Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.
The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.
The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.
The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.
- TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
- Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
- The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
- During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.
- As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.
- Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.
- Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.
- Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.
- By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.
- The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.
- The song has a neumatic feel to it.
Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.
Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.
Free Flashcards about Mus Quiz Ch 7&8
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|All are characteristics of Gregorian Chant except:||Homophonic|
|The earliest form of polyphonic music in the Christian church was:||Organum|
|The Doctrine of Ethos concerned:||The moral and ethical aspects of music|
|In the listening example Kyrie, from the Mass “Cum Jubilo” the genre is:||Gregorian Chant|
|In the listening example Kyrie, from the Mass “Cum Jubilo” the texture would be described as:||Monophonic|
|In the listening example: Nunc aperuit nobis by Hildegard of Bingen, the rhythm could be described as:||Unmetered|
|In the listening example: Nunc aperuit nobis by Hildegard of Bingen, all of the following are characteristics except:||Timbre of male voices|
|In the listening example:Sumer is icumen the texture is:||Polyphonic|
|In the listening example:Sumer is icumen there is a repeated bass motive called a(n):||Ostinato|
|A 14th century composer who. supposedly composed the first complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass:||Guillaume de Machaut|
|In the listening example, gloria, from the Messe de Nostre Dame, the melody and harmony are:||Unison|
|In the listening example, gloria, from the Messe de Nostre Dame, the texture is:||Polyphonic|
|The two sections of the 14th century mass were:||Proper and Ordinary|
|All aresections of the Ordinary of the Mass except:||Easter sections|
|Music in 14th century Europe included all but one of the following characteristics:||Reflected and Interest in one melody line (monophonic texture)|
|An important contributor to the study of intervals in the 6th century BC was:||Pathagorus|
|Unaccompanied by instruments:||a cappella|
|Scales that preceded major and minor scales||Modes|
|Polyphonic piece; All voices perform the same melody at different times||Canon|
|The text and formal arrangement of a religious service:||Liturgy|
The Book of Gregorian Chant
Liturgical music and Latin texts make up the bulk of the book’s content. It is the chants from the Ordinary of the Mass that comprise the majority of the manuscript, including arrangements of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, Ite Missa Est, Deo gratias, and Benedicamus Domino texts. In this collection, you’ll find a variety of chants from various Proper settings, such as those from the Asperges Mass, the Requiem Mass, the Mass for a Church’s Dedication, the Mass for the Purification of Mary (Candlemas), and others.
- Francisci, the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Lady Day), Maundy Thursday, and Palm Sunday, among other occasions.
- The UMKC Library Catalog contains a comprehensive listing of the manuscript’s contents, which can be found here.
- Six scribes appear to have contributed to the book, according to an examination of the notation features..
- In addition to the initial notation, other scribes “fixed” the work of prior scribes, which was done in a variety of ways.
- The process of comparing the original with the new version of various chants, and then comparing those two versions with other medieval sources, was critical in determining the publication date of the book.
- This, together with the fact that the number of staff lines varied from four to six lines per staff in the manuscript, indicates that at least a portion of the book was written before the standard staff for chant notation were established.
- Alumnus of the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory of Music James Adair purchased the manuscript in 1968 while visiting Seville, Spain.
Adair has determined that a stamp in purple ink that occurs on three folios (folios 26r, 93r, and 98r) is an official identifying mark from the Spanish government.
Adair presented the book to the University of Missouri-Kansas City Conservatory Library in 1973, which later became a component of the Miller Nichols Library.
Every chant in the UMKC text has been recorded in contemporary notation, which is the most significant outcome of her endeavor.
A lecture-recital based on chosen chants from the UMKC text was delivered on April 16, 2000, at the RLDS Temple in Independence, Mo.
Kraybill was the guest speaker for the event.
After the chants, Dr.
Kraybill, who graciously provided a recording of it.
They are the Kyrie and Alleluia from the Mass for the Dedication of a Church, as well as the Antiphon from the Palm Sunday celebration.
Kraybill’s transcriptions of them, are also available on this website for viewing and listening.
Kraybill has contributed digitized photographs from the book for use in this web exhibit, in addition to the written text.
The experience and research of Ms.
Moses Ong, Special Collections volunteer and former student assistant, who gave extremely beneficial technical support. We would like to express our gratitude to Rob Ray, our previous Special Collections Librarian, for his leadership and assistance during this endeavor.
Sacred music and Latin writings make up the bulk of the book’s content. There are chants from the Mass’s Ordinary in this manuscript, including settings of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo and Sanctus texts as well as choruses from the Agnus Dei, Ite Missa Est, Deo gratias, and the Benedicamus Domino texts. In this collection, you’ll find a variety of chants from different Proper settings, such as those from the Asperges Mass, the Requiem Mass, the Mass for a Church’s Dedication, the Mass for the Purification of Mary (Candlemas), and more.
- Francisci, the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Lady Day), Maundy Thursday, and Palm Sunday, among other feast days.
- The UMKC Library Catalog contains a comprehensive listing of the manuscript’s contents, which may be accessed here.
- Six scribes appear to have contributed to the book, based on an examination of notation features.
- In addition to the initial notation, other scribes “fixed” the work of prior scribes, which was a common practice at the time.
- An essential part of the dating process was comparing the old version of various chants to the new version, and then comparing the two versions to other medieval sources.
- This, together with the fact that the number of staff lines fluctuates from four to six lines per staff in the manuscript, indicates that at least a portion of the book was written before the standard staff for chant notation was established.
- UMKC Conservatory graduate James Adair is reported to have acquired the manuscript in 1968 while on a business trip in Seville, Spain.
Adair as a Spanish official identifying mark, the stamp in purple ink may be found on three folios (folios 26 and 93, and folio 98).
UMKC’s manuscript was researched by Dr.
Kraybill as part of her Doctor of Musical Arts degree in 1999-2000, and her work on this project would not have been feasible without her contributions.
Kraybill’s investigation, he focused primarily on the musical content of the book, conducting an analysis of the chants included within the manuscript and generating preliminary conclusions based on his findings.
In its approximately 120-page length, this transcription serves to enable contemporary choirs to replicate the chants contained within the manuscript….
Kraybill’s transcription effort is housed at the LaBudde Special Collections and the Music/Media departments of the Miller Nichols Library, and copies of it may be found in both.
Several chants were extracted and digitized by the Marr Sound Archives, the collaborating audio archive of LaBudde Special Collections, from a tape of Dr.
They are the Kyrie and Alleluia from the Mass for the Dedication of a Church, as well as the Antiphon from the Palm Sunday celebration.
Kraybill’s transcriptions of them, can be found on the website as well.
Kraybill also donated digitized photos from the book to accompany the text for this web display.
We would like to express our gratitude to Rob Ray, our former Special Collections Librarian, for his leadership and assistance during this process.
This Proper chant is performed after the Gradual during the Fore-Mass on liturgical days connected with penitence and fasting (most notably during Lent), and on liturgical occasions associated with sadness (such as the Requiem Mass), when it may be substituted by the Tract. During Paschal Time, which begins with Low Sunday and ends with High Sunday, the Gradual is skipped and two Alleluias are sung instead. After singing the word “alleluia” and closing with a prolonged melismatic flourish (the Jubilus), the Alleluia will be followed by a somewhat ornate verse, followed by another repetition of the phrase “alleluia.” The Alleluia will be done in a responsorial way.
Although there is no evidence of such participation by the chorus in the early sources, it is possible that the chorus sang at least the final iteration of the Alleluia at some point.
The Alleluia of the Mass is a Proper chant that is sung during the Fore-Mass following the Gradual on liturgical occasions associated with penitence and fasting (most notably during Lent), as well as on occasions associated with sorrow (such as the Requiem Mass), when it may be replaced by the Tract. It is customary to skip the Gradual during Paschal Time, which begins with Low Sunday and ends with High Sunday. After singing the word “alleluia” and culminating with a prolonged melismatic flourish (the Jubilus), the Alleluia will be followed by a somewhat ornate verse, followed by another repetition of the phrase “alleluia.” The Alleluia will be done in a responsorial fashion.
Musicians and composers are included in the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians Online.
The Alleluia is performed by Dr.
According to an examination of the peculiarities of the notation, it appears that six scribes worked on the UMKC’s Book of Gregorian Chant. ‘Scribe 1’ is responsible for the majority of the manuscript’s work, which includes the biggest illumination in the text, a capital “P,” which occurs on folio 82r and takes up more than half of the page (left). In addition to the initial notation, other scribes “fixed” the work of prior scribes, which was done in a variety of ways. On the right is a page from the manuscript (folio 8r), which was written by another scribe and features an illumination of the letter “P,” but this illumination is much different from the previous one.
Kraybill, “the illuminations distinguish and enhance the beauty of this book, as is true of many medieval instances.” Many various colors of pen were used to produce these text decorations, including black, red, teal blue, dark blue, green and orange.
As a result, a wide variety of techniques were employed, yielding results that ranged from extremely ornate and colorful decorations that filled the margins from top to bottom with beautiful filigree to very crude, “colored-in” letters that appeared to be a clumsy attempt by an unskilled hand to imitate the beauty of the former.
Folio 8r has the final section of the Asperges Antiphon with Psalm, as well as the first section of an unnamed Credo, among other things (which also begins with an illuminated “P”).
Although we have three Latin Creeds (the ‘Apostles’, the ‘Nicene, and the ‘Athanasian’), the history of the texts is complicated; nonetheless, the one used at Mass is the one often referred to as the ‘Nicene.’ Early in the 6th century, the Credo was introduced into the eucharistic liturgy in the eastern church in the form known as the ‘Nicene’ (or ‘Nicea-Constantinople’) version (so named because it summarizes the doctrines agreed upon at the Councils of Nicea, 325, and Constantinople, 381), and soon after that, it was introduced into the Visigothic rite by the Council of Toledo (589).
In both cases, it was instituted in the wake of theological disputes, with the goal of defining the conviction that all those who participate in the Eucharist should hold in common.
Baptismal usage of the Credo (or Symbolum, as it was known in this capacity) persisted throughout the Middle Ages, and it is thought to have been responsible for the maintenance of a Greek text in Latin manuscripts depicting customs in northern France and Germany during this period.
(Image courtesy of the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians on the Internet.)
Medieval Church Music: Gregorian Chant & Plainchant – Video & Lesson Transcript
The arts were associated with the liturgy during the Middle Ages (500-1450), according to the church. They were powerful and wealthy, and they were in charge of the majority of choices, including dictating the job and paying musicians.
The church established a set of standards that everyone must adhere to. This music, which was termed plainchant, had a hollow tone to it. It was only slightly different from one location to the next when it came to unaccompanied church music (sang in unison). Despite this, holy music was the most popular, and it is said that the music regulations were delivered from above.
According to legend, the standardizing components It came from a dove who spoke in hushed tones to Pope Gregory. This may seem absurd, but it is the only record available, and as a result, the probable myth has endured for years. We’ll never know where it originates from in its true form. As a result, the tale continues to exist as status quo, with the belief that he is the one who established the cans and can’ts, which is why we refer to it as Gregorian Chant. Plainchant is a style of song that is sung in unison.
There was no harmony or instrumental accompaniment; they all sang the same song.
It was derived from other ancient religions, and perhaps simply a few inflections were borrowed from them.
Long, free-flowing rhythms were created from such a little quotation.
Organum and Interval Definitions
Supposedly, the standardizing components These words were spoken to Pope Gregory by a dove that spoke in whispers. This may seem absurd, but it is the only record available, and as a result, the potential myth has endured for years.. We’ll never know where the source of the problem is. Consequently, the mythology continues on as the status quo, with the belief that he is the one who established the cans and cannots, which is why we refer to it as Gregorian Chant (Gregorian Chant). Singing in unison is required for this kind of plainchant.
Because there was no harmony or instrumental accompaniment, they all sang in the same key.
Other ancient faiths were referenced, and inflections may have been slightly lifted from them.
For a short quotation, this resulted in extended, free-flowing rhythms.
Medieval Music: Introduction to Gregorian Chant
Sonja Maurer-Dass contributed to this article. Gregorian chant is one of the most famous musical legacies of medieval Europe, distinguished by its free-flowing melodies, holy Latin lyrics, and distinctive monophonic texture. Gregorian chant, which was developed and propagated during the Carolingian dynasty, appears to be a world away from the much more contemporary epochs of Western music to which many of our ears are accustomed; however, it is from this ages-old liturgical tradition that our current understanding of Western music and its accompanying system of musical notation derives from.
This section will look at how Gregorian chant came to be and how it spread throughout the world.
Many medieval music fans nowadays are aware with Gregorian chant (also known as Frankish-Roman chant), which is the most well-known of the liturgical chant traditions; nevertheless, throughout early medieval Europe, there were numerous distinct styles of holy chant that differed according to area.
- When one considers the several diverse Western liturgical chant traditions that have existed throughout the centuries, one would wonder why Gregorian chant has become the most generally recognized and maintained of them all.
- The development of Gregorian chant took place between the seventh and ninth centuries CE, during a period in which Frankish monarchs, most notably Charlemagne, tried to bring liturgical consistency to their kingdoms.
- Charlemagne declared in 789 that all of his kingdoms would be consolidated under a single Roman liturgy and chant, which became known as the Roman Rite.
- In essence, Gregorian chant was, as Margot Fassler puts it, “the revised song of the Franks,” which arose from a fusion of Old Roman chant with the Gallican chant of the Franks, according to Fassler.
- So far, we’ve looked at how the Carolingians had a crucial part in the spreading and development of Gregorian chant, but what about the popular tale that claims that Pope Saint Gregory I (“Gregory the Great”) is responsible for the spread of Gregorian chant?
- Because it was sung to Gregory I by the Holy Spirit, who came to him in the guise of a white dove, it was considered the most sacred and true type of liturgical chant.
- Some musicologists, on the other hand, have speculated that Gregory may have had a role in the codification and consolidation of previous chants, which eventually served as the foundation for later Gregorian chant.
A common depiction of the dove is that it is singing its sacred songs to Gregory, while Gregory is concurrently dictating the dove’s melodies to a nearby scribe.
Gregorian Chant’s Texture and Melody are both beautiful.
“Monophonic” is a musical word that refers to the performance of a single tune with no accompaniment (that is, there is no harmony played with a melody).
In the opening minute of the following chant sample, which was produced by the twelfth-century abbess, philosopher, mystic, and composer Hildegard of Bingen, you can hear a drone that is repeated several times.
For those who have heard different recordings of Gregorian chant, you may have noticed that its melodies are quite flowing in comparison to many modern types of Western art music and popular music.
Classical Gregorian melodies were produced using the notes of an organized pitch system known as modes (which were distinct from the major and minor keys that are now employed in Western music), and they were set to sacred Latin texts from religious services such as the Mass and the Divine Office.
- Gregorian Chant and Early Types of Medieval Musical Notation are two examples of medieval musical notation.
- This necessitated the development of a method of recording tunes that could be correctly taught and conveyed without the limitations of human memory.
- Instead, it made use of symbols known as “neumes,” which served as a kind of trigger for melodies that had previously been acquired and retained as part of an oral culture.
- They reflect the relative rising and descending melodic motion of the text.
- The St.
- Gall in Switzerland, is one of the earliest existing sources of this notation (which was copied in the tenth century).
- Guido d’Arezzo, a prominent music theorist who lived in Arezzo in the eleventh century, continued to create the framework for modern music notation by developing a four-line musical staff divided by intervals of thirds (an interval is the distance between two pitches).
Guido described the manner in which his employees worked in the preface to his antiphoner (of which only the prologue has been preserved): As a result, the notes are organized in such a manner that any sound, no matter how many times it appears in a song, can always be located in the same row.
–Margot Fassler provided the translation.
As a singer or member of a chorus, you may be acquainted with the syllable pattern Do-Re-Mi-Fa Sol, etc., in which each syllable corresponds to a written note (Guido’s syllable pattern differed somewhat in that the first syllable he used was “Ut” instead of “Do”).
Square notation allowed for the inclusion of more melodic elements that may be interpreted by vocalists who were unfamiliar with the source material.
It’s possible that you’ve already seen some square notation in medieval chant manuscripts, such as punctum (a single note sung to a single syllable); podatus (two notes—one is written on top of the other and the lowest of the two notes is sung first followed by the second note which moves in ascending motion); clivis (contains two notes that are sung in descending motion); and torculus (three notes sung consecutively When compared to our modern experiences of melody and notation, the notation and melodies of Gregorian chant may appear to be foreign and unfamiliar at first glance and listen; however, upon closer examination, it is fascinating and possible to see how the earliest attempts to record and accurately transmit sacred chant evolved over many centuries and eventually matured into the comprehensive system that is widely used and understood in the modern day.
- Sonja Maurer-Dass is a Canadian musicologist and harpsichordist who specializes in Baroque music.
- In addition, she possesses a Master’s degree on Musicology from York University, where she specialized in late medieval English choral music and the Old Hall Manuscript, among other things (Toronto, Canada).
- The paper was presented at the 9th International Medieval Meeting.
- Read on for more information: Willi Apel is the author of this work.
- Western Music in Context: Western Music in the Medieval West is a book on music in the Medieval West (W.W.
- Carolingians and Gregorian Chant are two examples of medieval music (Princeton University Press, 1998) Richard Taruskin is the author of this work.
From the earliest notations through the sixteenth century, there has been music (Oxford University Press, 2010) Adiastematic gregorian aquitanian notation is seen in the top image. Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
A Historical Approach to the Elements of Music
While there are many various techniques to describe the fundamental parts of music, we commonly divide music down into five basic elements: melody, texture, rhythm, form, and harmony (or a combination of these). However, while it is true that not every piece of music has all of the components listed above, it is extremely possible that every piece of music you have recently listened to does. There are two aspects in particular that nearly usually appear first among these five: melody and rhythm.
Whether the very first music consisted of a melody being sang or a beat being tapped is just conjecture at this point, but it is simple to believe that these two experiences were among the very first human musical compositions.
Even though there are a variety of techniques to describe the fundamental parts of music, we commonly divide music into five basic elements: melody, texture, rhythm, form, and harmony. However, although it’s true that not every piece of music includes all of those components, it’s quite possible that every piece of music you’ve listened to in the last few weeks does. Musicians generally always start with the melody and rhythm, which are the first two of these five parts. This duo is not only the most fundamental components of music, but they are also most likely the very first components of music that human beings had the opportunity to hear and understand.
By moving on to texturenext, we will continue to let history to inform our examination of musical aspects. One of the most significant musical advances occurred during the Middle Ages, when a new melodic line was added to an old Gregorian chant tune as part of an experiment. As you’ll soon discover, this approach was known as organum, and it was responsible for introducing a new texture to sacred music throughout the Middle Ages, known as polyphony, into a genre that had previously been dominated by the monophonic texture of plainchant.
For the most part, Gregorian chant was sung without a regular beat, according to what we can determine from the historical record. Plainchant is characterized by a flowing, unstructured freedom that might be loosely defined as without rhythm. This is, without a doubt, the most typical style in which we hear chants sung nowadays. However, with the introduction of organum, it became vital for the singers who were delivering the two melodic lines to be able to maintain a sense of cohesiveness. This necessitated the use of a more regular beat or pulse (rhythm).
When singing in this way, one holds out the notes of the Gregorian chant while another sings an extremely energetic new melody over it.
Regular rhythmic patterns of short and long notes were utilized to generate the sense of movement in the top portion, as well as to keep the two (or more) parts of the piece together. This might be looked of as the beginning of an important component of rhythm: the meter of the piece in question.
The essential concepts of form in music are repetition, contrast, and variety, which are all related. The way portions of a musical work are ordered is referred to as the piece’s form. Later stages of music history saw a significant increase in the specialization and standardization of musical form and structure. In light of the fact that we are starting with music from the Middle Ages and Renaissance, for the time being we shall confine ourselves to general notions of form. The importance of form was not placed in the forefront of composers’ minds until later times, and we shall examine specific structural elements later in this course.
While we’re on the subject of elements that won’t be covered until later in the course, harmony (as it is most commonly taught today) is a musical element that developed during the Baroque period (1600–1750) and evolved into increasingly complex constructions during the Classical and Romantic periods. This highly important musical aspect will not be included until later since composers during the Middle Ages and Renaissance did not think of their music in harmonic terms (major and minor keys, chords, chord progressions, and so on).
Medieval Plainchant – Lesson Plan
Students learn about the accomplishments of medieval musician Hildegard of Bingen, as well as the qualities of plainchant music, in this course. Concepts/Objectives:
- Understanding and appreciation of medieval plainchant will be fostered among students.
“Hildegard of Bingen” from KET’sHumanities Through the Arts, Lesson 38 was the source for this lesson (or CDs with music by Hildegard)
Table of Contents
- Instructional strategies and activities
- Writing to communicate
- Applications throughout the curriculum
- Vocabulary, materials, and handouts
- And Response Assessment with No Restrictions
- Support – Connections – Resources – Author are all available.
Vocabulary, Materials, and Handouts
Introit, modes (modal), monophony (monophonic), Offertory, and text settings are some of the terms used in this section of the course (syllabic, neumatic, melismatic) Materials: TV/VCR or DVD player, CDs of Gregorian chants and Hildegard’s musicHandouts: Hildegard’s music and chanting
Instructional Strategies and Activities
Plainchant has some characteristics. It has various qualities that make it easier to explain and give it a distinct personality. Plainchant is a kind of chant.
- The texture is monophonic (a single line)
- It is performed a cappella
- It is sung in Latin
- It is non-metric
- It is created in modes, or it is modal
The content of each chant, which typically contains passages from scripture or single phrases (such as “Alleleuia”), is chanted on special occasions or to complement certain portions of the Mass, such as the Introit, Benediction, or Offertory, depending on the style of the chant. Plainchant is given the variations that may be heard when one listens closely to the chanted melody through the use of certain text settings. The three most often heard settings are as follows:
- Each syllable of text is set to a single note of music, and the text is syllabic. neumatic (a single syllable can have anywhere from two to a dozen notes allocated to it)
- Melismatic (singing a single syllable to a variety of notes)
Hildegard of Bingen (Hildegard of Bingen) Hildegard of Bingen was a remarkable lady, particularly in the context of the medieval period. Theologian, author, dabbler in early medicine with considerable knowledge of plants, and composer of plainchant, she was a multi-talented individual. She was the first woman to write chants, which made her a pioneer in the field. During the medieval period, another churchman rose to prominence as a result of his association with the plainchant tradition. As a result of his efforts, Pope Gregory is famous for gathering a collection of chants that bears his name: Gregorian chant.
- Students should pay great attention to the chant that concludes the episode, which is shown in the movie of “Hildegard of Bingen.” Determine which text setting type best suits Hildegard’s chant by referring to the descriptions of the text settings.
- The “Music Samples” portion of the Kentucky Department of Education CD-ROM, which is included with the Dance Arts Toolkit, contains an example of what you can do with music.
- At first, only solo vocal music was utilized, and subsequently, only vocal music accompanied by an organ.
- They were correct.
- This blockbuster song was sung by monks from a monastery in Spain, and it became an instant hit.
- At the conclusion of this talk, give students a quick assessment to see if they have a good knowledge of medieval plainchant and Hildegard of Bingen.
Make sure to include information on the features of plainchant as well as a listening segment on recognizing text settings. Students will grow more used to listening to music critically if they pay close attention to the chant. The very top of the page
Writing To Communicate
- Hildegard of Bingen (Hildegard of Bingen) was a medieval nun who lived in Bingen, Germany. Her name was Hildegard of Bingen, and she was a remarkable woman, particularly for her time. Theologian, author, dabbler in early medicine with wide knowledge of plants, and composer of plainchant, she was a woman of many talents. The first female composer of chants, she was a pioneer in her field of study. Another churchman became well-known throughout the medieval period as a result of his association with plainchant. Pope Gregory is most known for assembling a collection of chants that bears his name, the Gregorian chants, which are still used today. Textual Setting Recognition Prior to class, create a list of the text settings (see above) and their respective meanings, and explain these words to the students. Students should pay special attention to the chant that concludes the video section featuring “Hildegard of Bingen.” Then, based on the descriptions of the text settings, determine which style best suits Hildegard’s chanting style. Try to get a cheap collection of other Gregorian chants (there are many available) and listen to them so that you can distinguish between the different types. A sample of this kind may be found in the “Music Samples” section of the Kentucky Department of Education CD-ROM that is included with the Dance Arts Toolkit if you have it. Remind kids that they were not permitted to bring instruments into the church. At first, only unaccompanied vocal music was employed, and subsequently, only vocal music accompanied by an organ was utilized. They believed that music without words (scripture) would lead the listener’s mind to wander and stray away from focusing on God and the sacred aspect of the service. They were correct. Finding Out Why Plainchant is So Popular Following this listening experience, explore how the features of plainchant have helped to establish it as an essential musical genre whose contemplative qualities have drawn listeners from all around the world. Billboard magazine featured a selection of chants on their annual top 100 chart in the 1990s. In this huge hit, monks from a monastery in Spain took the stage to sing. Fortunately, the CD is still in stock. Examine students’ grasp of medieval plainchant and Hildegard of Bingen at the conclusion of this conversation in order to determine their level of understanding. Include plainchant features as well as a listening part on how to determine text settings. Students will grow more used to listening to music critically if they pay close attention to the chants. The very best
Applications Across the Curriculum
Language Arts are a subset of the subject of language arts.
- Encourage students to work together to write a one-act play on Hildegard of Bingen and her numerous accomplishments after conducting some preliminary study on the saint.
- Organize a study in which students investigate the scientific work done by Hildegard of Bingen and create an infographic presenting the findings of their investigation
Studies in Social Sciences
- Students should investigate whether there were any other women in medieval periods who achieved similar levels of success as Hildegard in a variety of spheres of effort. Discuss and contrast them with Hildegard’s teachings.
Practical Ways of Life
- Plainchant may be used to relieve tension, meditate, learn, and calm newborns and small children. Discuss and test the many applications of plainchant. Distribute the results
Open Response Assessment
Plainchant may be used to relieve tension, meditate, learn, and calm newborns and young children. Discuss and try the many applications of plainchant for these purposes. Let’s talk about it.
|Student completes assignment effectively, exhibiting extensive understanding of elements and/or design principles of the art form. Student demonstrates extensive critical thinking skills and creativity in completing the assignment. Student completes all aspects of the task in an incisive and thorough manner.||Student completes assignment effectively, exhibiting broad understanding of elements and/or design principles of the art form. Student demonstrates broad critical thinking skills and creativity in completing the assignment. Student successfully completes all aspects of the task.||Student completes assignment, exhibiting basic understanding of elements and/or design principles of the art form. Student demonstrates basic use of critical thinking skills and creativity in completing the assignment. Student partially completes the task and/or is unsuccessful in attempt to address some parts of the task.||Student works on the assignment, exhibiting minimal understanding of elements and/or design principles of the art form. Student makes little or no use of critical thinking skills or creativity in completing the assignment. Student minimally completes the task, showing minimal interest or enthusiasm.||Student shows little or no effort of having attempted to complete the task.|
Support – Connections – Resources – Author
- Look for websites devoted to Hildegard of Bingen, plainchant, Pope Gregory XVI and Gregorian chant, as well as chants utilized in the Roman Catholic Church. Like:
- It is possible to learn more about Hildegard by visiting her biography and works at www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/hildegarde.html.
- Print materials to consult include music history texts, nearly all of which will include a chapter on plainchant and the Mass
- And recordings. Chant recordings are sold at music stores, may be bought online, or can be accessed on chant web sites, among other places.
Kay Twaryonas is the author of this article.
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Kay Twaryonas is the author of this piece.
OUTLINE FOR MUSIC Since the dawn of recorded history, humans have played an essential role in a variety of activities. Music today plays an extremely essential and critical function in the lives of all human beings. It can be found virtually everywhere on our planet. One more stimulation to add to the huge ocean of impulses that our senses acquire on a daily basis. Humans utilize music for a variety of purposes, including: Amusement for one’s own amusement Activities that promote contemplation.
- Sound is transmitted and received in two ways.
- Areceiverto is a device that can detect and record sound vibrations.
- A membrane made of animal hide or synthetic material is used to protect the skin.
- Beads rattling in a confined container can be heard.
- In a tiny resonating tube, the buzzing of lips may be heard.
- The movement of small pieces of reed linked to a tube is triggered by the action of human breathing.
- Sound may also be created artificially through the use of electrical synthesis.
- Notation, melody, rhythm, harmony, texture, form, dynamics, and timbre are all elements of music.
NOTATION Written on paper in order for the music to be performed again and over again is the goal. System of notation for music Having the ability to read and interpret written music notation is not necessary for most people to enjoy and comprehend most music, but it does help. MELODY – A song about love and loss (Line, Space) Melody A series of single tones or pitches that are thought to be coherent in their appearance. Melody has the following characteristics: �Pitch The highness or lowness of a tone is determined by the frequency of the tone (rate of vibration) �Interval The distance between two pitches, as well as their connection.
- (either narrow, medium, or broad) �Shape The direction that a melody follows as it ascends or descends, or as it remains static, is called the tempo.
- �Cadence Musical punctuation is a location where a musical phrase can take a break.
- RHYTHM – A rhythm is a pattern of beats (Rhythm, Pattern, Repetition, Time) Rhythm In music, the concept of time is present.
- Accentuation is the placement of emphasis on a note such that it is louder or lasts longer than another.
- In music, there are many different types of styles.
- �Meter Measurement is the grouping of beats into bigger, more regular patterns that are notated.
�Downbeat In any meter, the first beat of a measure is the most powerful beat. Syncopation is the deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse by a brief change of the accent to a weak beat, or an offbeat, in a musical composition.
- Polyrhythmic – The employment of numerous different rhythmic patterns or meters at the same time
Nonmetric music is music that does not have a strong sense of rhythm or meter. A HARMONY – (Balance)Harmony is the simultaneous combination of notes, as well as the connections between intervals and chords that result. Harmony has the following characteristics: �Chord A single block of harmony is formed by the simultaneous combination of tones (usually three or more) that form a single block of harmony. �Scale A succession of tones or pitches that are either rising or decreasing in pitch. �Tonality The principle of structuring a work around a core tonic, or home pitch, that is based on a major or minor scale is called tonic structure.
- Tonic and diatonic
THE TEXTURE – (Texture) Texture A musical fabric is formed by the intertwining of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) parts. Generally speaking, they are as follows: A single melody is presented by a single voice or section in a monophonic composition. Heterophonic compositions are those in which two or more voices/parts elaborate on the same melody at the same time. Homophonic music consists of a main melody and an accompanying harmony. The term polyphonic refers to the combination of two or more melodies into a multi-voiced texture.
Formal characteristics include: �Repetition Within a form, repetition cements the material in our minds and fulfills our craving for the familiar; it brings a form’s elements together as a whole.
(Variety) �Variation A principle that allows for some characteristics of the music to be changed while remaining recognizable.
�Theme In music composition, a melodic concept is employed as a fundamental building component in the production of the piece.
- Motive A tiny, thematic fragment that serves as the basis of a melodic-rhythmic structure
- Sequence The same notion repeated at a higher or lower pitch level
- Sequence A reiteration of a thought at a higher or lower pitch level
DYNAMICS – The study of motion (Emphasis, Subordination, Value) Dynamics The relative loudness or quietness of music is indicated via the use of designations. Pianissimo, Piano, Mezzo-piano, Forte, Fortissimo, Pianissimo, Piano, Mezzo-piano �Crescendo The dynamic effect of progressively becoming louder as time passes �Decrescendo The dynamic effect of becoming progressively softer over time. �Sforzando A single note or chord is given a rapid emphasis or accent by pressing down on the note or chord.
“Tone color” is another term for this.
Strings are a kind of string.
(Violins, violas, cellos, bass, harp, guitar, and percussion) Woodwinds are a group of instruments.
(Flute, piccolo, clarinet, bassoon, oboe, bass clarinet, and saxophone are among the instruments represented.) The Brass Clad Family Trumpet, French horn, trombone, and tuba are examples of brass instruments.
Surface-playing instruments are those that are played by striking the instrument’s surface.
(Piano, harpsichord, and synthesizers are among the instruments used). �Ensembles Groups of people that play music (instrumental, vocal and mixed)