example, an achoir) in unison (at exactly the same pitch) or with the same melody notes replicated at the octave (for example, in a choral setting) (such as when men and women sing together).

If different components are employed in a song or musical work, such as an accompaniment part or polyphonic melody lines, the musical texture of the piece will be established by this assessment (two or more independent lines).

Singers and instrumentalists often use monophony, heterophony (two singers or instrumentalists performing different versions of the same melody together), polyphony (two or more singers or instrumentalists performing independent melodic lines at the same time), homophony (a melody accompanied by chords), and monody (a single melodic line with instrumental accompaniment) elements throughout the melody to create different atmospheres and styles.

According to Ardis Butterfield (1997), monophony is a type of communication “is the main style of expression in European vernacular genres, as well as in Latin musical composition.

This is the plainchant version (mode iii) of Pange Lingua sung to its traditional Latin text.

Problems playing this file? Seemedia help.

Erik Satie The Four Ogives. Their calm, slow melodies are built up from paired phrases reminiscent of plainchant.

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Western singing

Plainchant or plainsong (of which one well-known variety was referred to asGregorian chant) was the oldest documented Christian monophony, consisting of a single unaccompanied vocal melody chanted by monks. Despite the fact that this music is sung by numerous voices in unison (i.e., with the same pitch and beat), it is nevertheless termed monophonic. It was plainsong that was the first and most popular musical style in countries like Italy, Ireland, Spain, and France. Theorganumtradition arose in the early 9th century as a result of the addition of voices in tandem with plainchant tunes.

Plainchant styles

Plainsongs such as Mozarabic chant, Byzantine chant, Armenian chant, Beneventan chant, Ambrosian chant, Gregorian chant, and others were all monophonic, and they included Armenian chant, Beneventan chant, Ambrosian chant, Gregorian chant, and others. As a result, several of these monophonic chants have been preserved in writing, and they contain some of the first examples of music notation developed following the loss of the old Greek system. For example, the Swiss Renaissance composer Heinrich Glarean(also known as Glareanus) created a work called Dodecachordon, which contained plainsong, Gregorian chant, and monophony.

The oldest manuscripts that include plainsong were written in neumes, a rudimentary system that captured just the shape of the melody; it was not until Guido d’Arezzoinvented a more contemporary musical notation system in the 11th century that the actual notes of the melodies were recorded.

Troubador song monophony

Various kinds of plainsong, such as Mozarabic chant, Byzantine Chant, Armenian chant, Beneventan chant, Ambrosian chant, and Gregorian chant were all monophonic, as were other forms of plainsong. In fact, several of these monophonic chants were written down, and they contain some of the first examples of music notation that developed after Greece’s old Greek system was abolished. For example, the Swiss Renaissance composer Heinrich Glarean (also known as Glareanus) wrote a work called Dodecachordon, which contained plainsong, Gregorian chant, and monophony.

Geisslerlieder or Flagellant songs

A tradition ofLauda, or religious songs in the form of Troubador songs, was promoted in the 13th and 14th centuries byGeisslerlieder, or Flagellant songs, which were popularized in the 13th and 14th centuries by Geisslerlieder, or Flagellant songs. Foliellan songs such as these monophonicLaude spirituale songs were employed byflagellants between the 13th and 17th centuries, according to the medieval chronicleChronicon Hugonis sacerdotis de Rutelinga (1349).

Lutheran church chorale

In the Lutheran Church, monophony was the first sort of texture to be introduced. For example, Martin Luther’s hymn “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (“A Mighty Fortress Is Our God”), written as a monophonic melody between 1527 and 1529, is a well-known example of this. The hymns of Martin Luther were arranged for multiple voices by other composers and were also utilized in other polyphonic works, such as the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach.

Monophony with instrumental doubling

SeeVoicing for further information (music) Doubling DeLonemore describes monophony as “passages, movements, or sections in which notes sound alone, notwithstanding the presence of instrumental doubling,” even if “such passages may comprise a number of instruments or voices,” according to him.

Music of India

Classical Indian music is an ancient musical genre in which monophonic melodies known as ragas are performed overdrones, occasionally accompanied by percussion and other supplementary instruments.

  • Hindustani music from the northern part of India
  • Carnatic music from the southern part of India, which includes works in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, Sanskrit, and Malayalam
  • And other forms of Indian music.

See also

  • Drone (music)
  • Duophonic
  • Polyphony
  • Voicing (music)
  • Doubling
  • Drone (music)


  1. Vernon Kliewer’s etymology (1975). Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music”, Melody: Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music, Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music Gary Wittlich’s full name is Gary Wittlich (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-049346-5
  2. Ardis Butterfield, ed (1997). In “Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music,” “Monophonic song: issues of category,” and other places. It is published by Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-816540-4)
  3. Template for a Crusades article
  4. Music from the Crusades
  5. Introduction to a secular song from the Middle Ages Archived from the original on 2007-03-15 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Richard DeLone is a professor of English at the University of California, Los Angeles (1975). In “Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music,” on page 99, the author discusses “Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Music.” Gary Wittlich’s full name is Gary Wittlich (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-049346-5.

Further reading

  • Aaron Copland’s “What to Listen for in Music” was published in 1999. MentorLCCN98-53893
  • New York: MentorLCCN98-53893

External links

  • What is the difference between monophony, polyphony, homophony, monody, and so on
  • 3Early Music: monophony
  • Music Texture Monophony
  • Music Texture Monophony Polyphony
  • In the first chapter of the Ratio Representation Project, plainchant and secular monophony are discussed.

Music Crash Courses

When it comes to music, a texture explains the way that melodies behave and interact with one another. Western music is characterized by three textures: monophony, polyphony, and homophony, which together account for the vast bulk of its compositions.


When a piece of music consists solely of a melody, this is referred to as monophony in musical terms. One voice or instrument (monophony literally translates as “one sounding”) or a group of voices and instruments all performing the same line of music are both possible in a monophonic setting. When all of the artists are playing or singing the same notes at the same time, this is referred to as performing in harmony. Men frequently sing the tune an octave lower than women when a roomful of people sings “Happy Birthday,” which means they are no longer singing in unison but rather at an octave apart.

As a result of octave equivalence (see the section onpitch), a melody that is repeated in a different octave still sounds the same, and so singing at the octave is also termed monophony. Most of the liturgical chant from the Middle Ages, known as “Gregorian chant,” is monophonic in nature.


Polyphony, which translates as “many sounds,” is a musical term that refers to music in which numerous separate melodies occur at the same time. These melodies intertwine and overlap, and they are often composed such that they sound pleasant when played together. Counterpoint is a concept that is intimately associated with polyphony and is used to describe a musical composition. A style and approach of writing polyphony that was popular throughout the 15th through 17th century is known as counterpoint (plural: counterpoint).

When used as synonyms (for example, contrapuntal texture and polyphonic texture), the phrases can be interchanged rather frequently.

When the melody of the first voice is reproduced by following voices, this is referred to as imitation polyphony.

In a canon, the original tune is reproduced exactly and without variation in each and every voice of the choir.

“Row, Row, Row Your Boat”

Afugue is another another polyphonic form that imitates its predecessors. Fugues are less rigorous than canons in that the multiple voices begin by mimicking one another, but progressively diverge and become distinct from one another. This sort of imitative polyphony may be heard in Bach’s “Little” G Minor Fugue, which is in the key of G Minor. The video below will help you to follow the fundamental outlines of the individual portions without having to refer to music notation or other resources.

In contrast, free polyphony may be found in classic New Orleans jazz and in the first polyphony of the late Medieval and early Renaissance periods, as well as in contemporary jazz.

It is performed by Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five and is a classic example of New Orleans jazz.


This type of texture occurs when there is only one melody and the other components are intended to support and accompany the melody (the accompaniment). This is the category in which the vast majority of western music is classified. For the sake of this classification, any music that is neither monophonic nor polyphonic can be labeled homophonic. One of the most common varieties of homophony is the combination of melody and accompaniment, and the other is the chorus-type homophony (also known as homorhythmic homophony).

Homorhythmy is required in order for chorale-type homophony to be considered, meaning that all of the voices (or instruments) must be performing the same rhythm at the same time.

The first few bars of Queen’s “Bohemian Rhapsody” are a good example of chorale-type homophony in action.

The rest of the song is primarily composed of homophony in the form of a melody and an accompaniment. Please let us know if you are enjoying this site, if you see an error, or if you have any suggestions.

Gregorian chant

A homophony is a texture in which there is a single melody, with the other parts intended to complement and accompany the melody (the accompaniment). In this genre is found the vast bulk of western music. Any music that is neither monophonic nor polyphonic might be labeled homophonic in our context. One of the most common kinds of homophony is the combination of melody and accompaniment, and the other is the chorus-type homophony (homorhythmic). The first group includes the vast bulk of popular music, art song, and opera.

Different portions will be singing different notes (otherwise there would be monophony), yet they will all be saying the same words and moving in lockstep with the same rhythm.

Throughout the rest of the song, homophony is mostly in the form of a melody and an accompaniment.

Music Test 2 Flashcards

MUS 103 is a course in music theory and composition. Introduction to Musical Instruments The University of Mississippi is a public research university in Oxford, Mississippi. the fundamental religious service of the Roman Catholic church, one that involves singing for spiritual contemplation as an accompaniment to holy act as part of its central religious service a significant collection of unaccompanied monophonic vocal music composed to latin texts, much of which is unaccompanied. written specifically for the western church Singing in a manner in which each syllable of text is represented by simply one or two notes The use of numerous notes sung to only one word is an example of the medieval style, which is illustrated by cathedrals that have such features as point arches, vaulted ceilings, flying buttresses, and richly colored stained glass.

  1. There was also a song in the local language that celebrated holidays such as Christmas, Easter, and even military victories.
  2. Around the late 13th and early 14th centuries, a sort of secular poet and musician flourished in northern France.
  3. what was the historical period during which the Renaissance took place what is the temporal span of the baroque period who was the author of the Hallelujah chorus What musical style does the hallelujah chorus belong to?
  4. Many of the gregorian chants have been written by unknown authors.
  5. Text setting in which numerous pitches are sung on a single syllable of text is known as polyphony.
  6. What kind of musical texture was employed by the vast majority of the church music of the Renaissance?
  7. The beginning of each musical phrase in renaissance polyphonie is marked by the simultaneous singing of each voice.

A group of instruments performed chords and accentuated the bottom line in this composition.

It was he who wrote the world’s first significant opera.

Bach created a vast number of holy vocal pieces for use in weekly church services, which are often referred to as A fugue’s primary musical texture is that of a cadenza.

Work and prayer were the defining elements of their lives.

People resorted to God when they realized they had little control over their own fate.

What is the name given to the religious songs that were sung in religious ceremonies throughout the MEDIEVAL PERIOD of time?

What musical notation was used to transmit the gregorian chant.

When was gregorian chant composed, and what tone does gregorian chant have?

What was the outlook for art music in the church in the years to come?

What is the name given to the polyphony of the early church?

What is the most well-known polyphonic piece from the period of medieval music?

Forms of public entertainment that were previously prohibited by church officials were accepted.

Musicians strolled the streets, playing instruments and gossiping about whether or not ladies could sing in the Middle Ages, according to legend.

Women were allowed to perform in the courtroom, including singing, playing instruments, and reciting poetry.

In medieval times, what was the sole instrument that could be used in religious music?

The religious is represented by a pipe organ, while the secular is represented by trumpets, sackbuts, harps, lutes, recorders (flutes), vielles (fiddles), portable organs.

strumpet, sackbuts, lute, recorder, vielle, and other instruments What exactly does the term “renaissance” mean?

What exactly was the difficulty that the “rebirth” presented?

What did the renaissance musicians come to grasp about the ancients’ musical understanding?

What was the function of Renaissance music in terms of its composition?

When compared to medieval works, characterize the music of the Renaissance.

participated in a lifelong fascination with creativity and exploration The degree to which Renaissance music pleased human beings was a measure of its quality.

In what ways are the two most important inventions of the Renaissance distinguished from one another?

How did it establish a new alliance between text and music?

characterize the new relationships between literature and music that emerged during the Renaissance period Keys in the major and minor scales emerge.

What areas did Josquin excel in?

What is the name of a composition for a polyphonic chorus that is performed at a religious ceremony?

method of performance in which there is no accompaniment who performed the soprano and alto parts in a polyphonic composition throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

Italy’s catholic hierarchy includes the Pope, cardinals, and bishops.

disliked: complexity, too many vocal entrances, thick texture, burying text liked: simplicity, no strong beat, simply, counterpoint, clear text disliked: complexity, too many vocal entrances, thick texture What time period did the Reformations take place, and who was the savior of church music?

  • What are the many types of secular music that were popular throughout the Renaissance?
  • a mechanism that uses important words in a book to inspire a musical arrangement that is highly expressive.
  • When was the printing press invented?
  • the use of four or five voices in polyphony Word painting in the style of an a capella vernacular poetry When it comes to the Renaissance, which genre best reflects the humanist requirement?
  • It helped to build a “vocabulary” of expression for the music industry.
  • The combination of evocative melody and rock strong harmonya Soloist with only a few accompanists on the stage.
  • described in a highly passionate sentence the rock solid harmony that was projected This technique was employed to keep the high-flying melodies of baroque music from spiraling out of control – a solid harmonic foundation was required.
  • Are there instruments in an opera?
  • a brief musical sequence that is repeatedly replayed who was the author of the first opera The title of Monteverdi’s first opera is not known.

What was the life and work of Henry Purcell, and what did he write Dido and Aeneas, as well as the finest English composer (written for girls boarding school) What was the source of Purcell’s opera’s librettodescribe the late baroque periodwith a predominantly string orchestradescribe the late baroque period terraced dynamics in the ostinato concerto canonico a ritornello A type of instrumental music in which one or more soloists perform with and against an ensemble In Baroque music, a phrase used to indicate the acute, abrupt dynamic contrast seen in the music of the time period What time period does instrumental program music belong to?

  1. What texture does fugue have depends on where Bach spent the most of his life.
  2. begins with an exposition, then an episode, and then continues with alternating topic statements, in one voice or another, and modulating episodes until the finish of the play.
  3. grosso – when a small group of soloists collaborates and performs as a unit against the whole orchestratutti – when the entire orchestra participates in the performance.
  4. concerto: a soloist-only section at the end of each movement that shows off the soloist’s abilities give an account of the brandenburg A tutti and a concertinomuch smaller group of soloists engage in musical give and take in six concerto grosses, each with three movements.
  5. Approximately 20-30 minutes Recitatives, arias, and choruses are all types of music.
  6. intended to be simple to memorize Which composer spent a lot of time traveling?
  7. monarchy established in england by king george I There are just 2 to 7 movements in the same key, with no actual dancing.
  8. water musica a large-scale genre of holy music consisting of an overture, arias, recitatives, and choruses, but performed without the use of stage costumes There will be no costumes or scenery.

Chorus is around 2-3 hours in length. tells a moralizing narrative that is performed in oratory The three-act play Life of Thirst included the English Church Anthem.

Gregorian Chant History – 2217 Words

  • While the examples in Musica enchiriadis are only lessons and directions on how to sing an organum, the book has some of the first instances of organums ever recorded, including some of the earliest examples of organums ever recorded. Throughout the 11th century and into the 12th century, the organum underwent several changes in terms of rhythm and melody. Aside from that, the phrases “free or.. middle of paper..uadruplum” are used for four different voices. While more voices were added, there was still a steady drone that kept the chant tune underneath from becoming lost in the mix. Many of Perotinus’s organum modifications are included in his work Viderunt omnes
  • Some of the methods were discovered in the text, while others were found in the music. First and foremost, the material is well-organized in terms of its overall cohesiveness. The work is divided into seven movements. Fully, according to Fuller “The opening and concluding movements use the text of a well-known mid-seventeenth-century chorale by Johann Rist as their inspiration. The middle movements contain new material written by an unknown poet, who occasionally repeats or paraphrases passages from the chorale’s middle stanzas.” “For more than a thousand years, Gregorian Chant served as the official music of the Roman Catholic church, consisting of a melody matched to holy Latin texts and performed without accompaniment” (Kamien 67). Whether we like to accept it or not, the credit for creating Gregorian chant music, often known as simple… middle of paper…l development, belongs to the Church. It has had an impact on music in a variety of ways since its inception. Composers have been compelled to create specific sorts of music, secular and other types of music that it deemed objectionable have been suppressed, and the style of music we listen to now has unavoidably been influenced by it for generations. “Baroque Music-Part Two.”
  • “Baroque Music-Part One.”
  • “Baroque Music-Part Two.”
  • “Baro
  • A extensively used book in British North America, the Bay Psalm Book was the first book to be printed in the country. The most striking element of this work was its English poetry, which was rhymed and metered throughout. The result was that a few tunes, which had the same rhythms as the text, were able to serve as melodies for a large number of psalms. Aside from that, the book made extensive use of the vernacular, which helped to foster memory. This was the first version of the Bay Psalm Book to be published with melodies, and it was the ninth edition that was produced in 1698. The pitch at which the hymns were sung was referred to as the reciting tone. The simplest kind of plainchant was a brief phrase sung before or after a psalm, known as an Antiphon, which was the most basic type of plainchant. There was a more intricate plainchant style known as the sequence, which consisted of singing a melody twice to two separate words. The parallel organum was an early kind of organum in which the plainchant was sung to two separate melodies at the same time, which was a precursor to the polyphonic organum. It is commonly believed that the four-voice organum was composed by Perotin, a twelfth-century composer of the Notre Dame School whose compositions are preserved in the Magnus Liber, which can be found in the Notre Dame Cathedral.
  • Despite the fact that Renaissance composers, particularly those of sacred music, continued to utilize church modes, they gradually began to use modes that were akin to our current major and minor scales. One of the most significant developments in Renaissance music, which was made possible in part by the work of Dunstable and other English composers, was the elevation of harmony to a far greater prominence within the composition. Renaissance music has certain characteristics. Some of the fundamental qualities of the music are listed below. Form With the cantus firmus (chant melody) in the lowest voice, the music is mostly polyphonic. Some believe that Pope St. Gregory the Great founded the style of Gregorian Chant
  • However, others believe that the name actually comes from a way to describe a compound of Roman and Gallican Chant
  • And while some believe that Pope St. Gregory the Great founded the style of Gregorian Chant, others strongly believe that it comes from a way to describe a compound of Roman and Gallican Chant. It is also claimed that Gregory the Great just cataloged and categorized this specific form of chant, which was really created by monks for use in the churches at the time. Plainsong, which includes the styles of Roman, Gallican, and Gregorian Chant, is a collection of monophonic chants used for religious services and liturgical reasons. It is primarily the usage of monophonic texture, the most basic of all musical textures, that results in this distinct sound
  • Two songs that come to mind are “As Vesta was from Latmos hill descending” and Justin Timberlake’s “What goes around.” These two instances are examples of word painting in its most basic form. Both songs include declining and climbing pitches, which you can hear in both tunes. Musical compositions for voice were more popular throughout the Renaissance period than instrumental compositions. Many, if not all, composers created “text” in order to convey emotions and meaning through music
  • By employing the right class and style, an author may more thoroughly incorporate a song into a piece of writing (Boulton). For example, the juxtaposition created by a lowly character (for example, the hobbit) singing a song of sublime quality would place more stylistic emphasis on the song
  • For example, when Bilbo sang a song about Earandil in The Fellowship of the Ring, which is highlighted by the break in narrative that the songs create. middle of paper… The elaboration of these themes raises the reader’s consciousness of the biblical overtones and produces Christian equivalences in both the songs themselves and the surrounding material, thereby increasing reader awareness of the biblical undertones. It was the Anglo-Saxons who pioneered the use of songs as a religious communication medium, as evidenced by their work as well as that of their Old- and Middle-English successors. So Tolkien’s habit of employing songs comes from his work in Old-English literature as well as his scholarly work on Anglo-Saxon language and culture
  • Discipline was visible inside the church. Every day began at 2:00 or 3:00 a.m. with the celebration of daily services, reading of teachings, and singing psalms, depending on the location. Most likely one of the most significant topics of the Middle Ages was holy music. It was influenced in part by Greek, Hebrew, and Syrian influences, and it continues to be so today. Religious works known as Gregorian chants were quite popular during this time period. A single-line melody and a monophonic texture, devoid of harmony and counterpoint, characterize these compositions.

Chapter 3: Polyphony through the Thirteenth Century

Much of western Europe had a period of affluence and cultural renaissance throughout the eleventh and twelfth centuries, particularly in the fields of scholarship and the arts. One outcome was the development of polyphony in church music, which accentuated the grandeur of chant to an even greater extent. Despite the fact that monophony continued to be the primary medium of performance and composition, the rise of written polyphony introduced four concepts that have remained central to Western music ever since: counterpoint, harmony, the centrality of notation, and composition (as opposed to improvisation).

I. Early Organum (CHWM 53–56, NAWM 14–16)

It was in the treatiseMusica enchiriadis that polyphony was originally described, in which the termorganum was used to refer to two separate types of polyphony.

  1. Organum ad parallelem The organum inparallel is a secondary melody (organal voice) that emerges below the chant melody (primary voice). The extra voice moves in parallel fifths or fourths and makes modifications to avoid the tritone. Either one or both voices may be multiplied up an octave if necessary. NAWM 14a–b are the pieces of music. Motion in the opposite direction and at an angle The organal voice sings above the chant in the eleventh century (although the voices may cross), moving in an opposing, oblique, parallel, and comparable motion to the chant and producing consonant intervals with it (unison, fourth, fifth, and octave)
  2. Organum liberum et floridum instructions for improvising free organum are recorded in the work Ad organum faciendum (On the Art of Improvising Free Organum) (On Making Organum, ca. 1100). Polyphonic chant was used only for portions of the chant that were sung by soloists, so that throughout the performance, pieces of polyphonic chant would be interspersed with sections of monophonic chant performed by the chorus. A new form of offlorid organum, known as the Aquitanian organum, first arose in Aquitaine, a region in southern France, towards the beginning of the twelfth century. During the performance of florid organum, the chant is sustained in lengthy notes in the lower vocal (referred to as the tenor), and the upper voice sings ornate phrases of various length. NAWM 15
  3. Organum purum and discant are the musical accompaniment. The two primary types of polyphony in the twelfth century areorganum purumororganum duplum (in which the upper voice sings many notes for each note in the lower voice) anddiscantum purumororganum duplum (in which the upper voice sings many notes for each note in the lower voice) (both voices move together at about the same rate). Jubilemus and exultemus make use of two different sorts of organum. NAWM 16 is the music. Organum is written in italics. Despite the use of score notation (one part above the other, with notes that sound together aligned vertically), manuscripts for organum do not include indications of rhythm or duration.

II. Notre Dame Polyphony (CHWM 56–61, NAWM 17–19)

During the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, theNotre Dame Cathedral in Paris experimented with a more intricate style of composed polyphony, which was eventually adopted.

  1. Leoninus The Magnus liber organi (the “great book of polyphony”), composed by Leoninus, contains two-voice arrangements of the solo sections of the responsorial chants for the major feasts of the church year, as well as other works. Leoninus’ organum (for soloists) is in two voices and alternates passages in organum form with sections in discant style. It is written in the manner of the organum. The plainchant passages for chorus are sung in unison, and the solo sections are performed in unison. The portions in discant style make use of the rhythmic modes in both voices and are more likely to emerge in places where there are melismas in the original chanting. NAWM 17A is the piece of music. In-Depth Look of Modal Rhythm During the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, a notation system was established to distinguish between patterns of long and short notes. It was decided that these patterns would be formalized as the sixrhythmic modes, which were derived from the rules of traditional poetry meter.
  1. Clausula Aclausula is the term used to describe a segment in discant (pl.clausulae). Clausulae are in modal rhythm, resulting in short sentences and brisk pace
  2. Perotinus is in modal rhythm as well. It was Perotinus and his colleagues, who were also linked with the Notre Dame Cathedral, who carried on the work of editing and revising Leoninus’s Magnus liber. Clausulae can be substituted. Replacement of older discant clausulae with new ones, referred to as replacement clausulae, was common practice throughout Perotinus’ generation. The tenors in these clausulae are known for repeating rhythmic patterns and portions of song over and over again. NAWM 18 is the music. Organum triplexes and quadriplicates Perotinus and his contemporaries also composed pieces for three and four voices, as well as for soloists. The names of the voices above the tenor are duplum, triplum, and quaddruplumare, in descending sequence of pitch. In order to distinguish between three-voice organums and four-voice organums, the term “anorganum triplum” was used to refer to the former. The music performed at Notre Dame throughout the late twelfth and early thirteenth century was very certainly improvised or verbally produced before being written down and preserved. NAWM 19 is the music.

III. The Motet (CHWM 61–64, NAWM 21–22)

  1. A clausula could be removed from its original context within a larger polyphonic work and performed as a separate composition (a motet), with the upper voice (motus) singing newly added Latin or French words. This practice began in the early thirteenth century and continued until the mid-twentieth century. Cantus firmus is a Latin phrase that means “firm cantus.” The tenor of a motet, like the tenor of a clausula, was composed of a chant melody, orcantus firmus, that was borrowed from another source. It is possible for the top two voices to employ separate but thematically related texts (sometimes in the vernacular), while the tenor can be either performed or sung. When it comes to motets, their compound titles are made out of theincipits (the first word or syllables) of each of their vocal sections
  2. For example, Motets that appeared early In many early motets, the text for the higher voices is a reworking of the material from the original chant. Music: NAWM 21a
  3. The motet’s versatility is demonstrated. The tenor (song) gradually lost its unique liturgical purpose and was used as raw material for composition since motets were performed for both secular and religious events. Existing motets were altered in a variety of ways by the composers: (1) by composing a new Latin or French text for the duplum
  4. (2) by adding a third voice
  5. And (3) by assigning new voices their own Latin or French texts. They also composed motets from the ground up. Unlike most motets for three or more voices, in most motets for three or more voices, the higher voices seldom rest with one another or with the tenor. NAWM 21b–c are the pieces of music. Franconian Motet (Franconian Motet) When it comes to motets from the second half of the thirteenth century, the upper voice goes more fast and has a longer text than the middle voice, while the tenor moves more slowly than the middle voice. Frankonian motets are named after the musician and theoristFranco of Cologne (c. 1250–1280), who composed and wrote about them. NAWM 22 is the music. The function of the motet It went through several transformations in the thirteenth century, evolving from a previously composed piece with fresh text to a very intricate and unique composition. The Motet as a Gothic Cathedral: A Historical Context It is important to note that the voices in a thirteenth-century motet move in a rhythmically dependent yet coordinated manner, with upper voices moving faster than lower voices. In the architecture of Gothic cathedrals, there are similarities to this.

IV. Polyphonic Conductus (CHWM 64–67, NAWM 20)

The polyphonic conductus is a two- to four-voice arrangement of a rhymed metrical Latin poem on a religious or serious subject that is performed in a sacred or serious context. The tenor is a fresh composition that is not based on a chant. The conductus style is characterized by the use of comparable rhythms and the singing of the text by all of the voices at the same time. NAWM 20 (National Association of Women Musicians)


It is a two- to four-voice arrangement of a rhymed metrical Latin poem, usually on a holy or solemn subject, that is known as the polyphonic conductus. In contrast to the chant, the tenor has been newly composed. Conductus style is characterized by the movement of the voices in a same beat and the singing of the text as a group. NAWM 20 (National Association of Music Publishers)

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