Which Composer’s Works Are Examples Of Monophonic Gregorian Chant

12 Examples of Songs With Monophonic Texture

Texture may be defined through the use of a variety of musical phrases. These terms allude to the number of instruments or voices that are used in a work, as well as the way in which they are related to one another. The most basic of them is a monophonic texture, which is also known as monophony in some circles. Here, we’ll take a look at a variety of monophonic songs and compositions that make use of monophony from throughout the history of Western music, from medieval plainchant to modern classical music, to pop, jazz, and folk song, each with a YouTube link to the corresponding sample.

Quick Recap: What is Monophonic Texture?

It is possible to characterize texture using a variety of musical terminology. In a particular work, the number of instruments or voices present, as well as their relationship to one another, is referred to as the number of voices or instruments. An example of a monophonic texture, often known as monophony, is the most basic type of texture available. Here, we’ll take a look at a variety of monophonic songs and pieces that make use of monophony from across the history of Western music, from medieval plainchant to modern classical music, to pop, jazz, and folk song, each of which will have a YouTube link.

1. Gregorian Chant – Circumdederunt Me

Medieval music had its origins in the period 500-1400AD, and the foundations of Western classical music may be traced back to that time period. The earliest notation of music was made during this time period, and it was during this period that the first, basic laws of harmony were developed. Gregorian chant, also known as plainchant, is the most well-known kind of music from the Medieval period, in which monks would recite holy texts as part of the Roman Catholic Mass. The Gregorian chant sung in unison by the male voices of the Gregorian Choir of Paris in the video above is a classic example of Gregorian chant.

2. Comtessa Beatriz de Dia – A Chantar

Medieval music has its origins in the period 500-1400AD, and the foundations of Western classical music may be traced back to this period. Musical notation was initially used during this time period, and the first, most basic laws of harmony were developed. Classical music from the Medieval period is best known as Gregorian chant, also known as plainchant, which was performed at the Roman Catholic Mass by monks singing holy texts. The Gregorian chant sung in unison by the male voices of the Gregorian Choir of Paris is shown in the video above, which is a classic example of Gregorian chant.

3. J.S. Bach – Partita in E Major for Solo Violin

For example, the interwoven contrapuntal lines of a Scarlatti harpsichord sonata, or the lush textures of a Handel chorus, are both examples of polyphonic music from the Baroque period, which spanned the years 1600 to 1750. A lot of magnificent compositions for unaccompanied single-line instruments were written by Johann Sebastian Bach, who was undoubtedly the best composer of the period at the time. He is most known for his Cello Suites, but he also composed partitas for numerous instruments, including solo flute and solo violin, which are among the most popular of these.

Despite the lack of any supporting instruments, he manages to create an extraordinary amount of harmonic and melodic interest in this violin partita using delicate single lines:

4. Folk Song – Bushes and Briars

Folk music does not usually have a well-known composer, and it is not usually recorded in any kind of formal method, as opposed to classical music. Instead, it develops spontaneously and is handed from person to person, and even from one generation to the next, via the use of the sense of hearing and smell. It may also have a strong sense of national identity, which means that we get folk music that is extremely representative of the country where it was created: Traditional Spanish folk music differs significantly from traditional Eastern European folk music, for example.

In the film Far From the Madding Crowd, the actress Julie Christie performs the popular English folk ballad “Bushes and Briars,” in which her solo voice is occasionally accompanied in unison by a wooden flute, as well as other songs.

5. Football Chant – Pompey Chimes

Although we don’t usually think about football chants in such academic terms, they are sometimes described as some of the few remaining instances of modern-day folk music. Chants are chanted by spectators during football matches, with supporters seeking to encourage on their own side or taunt the opposition. Although the music is not written down, it is sometimes accompanied with lyrics that are added to existing melodies. The songs are typically passed on orally amongst groups of admirers, who are not necessarily trained musicians.

The cry “Pompey Chimes,” which is performed by fans of Portsmouth Football Club, is one of the oldest football chants in the United Kingdom.

6. Ludwig van Beethoven – Fifth Symphony

Although we don’t usually think about football chants in such academic terms, they are sometimes described as some of the few remaining instances of modern-day folk music. Chants are chanted by spectators at football matches in an attempt to motivate their own side or taunt the opposition. Although the music is not written down, it is sometimes accompanied by lyrics that are added to existing songs. It is typically passed on orally amongst groups of admirers, who are not necessarily trained musicians.

Known as the “Pompey Chimes” by supporters of Portsmouth Football Club, this chant is one of the oldest in the United Kingdom and dates back to the 18th century.

7. Luciano Berio – Sequenza V

Although we don’t usually think about football chants in such academic terms, they are sometimes described as some of the last remaining instances of modern-day folk music. Chants are chanted by spectators during football matches, with supporters seeking to encourage on their own side or taunt the opposition. The music is not written down, with words often being added to existing songs, and it is often passed on orally amongst groups of fans, many of whom are not skilled musicians themselves.

The cry “Pompey Chimes,” which is performed by supporters of the Portsmouth Football Club, is one of the oldest football chants in the United Kingdom.

8. Sonny Rollins – It Could Happen To You

Much of jazz is homophonic, meaning it is characterized by the interplay of an accompanying chordal line and the melodic line of an instrument, such as a soloing trumpet or clarinet, for example. Polyphonic components can be found in some jazz compositions. For example, in New Orleans jazz, we may hear a trumpet, a clarinet, and a trombone all improvising at the same time. However, there are certain monophonic instances of jazz that are more difficult to come across. Given the fact that wind instruments such as the saxophone and trumpet are only capable of playing one note at a time, we naturally perceive a monophonic texture when musicians of those instruments set themselves the challenge of performing without an accompaniment on their instruments.

His performance of Jimmy van Heusen’s “It Could Happen To You” begins with a free, rubato rendition, followed by a prolonged improvisation and an approximate return to the melody to round off the piece.

9. Stevie Wonder – Sir Duke

“Sir Duke” begins with a beautifully appealing monophonic opening, with numerous instruments playing a rising, arpeggio-based pattern in unison as the piece builds in intensity. Afterwards, the song, which is taken from Stevie Wonder’s legendary 1976 albumSongs in the Key of Life, takes on a more standard pop texture, with vocals supported by a groovy rhythm section. However, the use of monophony is reinstated in the form of an elaborate unison “soli” part between verses.

10. Whitney Houston – I Will Always Love You

Whitney Houston’s rendition of Dolly Parton’s epic ballad of devotion begins with a monophonic beginning before transitioning into a larger texture, as is the case with a number of other songs on this playlist. In this case, the solo vocal beginning sets the stage for the song’s longing lyrical material in a dramatic manner, while also displaying Houston’s immensely strong voice, which is featured throughout the song.

11. Meredith Monk – Night Song

Meredith Monk, a composer and multi-discipline artist, has used monophony on a number of her own recordings, including a number of her own compositions. Her ECM albumBook of Days, for example, contains a lot of ambient single-line vocal compositions that are very effective. Here is a sample of her work. The pianist Harry Huff performs the Night Song on the piano. Given the piano’s chordal powers, it is unusual to hear completely monophonic piano works, which makes this piece all the more impressive:

12. Tori Amos – Me and a Gun

Tori Amos chose a totally monophonic texture for the lead single from her 1991 debut albumLittle Earthquakes, “Me and a Gun,” which was released as the album’s lead single. In this particular instance, the purposeful decision not to include any orchestral accompaniment enhances the impact of the song’s lyrical content, which recounts a tragic episode from Amos’s childhood:

Summary

We hope you have found our list of examples of works of music that make use of a monophonic texture to be informative and entertaining. Our musical journey has taken us through a wide range of styles, from some of the very first Western vocal music through instrumental Baroque pieces, great pop and folk music from the 1950s, bizarre and wonderful modern classical music, and even football chants.

We hope that you will be able to identify even more examples of monophony in your own music listening as a result of this article.

Monophony – Wikipedia

Amelody (or “song”), often sung by a single voice or played by a single instrument player (e.g., a fluteplayer), without accompanying harmony or chords, is the most basic of musical textures in the world of music. There are many monophonic folk tunes and traditional songs. Monophonic melodies are also regarded to be monophonic when they are performed by a group of singers (for example, an achoir) in unison (at exactly the same pitch) or with the same melody notes replicated at the octave (for example, in a choral setting) (such as when men and women sing together).

See also:  Why Do You Chant Neela Suktam

If different components are employed in a song or musical work, such as an accompaniment part or polyphonic melody lines, the musical texture of the piece will be established by this assessment (two or more independent lines).

Singers and instrumentalists often use monophony, heterophony (two singers or instrumentalists performing different versions of the same melody together), polyphony (two or more singers or instrumentalists performing independent melodic lines at the same time), homophony (a melody accompanied by chords), and monody (a single melodic line with instrumental accompaniment) elements throughout the melody to create different atmospheres and styles.

According to Ardis Butterfield (1997), monophony is a type of communication “is the main style of expression in European vernacular genres, as well as in Latin musical composition.

This is the plainchant version (mode iii) of Pange Lingua sung to its traditional Latin text.

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Erik Satie The Four Ogives. Their calm, slow melodies are built up from paired phrases reminiscent of plainchant.

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Western singing

Plainchant or plainsong (of which one well-known variety was referred to asGregorian chant) was the oldest documented Christian monophony, consisting of a single unaccompanied vocal melody chanted by monks. Despite the fact that this music is sung by numerous voices in unison (i.e., with the same pitch and beat), it is nevertheless termed monophonic. It was plainsong that was the first and most popular musical style in countries like Italy, Ireland, Spain, and France. Theorganumtradition arose in the early 9th century as a result of the addition of voices in tandem with plainchant tunes.

Plainchant styles

Plainsongs such as Mozarabic chant, Byzantine chant, Armenian chant, Beneventan chant, Ambrosian chant, Gregorian chant, and others were all monophonic, and they included Armenian chant, Beneventan chant, Ambrosian chant, Gregorian chant, and others. As a result, several of these monophonic chants have been preserved in writing, and they contain some of the first examples of music notation developed following the loss of the old Greek system. For example, the Swiss Renaissance composer Heinrich Glarean(also known as Glareanus) created a work called Dodecachordon, which contained plainsong, Gregorian chant, and monophony.

The oldest manuscripts that include plainsong were written in neumes, a rudimentary system that captured just the shape of the melody; it was not until Guido d’Arezzoinvented a more contemporary musical notation system in the 11th century that the actual notes of the melodies were recorded.

Troubador song monophony

The majority of troubadour songs were monophonic in nature. Troubadour songs were produced between 1100 and 1350, and they were mainly lyrics about chivalry or courtly love, with the verses arranged to a melodic accompaniment by the composer. Troubadours and trouvères were aristocratic musicians who performed in courtly settings for kings, queens, and countesses. Poets and composers in the 14th century created a large number of songs that might be considered extensions of the Provençal-Troubador heritage, such as secular monophonic lais and virelais, which are still performed today.

He was born in the town of Lescurel and lived in the town of Trouvère.

Geisslerlieder or Flagellant songs

A tradition ofLauda, or religious songs in the form of Troubador songs, was promoted in the 13th and 14th centuries byGeisslerlieder, or Flagellant songs, which were popularized in the 13th and 14th centuries by Geisslerlieder, or Flagellant songs. Foliellan songs such as these monophonicLaude spirituale songs were employed byflagellants between the 13th and 17th centuries, according to the medieval chronicleChronicon Hugonis sacerdotis de Rutelinga (1349).

Lutheran church chorale

In the Lutheran Church, monophony was the first sort of texture to be introduced. For example, Martin Luther’s hymn “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (“A Mighty Fortress Is Our God”), written as a monophonic melody between 1527 and 1529, is a well-known example of this. The hymns of Martin Luther were arranged for multiple voices by other composers and were also utilized in other polyphonic works, such as the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach.

Monophony with instrumental doubling

SeeVoicing for further information (music) Doubling DeLonemore describes monophony as “passages, movements, or sections in which notes sound alone, notwithstanding the presence of instrumental doubling,” even if “such passages may comprise a number of instruments or voices,” according to him.

Music of India

Classical Indian music is an ancient musical genre in which monophonic melodies known as ragas are performed overdrones, occasionally accompanied by percussion and other supplementary instruments.

  • Hindustani music from the northern part of India
  • Carnatic music from the southern part of India, which includes works in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, Sanskrit, and Malayalam
  • And other forms of Indian music.

See also

  • Drone (music)
  • Duophonic
  • Polyphony
  • Voicing (music)
  • Doubling
  • Drone (music)

Sources

  1. Vernon Kliewer’s etymology (1975). Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music”, Melody: Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music, Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music Gary Wittlich’s full name is Gary Wittlich (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-049346-5
  2. Ardis Butterfield, ed (1997). In “Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music,” “Monophonic song: issues of category,” and other places. It is published by Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-816540-4)
  3. Template for a Crusades article
  4. Music from the Crusades
  5. Introduction to a secular song from the Middle Ages Archived from the original on 2007-03-15 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Richard DeLone is a professor of English at the University of California, Los Angeles (1975). In “Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music,” on page 99, the author discusses “Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Music.” Gary Wittlich’s full name is Gary Wittlich (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-049346-5.

Further reading

  • Mr. Vernon Kliewer (1975). Music of the Twentieth Century: Melody and Linear Aspects”, Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 2001, pp. 61-70 Gary Wittlich is a writer who lives in the United States of America (ed.). ISBN 0-13-049346-5
  • Ardis Butterfield’s book is published by Prentice-Hall in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1997). Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music, “Monophonic song: issues of category.” It is published by Oxford University Press under the ISBN 0-19-816540-4. music from the Crusades era
  • Crusades article template
  • Introduction to a medieval secular song Archived at the Wayback Machine on March 15, 2007
  • Richard DeLone is a professor of English at the University of California, Santa Barbara (1975). In “Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music,” on page 99, you will find the section titled “Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Music.” Gary Wittlich is a writer who lives in the United States of America (ed.). ISBN 0-13-049346-5 (Prentice-Hall Publishing Company, Englewood Cliffs, NJ).

External links

  • Vernon Kliewer’s etymology: (1975). “Melody: Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music,” Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music, Aspects of Twentieth Century Music Gary Wittlich is a writer who lives in the United States (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, ISBN 0-13-049346-5
  • Ardis Butterfield (1997). In “Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music,” “Monophonic song: issues of category,” and other works, It is published by Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-816540-4). music from the Crusades era
  • Crusades article template Introduction to a secular song from medieval times Archived from the original on 2007-03-15 at the Wayback Machine Richard DeLone is a writer who lives in New York City (1975). When it comes to twentieth-century music, “Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Music,” on page 99 of Aspects of Twenty-First-Century Music, is a must-read. Gary Wittlich is a writer who lives in the United States (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, ISBN 0-13-049346-5

The Middle Ages

Vernon Kliewer is a writer and a poet (1975). “Melody: Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music,” Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music, ed. Gary Wittlich is a writer who lives in New York City (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-049346-5; Ardis Butterfield (1997). “Monophonic song: difficulties of classification,” Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-816540-4; crusades article template Music from the Crusades Era; Introduction to a medieval secular song: Archived 2007-03-15 at the Wayback Machine; DeLone, Richard (1975).

“Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Music,” p. 99, Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Gary Wittlich is a writer who lives in New York City (ed.). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, ISBN 0-13-049346-5.

Four Types of Texture in Music

In your mind’s eye, what pictures come to mind when you hear the word “texture”? Is it better to be soft or hard? Is it better to be dry or wet? Is it a living being or an inanimate object? Slimy? Sticky? What do you prefer: fur, skin, or scales? It is possible that the word “texture” will bring up pictures in your mind of the smooth sands of a wide desert, the rough brick wall of a dilapidated city structure, the rolling waves of the ocean, or the repeating patterns of plant life as shown in the image above.

  • What is the effect of these various textures on the sound produced?
  • a few examples of Instruments that produce a broad variety of “timbres.” A piece of music (or a musical performance) is composed of a large number of individual building components.
  • When all of these distinct building elements, as well as speed and timbre, are combined, they form a musical texture.
  • When many instruments or voices are playing or singing at the same frequency or musical pitch, it is this characteristic that identifies them.
  • In order to create musical textures that distinguish one piece of music from another, it is critical to combine timbres in the right way.
  • These four textures may be found in a variety of musical styles from throughout the world.

Monophony

Monophony is a musical texture composed of a single melodic line that is repeated over and over again. This old musical texture may be found in the few instances of Ancient Greek music that have survived, such as The Epitaph of Seikilos, which you can listen to and examine the score for in the video above, as well as in other pieces from the period. Aside: TheEpitaph of Seikilosis the world’s oldest full and notated musical piece still in existence. It is believed to have been built about the first century CE.

  1. It was written by Seikilos in memory of his late wife, who passed away.
  2. Double-reed instruments were prevalent in the ancient world, and they are the forerunners of the contemporary oboe and bassoon, among other instruments.
  3. For example, Byzantine and Gregorian chants, the songs of French troubadours and trouvères, and the minnesingers and meistersingers are all examples of chants from the past.
  4. Note: From 901 to 920 CE, Étienne deLiège served as the bishop of Liège, which is located in present-day Belgium.
  5. Even now, monophony can be heard in musical compositions.
  6. Play Bach’s Cello Suite No.

Take note to how many different emotions the artist is able to convey with a single musical line. THE FIRST ASSIGNMENT Choose a specific feeling or tale to depict, and then compose a short (12 to 32 bar) monophonic tune to describe that emotion or story.

Polyphony

Polyphony is a musical texture made up of two or more melodic lines that are played at the same time. The first polyphonic music was made simply by having two separate songs played or sung by two different musicians at the same time. When polyphony was first formed in the late Middle Ages, it quickly rose to prominence and eventually became the dominant musical texture during the Renaissance. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c.1525 – 2 February 1594), an Italian musician, was one of the most important composers of polyphonic music during his lifetime.

  1. Play the music numerous times, following a different vocal line each time, and note how the various works generate consonance and discord in the overall composition.
  2. Western music has been enriched by this invention, which marks the birth of contemporary harmonies.
  3. Musical compositions in counterpunctal forms, such as the Baroque Invention and Fugue, were written by composers like Johann Sebastian Bach and Antonio Vivaldi, among others.
  4. Take note of how the left hand imitates the material of the right hand, and how this imitation results in harmony between the two instruments.
  5. ASSIGNMENT 1: Download the score from the IMSLP.

Orchestral Polyphony

Bach is not just well-known for his polyphonic solo instrument compositions, but he is also well-known for employing polyphonic writing when composing for a large number of different instruments as well. His Brandenburg Concertos are outstanding examples; have a listen and pay close attention to Number 1 in F major, which is shown here.

Homophony

It is a type of musical texture in which a main melodic line is backed by one or more secondary musical lines that provide harmonic support to the main melodic line. This is the type of musical texture that we hear the most frequently these days. When all voices play or sing in (roughly) the same rhythm, this is known as traditional homophony, and it results in a full texture. Chorales (such as Christmas carols or patriot songs) sung in a conventional four-voice “hymnal” arrangement) are the most fundamental homophonic form, and they are the most common.

  • As a result, students of music theory study his chorales in order to have a thorough understanding of the notions of Western harmony.
  • ASSIGNMENT NUMBER THREE Analyze the harmonies in the whole score below, paying close attention to the sharps that have been added, the transpositions, and the crucial locations.
  • The term “Monody” refers to a guitarist who is strumming chords and singing a tune while playing a guitar.
  • Take a look at the video below and listen to Chopin’s Waltz in A minor as you go along.
  • Homophony is not just present in Western music, where it is employed in conjunction with Western harmonies.

Listen to the rich texture created by this in the video below, which features the Zolokere Choir from Malawi. ASSIGNMENT NUMBER FOUR Produce a piece of music in which you incorporate some of these enormous stacked chords into your own composition.

Heterophony

Heterophony is the final type of musical texture, and it may be found in musical civilizations all across the world. It is, however, less frequently heard in Classical Western music than the other two instruments. Traditional music, particularly that of the Middle East, Asia, and Europe’s folk traditions, is replete with this instrument. H eterophony is a texture formed by altering the pitch of a single melody at the same time. It may be viewed of as a more intricate form of Monophony, and it is frequently seen as the first texture to develop after Monophony in the musical world.

  1. Winter Sun can be heard on the radio.
  2. Even in classical music, heterophony can be present in the compositions.
  3. Beginning at min.
  4. Create a Heterophonic version of your Monophonic piece from assignment 1 and submit it to the instructor.

Going Forward: Multiple Textures

Music cultures from all around the world use heterophony as the final musical texture to express themselves. It is, however, less frequently heard in Classical Western music than the other two types of classical music. Traditional music, particularly that of the Middle East, Asia, and Europe’s folk traditions, is characterized by this characteristic. In music, heterophony is a texture that is formed by playing many versions of one tune at the same time. It may be thought of as a more sophisticated variant of Monophony, and it is frequently seen as the first texture to develop after Monophony in terms of appearance.

  • Stream Winter Sun on Soundcloud!
  • It is also possible to find heterophony within the classical canon.
  • The score begins at mm.
  • Create a Heterophonic version of your Monophonic work from assignment 1 for this project.

Medieval Music: Timeline and History

During the medieval period, also known as the Middle Ages, which lasted from 500 A.D. to approximately 1400 A.D., musical notation was introduced, as was the development of polyphony, which occurred when many sounds were combined to make different melody and harmony lines. In France, Spain, Italy, and Germany, church (liturgical or holy) music dominated the scene, however some secular, folk music proclaimed by troubadours could be heard in various locations around the country.

Some of the most popular genres of music were Gregorian chants, which are a monophonic vocal line performed by monks, as well as choral music for a group of people. Here is a quick chronology of notable music-related events that occurred during this time period:

Significant Dates Events and Composers
590—604 During this time the Gregorian chant was developed. It is also known asplainchantor plainsong and named after Pope St. Gregory the Great. This pope was credited with bringing it to the West.
695 The organum was developed. It is an early form ofcounterpoint, which eventually led to polyphony. This type of song had a plainchant melody with at least one added voice to enhance the harmony. There is no real independent second voice, so, it is not yet considered polyphony.
1000—1100 During this time of liturgical musical drama unfolds throughout Europe. Also, the music of the troubadour and trouvère, a vernacular tradition of monophonic,secular songis accompanied by instruments and singers. Guillaume d’Aquitaine was one of the well-known troubadours with most themes centered around chivalry and courtly love.
1030 It was around this time when a new method to teach singing was invented by a Benedictine monk and choirmaster namedGuido de Arezzo.He is regarded as the inventor of modern musical notation.
1098—1179 The lifetime ofHildegard von Bingen, a highly regarded abbess who was conferred the title of “doctor of the church” by Pope Benedict XVI. One of her works as a composer, the ​”Ordo Virtutum,” is an early example of liturgical drama and arguably the oldest surviving morality play.
1100—1200 This period is the age of the Goliards. The Goliards were a group of clergy who wrote satirical Latin poetry to mock the church. Some knownGoliardswere Peter of Blois and Walter of Chatillon.
1100—1300 This period was the birth of minnesang, which were lyrics and songs writing in Germany much like the troubadour tradition of France. Minnesingers mainly sang of courtly love and some known minnesingers were Henric van Veldeke, Wolfram von Eschenbach, and Hartmann von Aue.
1200s The spread of geisslerlieder or flagellant songs. The practice of flagellation was practiced by people whipping themselves with various instruments as a way to repent to God with hopes of ending the disease and wars of the time. Geisslerlieder music was simple and closely related tofolk songs.
1150—1250 The Notre Dame school of polyphony firmly takes root. Rhythmic notation first appears during this period. Also known as thearsantiqua; it is during this time when the motet (a short, sacred, choral song) initially developed.
1300s The period ofars nova, or “new art,” coined by Philippe de Vitry. During this period, secular music acquired polyphonic sophistication. The most notable practitioner of this style was Guillaume de Machaut.
1375—1475 Known composers during this time were Leonel Power, John Dunstable, Gilles Binchois, and Guillaume Dufay. Dunstable is credited with thecontenance angloise,or “English manner,” which was his stylistic trait of using full triadic harmony. It is a distinctive style of polyphony.

Medieval/Renaissance Music

Summary of Medieval and Renaissance Music

Dark Ages ca. 500-1000 later Middle Ages ca. 1000-1400 Renaissance ca. 1400-1600
music Gregorian chant polyphonic vocal music (sacred and secular)
notation crude notation (approximate indication of pitch) staff notation (precise indication of pitch and rhythm)

General Features

The shift from the medieval to the Renaissance periods in the structure of Western music was a watershed moment in history. As time progressed through the Middle Ages, monophony evolved into polyphony (seeMusical Texture). During the Renaissance, the shell harmony of the Middle Ages was replaced with genuine harmony, which is still in use today.

Transitions in the Structure of Western Music

Middle Ages Renaissance Baroque
monophonypolyphony shell harmonytrue harmony church modesmajor/minor scales

A major and a minor scale were used in Western art music during the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods, respectively (seeTonality). Thechurch modes were a collection of eight scales that were used in medieval and Renaissance music, as opposed to the scales used in modern music. 4 Benjamin D. Esham “>The church modes proved to be quite useful in the composition of pleasant tunes. They proved unsuitable for the task of producing harmony, which became increasingly difficult as the practice of harmony-writing got more widespread and complicated.

Main Article

Through the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic eras, Western art music was based on two types of scales: the major and minor scales (seeTonality). Thechurch modes were a series of eight scales that were used in medieval and Renaissance music, as opposed to modern music. 4 In the words of Benjamin D. Esham, “The church modes proved to be good helpers in the composition of pleasant melodies.” They proved unsuitable for the task of producing harmony, which became increasingly difficult as the practice of harmony-writing got more widespread and complicated.

Evolution of Western Music Notation

Dark Age notation addition of staff lines modern notation
Credit:Zman Credit:public domain Credit:Mezzofortist

To summarize, the primary form of Western art music throughout the Dark Ages was Gregorian chant, which was performed in a monophonic style. In the beginning, polyphonic music consisted of chants that were enhanced with extra melody lines; later, completely unique polyphonic music was produced (along with polyphonic music built on top of Gregorian chants). Even after hundreds of years, the pattern of composing polyphonic music on top of an existing melody would persist; it was only during the Baroque era that it became usual practice to produce entirely fresh music.

Secular Music

In the Middle Ages, improvements in music practice and theory were primarily driven by holy music, which continued to be the case today. Over the course of centuries, these developments helped to spread secular music (non-religious music). I61,3 Since antiquity, secular vocal music has been written for the purpose of public amusement and recreation. This type of composition was popular from antiquity to the early Middle Ages, and its common subjects included heroic narratives, love romances, and sarcastic reflections (see Musical Texture).

I18,3 Later on in the Middle Ages, minstrels were joined by groups such as thetroubadours (from southern France), thetrouveres (from northern France), and minnesingers and meistersingers (from Germany) (Germany).

Up to the Baroque era, polyphonic secular compositions were frequently based on pre-existing melodies (rather than being produced entirely from scratch) in the same way that their religious equivalents were.

Renaissance Music

Approximately 1400-1600 The term “Renaissance” refers to the resurgence of classical culture in the Western world (i.e. Greco-Roman culture). In other circumstances, this resurgence was relatively straightforward; for example, sculptors resurrected the classical statue by analyzing old originals. Because there was no extant ancient music to model their work by, composers participated in the Renaissance by adhering to the generalclassical ideals of simplicity, balance, order, and clarity, among other things (seeWestern Aesthetics).

  1. Renaissance composers were in the forefront of this trend, favoring melodies and harmonies that were simpler and more straightforward.
  2. It is via the use of imitation that a melody may be expanded and amplified, and it also acts as an uniting factor throughout a musical composition.
  3. There are two pieces to “shell harmony”: the root note and the fifth note of the root note.
  4. I86-89,3 Generally speaking, France held the reins of Western civilization throughout the latter Middle Ages, while Italy held the reins during the Renaissance.
  5. However, while later medieval music was actually dominated byFrance, Renaissance music was dominated by three regions, all of which were in succession: Burgundy, the Low Countries, and Italy.

Instrumental Music

Music for vocal works (both holy and secular) dominated the musical landscape during the Middle Ages and Renaissance periods, with instrumental music serving mostly as an accompaniment for vocal pieces or dancers. Nonetheless, the Renaissance saw the emergence of autonomous instrumental music as a distinct genre. Most Renaissance instrumental compositions were written for the lute, keyboard instruments (organs, harpsichores, and clavichords), or small ensembles (stringed instruments and/or brass instruments) rather than large orchestras.

4 – “Diatonic,” according to the Encyclopedia Britannica.

5 – “Church mode,” as defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica. This page was last updated in September 2010. 6) “Musical notation,” Encarta 2004.7 “Josquin Desprez,” Encarta 2004.8 “Claudio Monteverdi,” Encarta 2004.9 “Opera,” Encyclopedia Britannica This page was last updated in September 2010.

Exam 2 Flashcards

Introduction to Music (MUSC 110) at the University of South Carolina Composer’s identity is withheld. Monophonic religious drawn-out beginning males alone, unison, devoid of rhythm, a cappella (without accompaniment). 1198 The Kyrie from the Notre Dame Cathedral 1365; composer: Guillaume de Machaut; style: open vowels; polyphonic; religious; a cappella; Countess of Dia is the composer of this piece. One woman performs secular polyphonic chansons about unrequited love on a bowed instrument with a single male accompaniment.

Voices are heard one by one as they enter.

O rub rum sanguinis (o redness of blood) is one of her compositions.

French court and Notre Dame Cathedral in Reims; 15 tales written for a mix of voice and instruments; kyrie from messe de nostre dame (Our Lady’s Mass) Ave Maria; famed for the expressiveness he brought to the Renaissance; captured by the Dukes of Burgundy in modern-day Belgium; went around most of Europe; Motet Italy; Angus Dei from Missa Papae Marcelli, the church’s choir master, turned down two distinct court offers to continue working for the church.

  • Counter-Reformationist; rescuer of church music; composed 104 masses and around 250 motets in all.
  • services provided by the Anglican Church Flow My Tears and Come Again was composed by English Renaissance composer, Thomas Tallis (1563-1626).
  • Hildegard von Bingen established the tradition of Western plainchant, which is a monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the western Roman Catholic Church.
  • religion’s official language, as well as its holy music The language of Gregorian Chant was developed by the Christian Church as a means of preserving and regulating Gregorian Chant across the Christian world; it was also a language of music.
  • A lesser class of traveling performers tells about the news, their day, big events, and heroic exploits at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris (a catholic cathedral of gothic arts).
  • Music for the jongleurs is an example of instrumental music from the Middle Ages, as is the music of the courtiers.
  • Historically significant events, such as epic wars, were memorialized via the use of songs.
  • The Cathedral of Notre Dame de Reims Ars Nova is a work by Guillaume de Machaut.
  • (2) A piece of music that sets the words of the ORDINARY of the Mass, notably the KYRIE, GLORIA, CREDO, SANCTUS, and AGNUS DEI, among others.
  • Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei are some of the most well-known hymns.

allowed for mass printing of text (as opposed to polyphonic mass), with the text being changeable Church music should not distract from the text, should not utilize improper instruments, and performers should not exhibit irresponsible attitudespopular among the middle class1545-1563; bringing music back to the church1545-1563; purging of church excesses Styles include: lute, violin, wind instrument, and keyboard.

The pavane was the most popular dance of the Renaissance; it was a slow dance played in double meter, whereas the following dances were faster.

arrived to England in 1588; word painting; came in the shape of Italian Madrigals; sparked a movement in England that thrived from 1590 to 1630; came to England in 1588; word painting A cappella is the only method to sing this song.

solo song with musical accompaniment, generally lute or viol; became popular after the madrigaltend because it is very expressive and may convey the atmosphere of a poem.

Music for dancing; music with instruments; Renaissance In the Renaissance, there were several instruments. Viola, lute, shawm, recorder, sackbut, and harpsichord are examples of instruments.

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