Which Is The Term For An Expansion Of An Existing Chant

When a chant is performed antiphonally?

Mrs. Priscilla Bogan, MD, posed the question. 4.4 out of 5 stars (24 votes) When two choirs sing together in harmony, they are performing antiphonal music, which is characterized by the singing of alternating musical phrases. Antiphonal psalmody is the singing or musical playing of psalms by alternating groups of singers, and it is a type of choral performance. The term “antiphony” can also refer to a collection of antiphons that is available as a choir book.

Which is the term for an expansion of an existing chant?

Communion. What is the technical phrase for a chant that is being expanded upon? trope.

What is the term for a grouping of ordinary chants?

Communion. For what kind of chant is it OK to add more verses to it? trope.

What are psalm tones quizlet?

To summarize, each psalm tone is comprised of the following elements: intonation, repetition of the reciting tone, a mediant, further recitation, and termination. Doxology of a lesser degree. Following the last stanza of the psalm, a formula of praise to the trinity is sung in the same psalm tone as the previous verses. Antiphons for the workplace.

What is antiphonal quizlet?

What exactly does the term “antiphonal” mean? a performance technique in which two groups rotate in their performance. There were 32 questions that were connected.

What is antiphonal chant?

An antiphon (from the Greek v, meaning “against” and phon, meaning “voice”) is a brief chant used in Christian ceremony that is performed as a refrain. The Psalms are used as the texts for antiphons. An example of this type of music would be two choirs singing alternate melodic phrases in close proximity to one another.

What best describes the texture of chant Alleluia?

The term “monophonic texture” refers to a single melody that is heard without any accompaniment, such as this Alleluia melody. After the chorus has finished singing “Alleluia,” the soloist returns to sing the verse, which begins with the same melody as the opening “Alleluia” but progresses to a new tune later on.

Which term describes the texture of two or more melodies performed at the same time group of answer choices?

Which of the following terms defines the texture created by two or more tunes being played at the same time? In medieval religious organizations, polyphony was widely regarded as a kind of music.

When was the first notation chant developed?

When did the first systems of notating chant come into existence? The late eighth and early ninth centuries are considered to be the Golden Age.

What is the central component of the Roman Mass?

Generally speaking, the Mass is divided into two primary parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist. The Liturgy of the Word is the first main component of the Mass, and it is at this time that passages from the Scriptures are read aloud from the pulpit.

What is a gradual chant?

The gradual (Latin: graduale or responsorium graduale) is a chant or song that is used in the Mass, the liturgical celebration of the Eucharist in the Catholic Church, as well as among other Christian denominations. In the Mass, the gradual is included as part of the proper. A gradual can also refer to a book that contains all of the musical elements that are performed during the Mass.

What is a proper chant?

Gregorian utilizes the Confractorium, which is a Proper chant (meaning it includes a text that changes during the church year), whereas Rite uses the Agnus Dei, which is an Ordinary chant.

The chants of the Ambrosian Ordinary are often, but not always, syllabic in nature (one note per syllable).

What is the mood of Gregorian chant?

Gregorian Chant is a style of singing that uses only one sound (monophonic) and no harmony. I get the impression that the music’s tone is quite spectacular and powerful. Because of the monophonic tone and melancholy atmosphere of Gregorian Chant, I was likewise in a terrified mindset when listening to it.

What are the 3 types of organum?

The terms in this collection (6)

  • Organum ad parallelem. There is no such thing as a true second voice/parallel motion/two voices that are normally at a perfect 5th or 4th
  • The organum is converging. Motion in a slant direction/both begin on the same note, separate, and then re-unite at the conclusion
  • Free organum incongruous movement or movement in the opposite direction of the melismatic organum or the purus or the discant

Is Gregorian chant still used today?

The Roman Catholic Church still considers Gregorian chant to be the most appropriate music for worship, even though it is no longer required under the church’s rules. Gregorian chant saw a renaissance in both the musicological and popular realms throughout the twentieth century.

What is the difference between Gregorian chant and organum?

Organum is a term used to describe a Gregorian chant to which additional lines have been added. The cantus firmus is the term used to refer to the original Gregorian chant on which the top lines are based. There are intervals of fourths and fifths between the lines that proceed in a counterclockwise direction.

Why is Gregorian chant seldom heard today?

What is it about Gregorian chant that is so rarely heard nowadays? (1)It is quite difficult to sing, and those who are familiar with it are rapidly disappearing. (2) The use of the vernacular in church services was mandated by the Second Vatican Council, which met from 1962 to 1965. (3) It is out of date with regard to new services. (4)

What is the difference between Gregorian chant and troubadour music?

During the 12th and 13th centuries, the troubadours wrote the majority of secular music that has survived today. More than 1650 troubadour tunes have survived to this day. Even though they do not have a distinct rhythm, they do have an established regular meter and a defined beat. That distinguishes them from the Gregorian Chant, which has no meter at all (see below).

Is Gregorian chant medieval or Renaissance?

Throughout history, troubadours have been responsible for the majority of written secular music. More than 1650 troubadour tunes have survived to this day, according to historians. There is no discernible rhythm, yet they do have an even pulse and an even measure of space. In contrast to Gregorian Chant, which has no meter at all, they have a measure.

What is the technique of combining several melodic lines into a meaningful whole?

A.texture is the term used to describe the method of blending various melodic lines to form a meaningful whole.

What is a Cantus Firmus group of answer choices?

True. What is a cantus firmus, and how does it work? a melody that already exists Which of the following best defines harmony in Renaissance music? There are no wrong responses.

What best describes the texture of Farmer’s Fair Phyllis?

What is the most accurate way to describe the texture of Farmer’s Fair Phyllis? When Fair Phyllis begins, it has a monophonic texture. However, it gradually shifts to a homorhythmic texture with parts of imitative polyphony as the piece progresses.

Are all chansons monophonic?

All chansons are sung in a single voice. The Ars nova style was used by composers to write both holy and profane songs. Musical notation has always been considered unrelated to mathematics and geometry in the Western tradition.

Is Successores monophonic or polyphonic?

Oh, you successors of Hildegard of Bingen! Hildegard of Bingen’s monophonic Gregorian chant is an example of late, monophonic Gregorian chant. Guillaume de Machaut penned the music, which was produced by Robert von Bahr in the year 1377.

Music History Chant Quiz Flashcards

Lesser Doxology before the Itro to Mass, antiphon based on a passage from a psalm Mode 7, neumatic, responsorial2nd in Mass AAA BBB CCC’ in Mass AAA BBB CCC’. Mode 1, which is melismatic and antiphonal, Gloria is a woman who has a strong sense of self-worth (Greater Doxology) 3rd in the state of Massachusetts (only feast days and never Lent or Advent) Mode 4 is a neumatic mode. The Collect and the Epistle are followed by the 4th Major chant in the Mass. Mode 5, the most melismatic, the most responsorial, the fifth in Mass, and the highest point.

  • The Nicene Creed is spoken at the conclusion of the first part of Mass.
  • Mode 4, syllabic, not part of the Ordinary7th in Mass, and the opening of the Liturgy of the Eucharist are examples of this.
  • melismatic, responsorial mode 4 in the 8th section of the Mass.
  • Mode 6 is a straight choir with a neumatic tone.
  • Mode 1 is the default setting.
  • The first verse contains a rising motif.
  • Cadence at the end of each verse Immediately following the recital of a Psalm (Gloria Patri) The repetition of the same tune in different verses (hymns) Other than the Psalms, a song is borrowed from another source.
See also:  Why Do Koreans Chant Its Okay

The Council of Trent ruled that it was unlawful.

In monasteries, scribes who copy texts have a dedicated space.

It should be straightforward and metrical in structure, really emotive in content, lyrical and literary in style, spiritual in character, and direct and instantly obvious in its thoughts so that it unites a congregation while being sung.

At Vespers, this song is sung.

The cantor or choir sings or recites the words, and the congregation responds to each verse by singing or recreating a prescribed response.

Notker the Stammerer was created by the BB C.

Skits with music based on the Bible that can be used for liturgical purposes or just for entertainment.

song where in the end the woman stays with her mansong pattern of AAB devby Minnesingers, balla female Troubadours produced in S.France (Occtian)Troub.

The most popular in France during the 12th and 14th centuries.


principal voice/organic voice Vox principalis and vox organalis are the voices that move in parallel motion at the top of the scale, while the voices that move in parallel motion at the bottom of the scale are called parralel fifth or octave below900s.

Floral organum is another name for this plant.

Organum in which the tenor notes are matched by neumatic lines in the tenor section of the orchestra.

Notre Dame polyphony was further developed.

Since ancient Greece, ligatures (note groups) have been employed to denote patterns of longs and breves, and this is the first time this has been done.

The tempus was the fundamental unit of time.

A type of medieval English polyphony in which two or more voices sing the same melody, entering at different moments and repeating the tune until all voices come to a complete halt at the same time.

There are six rhythmic modes, each of which is formed of three tempora and one perfection.

Various organum duplum, triplum, and quadrum Organum with two, three, or four voices (respectively) alternative word for the organum floridum/melismaticum The polyphony of Notre Dame is a self-contained piece of organum that concludes with a cadence at the end.

2+ voices speaking in rapid succession The New Art, 14th century France; rhythmic notation that allowed for the division of not values into double or triple divisions, syncopation, and rhythmic flexibility.

In isorhythm, a rhythmic pattern is reproduced again.

A bba is an abbreviation for business-to-business.

Ballade – a serious/philosophical subject matter.

Rondeau is a Canadian author and poet.

Poetic structure and musical arrangement from the 14th century; 2-3 (3-line) stanzas set to the same melody, followed by a ritornello (2-line) set to a different piece of music.

Italian word for a form of polyphony popular in Northern Italy and Southern France during the 1300s (14th century) that is characterised by high intricacy in rhythm and notation.

Trope (music) – Wikipedia

11th-century depiction of St. Michael, who is seen fighting amazing birds in a troparium (so named because the tropes of the chant are written down). Atropeortropus is a term that can relate to a multitude of various notions in medieval, twentieth-century, and twenty-first-century music. To put it simply, the termtrope comes from the Greek (tropos), which means “to turn or change,” and is linked to the root of the verbv(trepein), which means “to turn or change direction,” or “to shift or change one’s mind.” Istropus is a Latinized version of the term.

Medieval music

Trope is a term that has been used in the Western Christian Church from the 9th century to describe the adding of new melody to pre-existing chants. In music manuscripts, there are three forms of addition that can be found:

  1. In manuscripts, newmelismas without text (usually unlabeled or referred to as “trope”)
  2. The addition of a new text to an existing melisma (more commonly calledprosa, verba, orversus)
  3. And the composition of a new verse or verses that include both text and music are all examples of newmelismas (mostly called trope, but alsolaudesorversusin manuscripts). There are no restrictions on where the additional verses can occur: they might appear before, after, or in between the original content.

Troping was a popular composing method throughout the Medieval era, allowing local composers to contribute their own unique voices to the larger body of liturgical music. These additional concepts are useful tools for examining compositional patterns throughout the Middle Ages, and they also aid current academics in determining the location of origin of the works, since they frequently refer to historical persons from the region in which the pieces were created (St. Saturnin of Toulouse, for example would appear in tropes composed in Southern France).

However, tropes were a common aspect of both the music and texts of theSarum Use (the use of Salisbury, which served as the official liturgical use of England until the Reformation), and they were also found throughout the Latin church.

We pray to thee, O great king of kings, singing praises to thee eleyson, to whom be praise, power, peace, and dominion for ever and ever eleyson, O Christ, sole king, O Son coeternal with the kind Father eleyson, lest your pastured sheep perish, O Jesus, good shepherd eleyson, We entreat thee, eleyson, O Lord, our strength and salvation for all of eternity, grant us the blessings of everlasting life and have compassion on us, we implore thee, eleyson, O Lord, our strength and salvation for all of eternity.

The ninefold Kyrie, which is customary in the Latin-rite, serves as the foundation of this trope.

So Deus creator omniumis stands out as an excellent illustration of the literary and doctrinal complexity that may be achieved by repurposing themes from the Latin liturgy and its related applications in the Middle Ages.

20th-century music

When it comes to specific sorts ofatonalandserialmusic, a trope is an unorganized collection of distinct pitches, most typically of thecardinalitysix scale (now usually called an unorderedhexachord, of which there are twocomplementaryones in twelve-toneequal temperament). Tropes in this sense were conceived and called byJosef Matthias Hauerin conjunction with his owntwelve-tone approach, which was developed concurrently with but eclipsed byArnold Schoenberg’s at the time of its invention. During his 1921 research, Hauer identified the 44 tropes, which are pairings of complimentary hexachords, which allowed him to categorize any of the 479,001,600 twelve-tone melodies into one of 44 different kinds.

  • A trope is neither a scale nor an achord on the hexatonic scale.
  • A trope is a framework of contextual interval relations that is used to organize information.
  • In each trope, there are several forms of symmetries and major structural intervallic relations at various levels, including inside each of its hexachords, between the two halves of each of its hexachords, and in connection to other tropes in their whole.
  • There are several ways in which a composer might apply this information in order to obtain complete control over the musical material, including control over the form, harmony, and melody.
  • 3 are connected by the inversion of their positions.
  • Furthermore, the minor second and the major third/minor sixth are the fundamental formative intervals of the piece.
  • Trope 30 will be obtained by multiplying M 5 and M 7 together (and vice versa).
  • Trope 3 also permits the development of an interlaced retrograde transposition by one major second and, thus, by trope 17.
  • Using the approach proposed by Hauer to harmonize an inversional twelve-tone row from this trope 3 (e.g., the chords G-A-C-B-F-F-D-C-A–B–E–D) will generate a sonority sequence that is equally inversional in both directions.

As a result, the symmetry of a twelve-tone row may be applied across the entirety of a piece of music. A formal notion can be integrated into a twelve-tone row and a harmonic matrix, and so into a complete musical work, using the trope technique as a means of doing so.

See also

  • When it comes to Jewish religious liturgy, trope (cantillation) is the notation used for accentuation and musical reading of the Bible (in Yiddish, ).
See also:  What Is The Mason Chant


  • Anonyme, c. 2009. Trope, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, obtained on October 16, 2009
  • Liddell, Henry George, and Robert Scott, 1889. “Trope,” Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, retrieved on October 16, 2009. “τρόπoς]”. An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon is a resource for learning Greek. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. Perseus is available online. (Accessed on the 22nd of December, 2009)
  • Christopher Page (1996). ‘Missa Caput’ (Kyrie ‘Deus creator omnium’),’ the composer writes. Hyperion Records
  • Planchart, Alejandro Enrique. 2001. Hyperion Records
  • Planchart, Alejandro Enrique. “Trope I is an abbreviation for “Trope I The second edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell, is now available. Nick Sandon’s book is published by Macmillan Publishers in London (6 January 1997). “5. Kyrie Deus Creator,” says the author. CD1: Music during the Reign of Henry VIII (PDF) (Program booklet). Thomas Tallis – The Complete Works of Thomas Tallis. Dominik Sedivy’s Brilliant Classics was published in 2011. Serial Composition and Tonality are two aspects of serial composition. The Music of Hauer and Steinbauer: A Comprehensive Introduction Edition monochrome/monochrome in Vienna. Arnold Whittall’s book, ISBN 978-3-902796-03-5, was published in 2008. The Cambridge Introduction to Serialism is a textbook written by the University of Cambridge. Cambridge Introductions to Music is a series of books written by Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press, New York, ISBN 978-0-521-86341-4 (hardback) and ISBN 978-0-521-68200-8 (paperback)

Further reading

  • Mitzi Dewhitt’s book, Mitzi Dewhitt’s book, was published in 2010. In Finn Egeland Hansen’s 1990 book, The Meaning of the Musical Tree, Xlibris Corporation publishes the ISBN 978-1-4500-3070-0 and ISBN 978-1-4500-3070-0. “Tropering: et kompositionsprincipe” (Tropering and Composition Principle). InFestskrift Sren Srensen: 1920, edited by Finn Egeland, published on September 29, 1990. From 185 through 205, Steen Pade, Christian Thodberg, and Arthur Ilfeldt write about their experiences in the field. Knapp, Janet (1990)
  • Hauer, Josef Matthias (1948)
  • Fog (Copenhagen, Denmark). ISBN 87-87099-32-2. “Which Came First, the Chicken or the Egg? : Some Reflections on the Relationship between Conductus and Trope” is a paper published in the journal Conductus and Trope. Perle, George. 1991. “Essays in Musicology: A Tribute to Alvin Johnson,” edited by Lewis Lockwood and Edward Roesner, published by the American Musicological Society under the ISBN 1 878528-00-9. The sixth version of Serial Composition and Atonality: An Introduction to the Music of Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern has been edited and updated. Dominik Sedivy’s 2012 book, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-07430-9
  • Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-07430-9
  • Tropentechnik. Your application and the possibilities it provides. Salzburger Stier 5 is a mountain in Salzburg, Austria. Sengstschmid, Johann. 1980. Würzburg: KönigshausenNeumann, ISBN 978-3-8260-4682-7
  • Sengstschmid, Johann. 1980. Würzburg: KönigshausenNeumann, ISBN 978-3-8260-4682-7
  • Sengstschmid, Johann. Intersections between trope and Zwölftonspiel: J. M. Hauer’s Zwölftontechnik in a selection of examples. Research reports in the field of musicology number 28. G. Bosse, ISBN 3-7649-2219-2
  • Summers, William John. 2007. Regensburg: G. Bosse, ISBN 3-7649-2219-2
  • Summers, William John. 2007. “To Trope or Not to Trope? : or, How Was That English Gloria Performed?” is a question of whether to use tropes or not. Music in Medieval Europe: Studies in Honour of Bryan Gillingham, edited by Terence Bailey and Alma Santosuosso, is a collection of essays on medieval music. ISBN 0-7546-5239-4 and 978-0-7546-5239-7 from Ashgate Publishers in Aldershot, England and Burlington, Vermont, respectively.

Leonin and Perotin: Musical Contributions, Polyphony & Ars Antiqua – Video & Lesson Transcript

Even though there is no specific date or documentation that demonstrates when polyphony was first used in the Church, two French composers, Leonin and his student Perotin, who worked at Paris’s Notre Dame Cathedral, are widely acknowledged as having composed the first significant polyphonic church music.


Leonin is supposed to have lived between 1150 and 1201 and is sometimes referred to as ‘Leoninus.’ He is renowned for being the first composer of polyphonic music to be identified by his own name in the history of music. It was common for Leonin’s music to be composed in two voice parts, with the first portion being the melody and the second half being the harmony.


Perotin, also known as ‘Perotinus,’ was a student of Leonin’s who studied under him. He is believed to have lived between 1170 and 1236, and he built on Leonin’s work by producing music for three or four voice parts, which he later performed.

Ars Antiqua

This new polyphony was remarkable because it had never been attempted in church music before, and in medieval logic, everything new had to be built on the foundation of something previously existing. Any new compositions had to be based on an existing composition, such as church chants, in order to be considered valid under the law. Ars Antiqua is the name given to this school of thinking. Leonin and Perotin are sometimes referred to be “old school” representatives because of their appearance.


Due to the severe music restrictions of the Catholic Church, both composers added extra vocal parts to what had previously been a single line of church chant in order to generate new musical compositions while still following to the laws. Most of the time, an exceedingly slow rendition of the original chant was followed by an incredibly quick rendition with more pitches, all sung in an extremely high register. Organum was the name given to this unique style of multi-part chant. Leonin utilized these approaches to compose music for two voice parts, which he performed live.

Also employing similar approaches, Perotin went one step further and composed for three or four vocal parts, at times as many as five.

Magnus Liber Organi

They were so skilled at creating organum that they were able to compose the first entire annual cycle of chants for the mass in two sections, thanks to their collaboration. The music was assembled into a book known as theMagnus Liber Organi, which translates as ‘Great Book of Organum’ in English. Later, Perotin revised and added new ideas to the original version, which was written by Leonin originally.

By the time it got to the finish, it sounded something like this. Several additional composers from the Notre Dame school are reported to have contributed, although Leonin and Perotin are the only ones who have been specifically credited.

Module B1: Western liturgical chant

They were so skilled at creating organum that they were able to write the first entire annual cycle of chants for the mass in two sections, thanks to their collaboration. The music was assembled into a book known as theMagnus Liber Organi, which translates as the ‘Great Book of Organum.’ It was published in 1603. Later, Perotin revised and contributed new ideas to the initial version, which was written by Leonin. It sounded somewhat like this by the time it was finished. It is said that other Notre Dame school composers also contributed, although Leonin and Perotin are the only ones who are specifically acknowledged.

Learning Outcomes

In this module, you will gain knowledge and comprehension of the main forms and characteristics of the Western chant repertory for Mass, Office, and other associated observances, as well a historical perspective on the development, compilation, expansion and performance of the chant repertory.

See also:  What Musical Texture Is Gregorian Chant

Suggested reading and repertories

Western Plainchant: A Handbook, by David Hiley, is the main text to use as a guideline. This is now available in a paperback format as well as an ebook edition. Part II will take you through Study Area 1 (albeit not in the order mentioned); Parts VI and VII will take you through 2.1; Part IV will take you through 2.2; Part X will take you through 2.3 and 2.4; and Part XI will take you through 2.5. If you are just beginning your study of chant, it may be helpful to read a basic text-book introduction, such as Richard L.

  1. The material contained in some earlier works (for example, Will Apel’s Gregorian Chant) is now out of date and should be utilized with caution, although they still contain a lot of helpful information.
  2. John Stevens has written a significant study ofWords and Music in the Middle Ages, which includes chapters on chant, song, sequence, and liturgical theater, among other topics.
  3. Several sources utilized in the editing of Graduale Triplex have contributed extra neumatic notation.
  4. The Temporal Cycle, as well as the Ordinary of the Mass, has now reached the week of Holy Week.
  5. Extracts from eighteenth- and nineteenth-century chant books are frequently available for purchase in old bookshops or at kiosks along the Seine, near Notre Dame.
  6. During the early years of the Reformation, adaptations of existing chants for use with texts in the English language were developed, including portions of Marbeck’s chant for the Book of Common Prayer.
  7. Chant recordings are available in a variety of styles and repertories, and a significant number of them are featured in the current Gramophone catalogue.
  8. In the preface to Liber Usualis, there is a lengthy essay on the performance of chant; alternative ways are frequently mentioned in recording notes, but there are debates in the magazine Early Music, and reviews are frequently extremely helpful.

These might be chosen to symbolize a single season or a group of seasons or feasts, or they could be chosen to represent a combination of seasons or feasts.

Study areas

1 Repertory of songs The use of psalm tones as well as the coupling of antiphons are examples of modes. 1.2 Music for the Proper of the Mass (often known as “proper music”). Prelude, Gradual, Alleluia, Tract, Sequence, Offertory, and Eucharistic Prayer 1.3 Music for the Liturgy of the Hours (Ordinary of the Mass) Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus dei, Ite missa est/Benedicamus1.4 Music for the OfficePsalms and antiphons, canticles and antiphons, responsories, hymns, and other music for the office are also included.

  • The Passion is shown on Palm Sunday.
  • B1.1.1 Distinguish between antiphonal and responsorial chant in terms of form, style, and usage in liturgical celebration.
  • You may choose to limit your conversation to chants from a single tradition or application.
  • Is it limited in terms of what it can do in respect to the rest of the repertory, or is it feasible to find musical features that are exclusive to each mode?
  • 2 Compilers, editors, historical inspirations, and stage performances are all mentioned.
  • To learn more about chant adaptations, click here.
  • Essay questions pertaining to study area 2 include the following: B1.2.1 Is it legitimate to refer to ‘Gregorian’ chant, or is it more accurate to trace the establishment of the medieval repertoire of Western chant to the Franks?
  • 1.2.3 How was chant affected by the Counter-Reformation, and what role did it play in the liturgy?
  • The Solesmes approach to the editing and execution of the chant is ‘genuine’ in what ways, exactly?
  • B1.2.6 When it comes to adapting chants to vernacular texts, what are the pros and drawbacks to consider?

B1.2.7 Examine three chant recordings from recent years that are diametrically opposed to one another. What are the main differences between them in terms of aesthetics, style, and technique? What is the relationship between the approach to performance and concerns of notation?


You must research both of the topics listed above. Even though you may design (or be directed by a supervisor to design) your own pattern of study, it must incorporate the concerns specified in the study categories above, and you are strongly suggested to take into consideration the recommended items listed in this section. When writing essays, it is recommended that you refer to the general study notes for help on how to present written work when doing so.

Assessment and satisfactory completion

You must submit two essays for evaluation at the conclusion of the module, each of which should be between 3,750 and 4,000 words in length. It is necessary for the essays to be based on themes that have been established by the Academic Board at the beginning of the module. Your essays may be about any or both of the study areas, or they may be about solely the first area. An appendix with a list of the sources that were used should be included with the essay. The two essays will be used to determine the final grade for the module.

This might be in the form of notes taken throughout the course of study or an essay on a topic connected to the subject matter.

To ensure timely evaluation and determination of successful completion, two copies of all materials should be sent to the Course Secretary and postmarked no later than the 31st of January or 30th of June in the relevant study period, respectively.

Bibliography: Module B1

Music by Will Apel and Gregorian Chant (Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana University Press, 1958; 5th printing 1973) An Introduction to Gregorian Chant, by Richard L. Crocker (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2001), is a good place to start. The Forms and Orders of Western Liturgy from the Tenth to the Eighteenth Centuries, by John Harper (Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 1991) David Hiley’s Western Plainchant: A Handbook is available online (Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 1993) Medieval Music, edited by Richard H.

), The Study of Medieval Chant: Paths and Bridges, East and West (Woodbridge, NY: BoydellBrewer/University of Rochester Press, 2001), is a book about medieval chant that was published in 2001.

McKinnon on the creation of the Roman Mass Proper in the later seventh century.

Richard Crocker and David Hiley), in its second edition.

Graduale Triplex is a phrase that means “gradual progression.” Liber Hymnarius is a collection of hymns.

1.2.2 Sundays and Holydays are the busiest days for secular churches: Salisbury Chants in facsimiles and editions from the Liber Usualis Antiphonale Sarisburiense (H.

), Antiphonale Sarisburiense (London, Plainsong and Medieval Music Society, 1901-24; repr.

Frere’s Graduale Sarisburiense (Graduale Sarisburiense, ed) (London, Plainsong and Medieval Music Society, 1894; repr.

), The Use of Salisbury (Newton Abbot, Antico Press, 1984-), has the following passages: The following are the parts of the Mass: 1.

The Proper of the Mass during Advent; 3.

Masses and festivities held throughout Holy Week5.

The Proper of the Mass from the Feast of the Holy Trinity to the Feast of the Holy Family Introduction to the Anthology Mary Berry’s Cantors: A Collection of Gregorian Chants is available for purchase (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1979) The chant has been adapted to English texts.

Briggs, W.

Frere, and J.

and enl.

by J.

Arnold, 1951; adapted for the Revised Psalter by John Dykes Bower and Gerald H.

), Hymns for Prayer and Praise (Norwich, Canterbury Press, 1996) The Plainchant Gradual, edited by H.

ed.1962), is a collection of plainchant chants.

booklets that serve as introductions H. Arnold’s “The Approach to Plainsong via the Office Hymn” (The Approach to Plainsong through the Office Hymn) (London, 1927; London, Oxford University Press,; repr. 1956) Anselm Hughes’ “Plainsong for English Choirs” is a masterpiece (London, Faith Press, 1966)

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