Which Of The Following Are Characteristics Of Rhythm In Gregorian Chant

Part II: Chapter 1 Flashcards

Are the assertions about Hildegard of Bingen in the following paragraphs correct? She was a mystic and a visionary; she was an abbess in Germany; and she composed a large number of monophonic chants. What would a musician in a monastery or cathedral be expected to undertake during the Middle Ages? What caused Paris to become such a significant metropolis by the end of the twelfth century? It was an intellectual hub, with the University of Paris attracting leading intellectuals of the day; musicians at Notre Dame were instrumental in the creation of polyphonic music; and it was a cultural capital.

Gregorian chant that includes one or more melodic lines in addition to the basic chant Which of the following aspects of melody may be found in Gregorian chant is incorrect?

A significant advancement in medieval organum may be described by which one of the following statements?

What was the significance of the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris?

  • Is this true or false: Even when the chant is sung by the full choir, the texture remains monophonic throughout the song.
  • A church official, he traveled on military expeditions and on visits to royal courts; he worked for King John of Bohemia as a personal servant.
  • It was only later that the extra melodic line in early organum was recorded; early organum was a Gregorian chant with a second melodic line on top, which was subsequently recorded and eventually written down.
  • In what way does Gregorian chant differ from other types of music or song?
  • Who were Leonin and Perotin, and what was their story?
  • What is the subject of Machaut’s love song, “Puis qu’en oubllo sui de vous,” which is based on one of his poems?
  • A Chantar is an example of a love song sung by a male singer in India.

What is it about the writings known as the mass ordinary that makes them so popular?

Which of the following qualities of rhythm may be seen in Gregorian chant is incorrect?

Which of the following is related with the increasing secularization of France throughout the fourteenth century?

Hildegard of Bingen reports that she was inspired to write O Successores after seeing a painting.

When it comes to the texts used during medieval mass, which of the following claims is correct?

It contains three portions, which are supposed to symbolize the Trinity; it has two similar sections followed by a segment that concludes with “Grant us peace” instead of “Have compassion upon us”; and it has three sections, which are thought to represent the Trinity.

It is monophonic, which means it is sung without accompaniment, and it is composed of sacred texts or prayers.

Which of the following statements accurately describes the developments in music throughout the fourteenth century?

This audio recording’s music is best described by which of the following assertions is true?

There are numerous notes per word in this song.

The majority of medieval music manuscripts do not provide comprehensive performance directions; instead, they mostly state This audio recording’s music is best described by which of the following assertions is true?

According to this assertion, the two forms of services known as the office and the mass in medieval monasteries and convents are appropriately contrasted and contrasted.

What was it about the music of the 14th century that earned it the name ars nova?

Identify which of the following claims regarding minstrels or jongleurs is correct.

Jongleurs also played instruments and sang songs for the enjoyment of the public, as did the aristocracy.

There are two lower voices in the group.

Aside from it, there are two upper voices that have more dynamic and syncopated rhythms.

This unique “otherworldly” sound is made possible by the usage of church modes in the Gregorian chant; There are seven tones between each octave in both church modes and contemporary scales; nonetheless, church modes are more common.

Identify which of the following assertions is true regarding secular music in Paris during the Middle Ages.

True or false: Music was played at parties, games, and dancing both indoors and out. Minstrels, sometimes known as jongleurs, were nobility in France.

What are the characteristics of Gregorian chants?

Are the comments concerning Hildegard of Bingen made in the following paragraphs correct? a visionary and mystic; she was an abbess in Germany; she composed several monophonic chants; she was known as “the Mother of the Church.” What would a musician in a monastery or cathedral be expected to undertake throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance? As the twelfth century came to a close, why was Paris such a significant metropolis? Because of its proximity to the University of Paris, it served as an intellectual center; musicians at Notre Dame were pioneers of polyphonic music; and it served as an aesthetic capital.

  1. Gregorian chant that includes one or more melodic lines in addition to the basic chanting Musicians use which of the following to describe the melody in Gregorian chant: While the pitch progresses in steps, the melody is restricted to a specific range of pitches.
  2. What was the significance of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris?
  3. If the following statement is true or untrue, the following is true: Even when the chant is sung by the whole choir, the texture remains monophonic throughout the performance.
  4. Early organum is characterized by which of the following things is true?
  5. The instruments used to perform this example or other dancing music were similar to those used to play previous music.
  6. A holy text is placed to a monophonic and solo composition, with a melody intended to enhance a religious ceremony.
  7. In fact, they were among the first to utilize music notation to indicate exact rhythm, and they were Notre Dame composers.

A young man’s dissatisfaction after being abandoned by the young woman he admired.

If the following statement is true or untrue, the following is true: As a result of the secularization and changes that occurred in the 14th century, Machaut composed both ecclesiastical music and secular love ballads.

Each and every day of the year, they stay the same.

The music is flexible and free flowing; it lacks meter and a distinct rhythm; it is composed in imprecise notation.

In literature, themes of sensuality include the pandemic known as the Black Death.

It was fought between France and England between 1337 and 1415, and it was fought between France and England between 1415 and 1415.

The vielle, which is a medieval Stringed instrument, provides the musical accompaniment for this performance.

There were Latin texts for the mass.

Some texts for mass were used only on special occasions, like as Christmas; other texts for mass were used every day.

It is monophonic, meaning that it is sung without accompaniment, and it is composed of sacred texts or prayers.

Identify which of the following statements accurately describes the developments in music throughout the fourteenth century: Gregorian chant was not always the foundation of polyphonic music.

This audio recording’s music is best described by which of the following statements: In this case, it is a single-voiced female chant.

Between 1170 and 1200, the employment of rhythm was a significant invention at the School of Notre Dame.

This audio recording’s music is best described by which of the following statements: When you sing Alleluia to yourself, you are singing to yourself in the manner of Gregorian Chant.

On a daily basis, the office was open from before dawn till after sunset; the mass was an important daily ritual centered on the Last Supper; the office had eight services every day; and the mass was the highlight of the day.

During this period, there were significant changes in the music.

1.

While performing at castles, taverns, and town squares, Jongleurs also served as messengers, bringing news with them wherever they went.

Which of the following best defines the music shown in this excerpt from Machaut’s Notre Dame Mass: Two lower voices can be heard.

Aside from that, there are two upper voices that have more dynamic, syncopated beats.

This unique “otherworldly” tone is made possible by the employment of church modes in Gregorian chant; A total of seven tones separate each octave in both church modes and contemporary scales.

Identify which of the following assertions is correct regarding secular music in Paris during the Middle Ages.

Music was played at parties, games, and dancing both inside and out; reed instruments, pipes, fiddles, and a variety of other instruments were employed. True or false: Music was played at parties, games, and dancing both indoors and out. Les jongleurs (minstrels) were nobility from France.

  • Are the assertions about Hildegard of Bingen in the following paragraphs accurate? She was a mystic and a visionary
  • She served as an abbess in Germany
  • And she composed a large number of monophonic chants. What would a musician in a monastery or cathedral do during the Middle Ages? Why did Paris become such a significant metropolis by the end of the twelfth century? Because of its proximity to the University of Paris, it served as an intellectual hub
  • Musicians at Notre Dame were pioneers of polyphonic music
  • And it served as an aesthetic capital. True or false: Gregorian chants were chanted in the year There were also female troubadours who sang songs to men from the point of view of a lady. Gregorian chant that includes one or more melodic lines in addition to the chanting Gregorian chant has qualities that include which of the following? The pitch changes in a stepwise manner, and the melody is restricted to a small range of pitches. A significant advancement in medieval organum may be summarized by which of the following statements? Parallel organum evolved into real polyphony, consisting of two or more separate melodic lines that are played in parallel. What was the significance of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris? Musicians that worked there, such as Leonin and Perotin, created revolutionary polyphonic music
  • The building itself served as an icon of gothic architecture for many years. Is it true or false: Even when the chant is sung by the full choir, the texture remains monophonic. Which of the following statements is accurate about Guillame de Machaut’s professional life? A church official, he traveled on military expeditions and on visits to royal courts
  • He worked for King John of Bohemia as a court official. Which of the following assertions about early organum is correct? Early organum was a Gregorian chant with a second melodic line added on top, which was improvised and only subsequently written down. As was the case with much older music, the instruments utilized to perform this sample or other dancing music were mostly acoustic. Which of the following traits may be found in Gregorian chanting? A holy text is placed to a monophonic and unaccompanied composition, with a melody intended to complement a religious ceremony. What were the identities of Leonin and Perotin? This group of composers from Notre Dame was among the first to utilize music notation to indicate exact rhythm. What is the subject of Machaut’s love song “Puis qu’en oubllo sui de vous,” which is based on one of his poems? His dissatisfaction at having been forgotten by the little girl he adored A Chantar is an example of a love song sung by a male singer, such as a Is it true or false: Machaut composed both sacred music and secular love songs, which reflected the transformations and secularization that occurred during the 14th century. What is it about the writings known as the mass ordinary that makes them so special? They are the same on every single day of the year. Which of the following aspects of Gregorian chant rhythm are present? The music is flexible and free flowing
  • There is no meter or obvious rhythm
  • It is composed in imprecise notation. Which of the following is related with the increasing secularization of France in the fourteenth century? The pandemic known as the Black Death
  • Themes of sensuality in literature
  • The Hundred Years’ War was fought between France and England from 1337 and 1348. Hildegard of Bingen reports that she was inspired to write O Successores by a vision. The vielle, which is a medieval Musical instrument, provides the accompaniment for this performance. When it comes to the texts used during medieval mass, which of the following claims is correct? All of the readings for mass were in Latin
  • Some texts for mass were used solely on special occasions, like as Christmas, while others were used on a daily basis.Which of the following assertions about the Agnus Del from Machaut’s Notre Dame Mass is true? It contains three portions, which are supposed to symbolize the Trinity
  • It has two similar sections followed by a segment that concludes with “Grant us peace” rather than “Have compassion upon us”
  • And it has three sections, which are thought to represent the Trinity. Which of the following assertions about Gregorian chant is correct? In religious activities, such as prayers and ceremonies, Gregorian chants are used to enhance the experience. Gregorian chant is monophonic, meaning it is performed without the accompaniment of a musical instrument. Identify which of the following assertions best reflects the developments in music during the fourteenth century. Polyphonic music was not necessarily centered on Gregorian chant
  • Composers incorporated drinking songs and birdcalls into their compositions, for example. This audio recording’s music is best described by which of the following assertions is correct? It is a monophonic chant intended for female voices. There are many notes per syllable in this piece. The employment of rhythm was a significant invention at the School of Notre Dame between 1170 and 1200. The majority of medieval music manuscripts do not include extensive performance directions
  • Instead, they mostly merely specify what to play. This audio recording’s music is best described by which of the following assertions is correct? Gregorian chant is composed of the word Alleluia sung to the free beat of the Latin phrase. According to this remark, the two forms of services known as the office and the mass in medieval monasteries and convents are appropriately compared. On a daily basis, the office was open from before dawn till after sunset
  • The mass was an important daily ritual centered on the Last Supper
  • The office had eight services every day
  • And the mass was the focus of each day. What was it about the music of the 14th century that earned it the nickname “ars nova”? During this period, significant developments occurred in the music world. Which of the following claims regarding minstrels or jongleurs is correct? Jongler is the origin of the word juggler in current usage. Because they were traveling minstrels, Jongleurs entertained people at castles, taverns, and town squares. Jongleurs played instruments and sang songs for amusement. Which of the following best characterizes the music in this excerpt from Machaut’s Notre Dame Mass? There are two lower voices in the room. One is the tenor, and the other is in charge of the chant. Aside from it, there are two upper voices that have more aggressive, syncopated rhythms. Which of the following claims regarding the scales known as church modes is correct? The employment of church modes contributes to the unique “otherworldly” quality of Gregorian chant. There are seven tones between each octave in both church modes and contemporary scales. They were the fundamental musical scales that were employed throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period. Is it correct to say that secular music was popular in Paris throughout the Middle Ages? Music was played at parties, games, and dances both inside and out
  • Reed instruments, pipes, fiddles, and a variety of other instruments were utilized. True or false: Music was played at parties, games, and dances both indoors and out Minstrels, sometimes known as jongleurs, were aristocrats of the French court.
See also:  Chant To Do When Givig Lei To Someone Hawaiian

Gregorian chants have certain characteristics.

  • Harmony. Because the texture is monophonic, there is no harmony. Rhythm. There is no definite rhythm
  • Notes may be maintained for a short or long period of time, but no complicated rhythms are utilized
  • There is no precise beat
  • Form. Some Gregorian chants are written in ternary form
  • For example, Texture. Gregorian chants are one of the few pieces of music that are totally monophonic
  • They are also one of the most often performed. Medium

How about Gregorian chant? What are the qualities of this kind of music, and how did Pope Gregory get involved? The reign of Pope Gregory I (590-604) is widely regarded as the period of origin. Ordinary people refer to the holy music of theGregorian Chant by the names plainchant or plainsong, which were both named after Pope Gregory the Great. It consisted of a single line of melody with a flexible rhythm that was sung to Latin lines by unaccompanied male voices, and it was composed in the style of the Renaissance.

  1. This system was created in order to record religious chants that were being sung at the beginning of the second millennium on paper first.
  2. There are no differences in the intervals between these notes and those in current notation.
  3. What exactly is the function of Gregorian chant?
  4. A collection of Gregorian chants named after St.

Characteristics of Gregorian Chant

CHARACTERISTICSOF GREGORIAN CHANTFrom its birth, the Christian music was a sungprayer, which had to be realized not in a purely material way,but with devotion, or as Saint Paul was saying:”singingto God in your heart”. Text is the reason for beingof Gregorian Chant. Actually the singing of the text is basedon the principle of which —according to Saint Augustine— “who sings, prays twice”. The Gregorian Chant willnever be understood without the text which has priority on themelody and is the one that gives sense to this last. Therefore,on having to interpret the Gregorian Chant, the singers must understandvery well the sense of the text. In consequence, any type of operaticvoice in which the splendor of the interpreters is tried to beshowed must be avoided.
  • It is vocal music, which means that it is sung a capella (without the accompaniment of instruments)
  • It is sung in unison (just one note at a time), which means that all of the singers are enlivening the same melody
  • And it is sung to the unison (only one note at a time). Monody is the term used to describe this style of singing. Many authors argue that the singing of mixed choirs should not be permitted since two voices sing in the same octave, according to them. Although they propose that the chant be translated in alternate forms in order to adhere to the concept of Monody, they do so with the understanding that both men and women, as well as children, must have an equal chance to participate in the Liturgy. A free rhythm is used, with the development of the literary text taking precedence over measured schemes such as those used in a march, a dance, or an orchestral piece (see the section on rhythm for more information)
  • It is sung in the style of a symphony (see the section on rhythm for more information)
  • It is a modal music composed in scales of very specific sounds that serve to arouse various emotions such as withdrawal, happiness, sadness, and serenity (See the section onModes)
  • Its melody is syllabic if every syllable of the text corresponds to a sound, and it is melismatic if several sounds correspond to a single syllable of the text. In the book, which is written in Latin, the language of the Roman Empire, which expanded over Europe, there are melismas that have more than 50 of them for a single word (the romances languages didnot exist). They were taken from the Psalms and other books of the Old Testament
  • Some of them were taken from the Gospels
  • And others were of their own, typically anonymous, inspired writings or inspiration. Despite this, several liturgical works are available in the Greek language: In the Holy Friday liturgy, the Kyrie Eleison, Agios or Theos are chanted. A stave of four lines is used for the Gregorian Chant, as opposed to the stave used for the present musical composition. Notes with different names include square point (punctum quadratum) or virgas when they appear individually, and neumes when they appear in groups. All notes have the same duration, with the exception of those that have a horizontal epicema, the previous note to the quilisma, the second note of the Salicus, and the notes that have a point after them, which have the duration of an ordinary note. The notes that have a point after them have the duration of a simple note. (This will be detailed in further depth in the chapter titled “Notation”)

It is vocal music, which means that it is sung a capella (without the accompaniment of instruments); it is sung in unison (only one note at a time), which means that all of the singers are enlivening the same melody; and it is sung to the unison (only one note at a time) The term “Monody” refers to this kind of vocal performance. Since many writers believe that two voices sing in the same octave, they argue that mixed choirs should not be permitted to sing. The chant should be performed in alternate forms in order to adhere to the idea of Monody, however, because both men and women, as well as children, should have an equal chance to participate in the Liturgy, they recommend.

A modal piece of music composed in scales of very specific sounds that can elicit a variety of emotional responses such as withdrawal, happiness, sadness or tranquility (see the section on Modes); the melody is syllabic if every syllable of the text corresponds to a sound, and melismatic when several sounds correspond to a syllable.

They were taken from the Psalms and other books of the Old Testament; some of them were taken from the Gospels; and others were of their own, typically nameless, inspired writings and poetry.

Notes with different names include square point (punctum quadratum) or virgas when they appear individually, and neumes when they appear in groups.

The notes that have a point after them have the duration of an ordinary note. In the “Notation” chapter, we shall go into further depth about this.

  • The Kyrie Eleison, Gloria in excelsis Deo, the Creed, the Sanctus and Benedictus, and the Agnus Dei are all included.

B) The Proprium is composed of pieces that are sung in accordance with the liturgical hour or in accordance with the feast that is being celebrated.

  • B) The Proprium is composed of pieces that are sung in accordance with the liturgical hour or in accordance with the feast that is being observed.

B) The Proprium: It is composed of pieces that are sung according to the liturgical time or according to the feast that is being celebrated.

  • Vigils: Also known as night-watching. When the Bridegroom arrives at the midnight hour (Mt 25:6
  • Mk 13:35), the office of Vigils includes a hymn, psalms, biblical and patristic readings, and canticles appropriate to the spirit of the midnight hour (Mt 25:6). Lauds: It is celebrated at the crack of dawn, when the sun is dispersing the darkness and the new day is beginning to emerge. The Church has long seen the rising of the sun as a sign of Christ’s ascension from the dead. ‘Lauds’ is the name given to this prayer since it is a laudatory ritual of praise held in the early morning light. It is nine o’clock in the morning. The third hour, which is a Latin phrase for the middle of the day, is prayed. Tradition has it that it is devoted to the arrival of the Holy Spirit, which occurred at around 12 o’clock in the morning according to the story given in the Acts of the Apostles
  • Sext:12 M. The sixth hour, which is another of thelittle hours, is known as the sixth hour in Latin. When it takes place, it is during midday, when the sun is at its zenith and one has gotten a little tired, making mindfulness all but difficult to achieve. During this period, fervent prayer is required in order to fight temptation and to avoid being overtaken by the demands and stresses of daily life. None at 3 p.m. The ninth hour, or around mid-afternoon, is the third of the tiny hours, and it is the third of the little hours. While reaching one’s prime and requiring continual effort, it is a good time to pray for endurance and for the strength to continue bringing fruit. Vespers are at 6 p.m. The celebration, which occurs at the conclusion of the day, takes on the character of the evening. The day is almost over, and we have completed our tasks. To commemorate this vesper hour, a number of suitable hymn chants, psalm readings, and canticles have been composed. Complines: The word derives from the Latin and meaning “to complete.” Traditionally, it is the final shared prayer before retiring for the night. It signals the conclusion of our day and the beginning of the end of our life.(1)

The following chants are included in the Divine Office’s chant repertoire:

  • Praise and worship via psalm singing
  • Recitatives of readings and prayers in a straightforward style (cantillatio)
  • Invitatory antiphons
  • Hymns
  • Preface and Postlude antiphons
  • Psalm antiphonae (anthophagiae) Responsories
  • Te Deum
  • Chants from the Old and New Testaments (Benedictus, Magnificat, Nunc Dimittis)
  • Anthems of the Church.

3.- Additional chants:

  • Tropes include texts that are placed into formal prayers
  • Some new melodies, embellished with different melismas, were added to the Hallelujah chorus. Examples of sequences are the Easter Sequence, the dead Sequence, and so on. Processional chants include: the Procession of Palms, the Procession to the Tomb, the Procession with the Holy Sacrament, and other similar songs.

(1)Theabbey of the Genesee. Site on Internet.July 07, 2002

Empoweredby ©Canticum Novum – Schola Cantorum BogotensisBogotá/Colombia – 2002

A Historical Approach to the Elements of Music

While there are many various techniques to describe the fundamental parts of music, we commonly divide music down into five basic elements: melody, texture, rhythm, form, and harmony (or a combination of these). However, while it is true that not every piece of music has all of the components listed above, it is extremely possible that every piece of music you have recently listened to does. There are two aspects in particular that nearly usually appear first among these five: melody and rhythm.

Whether the very first music consisted of a melody being sang or a beat being tapped is just conjecture at this point, but it is simple to believe that these two experiences were among the very first human musical compositions.

Melody

The first of these parts, melody, will be the subject of our brief examination — not because it is more significant than rhythm, but because the first piece of music we will explore in the Middle Ages will be Gregorian chant. Gregorian chant, also known as plainsong or plainchant, is a musical form in which the element of melody is emphasized to the exclusion of all other aspects.

Texture

Our brief study of these aspects will begin with melody, not because it is more significant than rhythm, but because Gregorian chant will be the first piece of music we will encounter in the Middle Ages. Glorious chant, also known as plainsong, is a musical genre that places great emphasis on the element of melody, which is sometimes overshadowed by other components in the composition.

Rhythm

For the most part, Gregorian chant was sung without a regular beat, according to what we can determine from the historical record. Plainchant is characterized by a flowing, unstructured freedom that might be loosely defined as without rhythm. This is, without a doubt, the most typical style in which we hear chants sung nowadays. However, with the introduction of organum, it became vital for the singers who were delivering the two melodic lines to be able to maintain a sense of cohesiveness. This necessitated the use of a more regular beat or pulse (rhythm).

When singing in this way, one holds out the notes of the Gregorian chant while another sings an extremely energetic new melody over it.

Regular rhythmic patterns of short and long notes were utilized to generate the sense of movement in the top portion, as well as to keep the two (or more) parts of the piece together. This might be looked of as the beginning of an important component of rhythm: the meter of the piece in question.

Form

The essential concepts of form in music are repetition, contrast, and variety, which are all related. The way portions of a musical work are ordered is referred to as the piece’s form. Later stages of music history saw a significant increase in the specialization and standardization of musical form and structure. In light of the fact that we are starting with music from the Middle Ages and Renaissance, for the time being we shall confine ourselves to general notions of form. The importance of form was not placed in the forefront of composers’ minds until later times, and we shall examine specific structural elements later in this course.

Harmony

The fundamental concepts of musical form are repetition, contrast, and variety. The way portions of a musical work are structured is referred to as its form. In later periods of music history, the form, or structure, of a piece becomes considerably more specialized and uniform. We shall, however, limit ourselves to broad notions of form for the time being, as we are starting with music from the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The importance of form was not placed in the forefront of composers’ minds until later times, and we shall discuss specific structural elements later in this course.

Gregorian chant

Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.

  • The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.
  • The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.
  • The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.
  • TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
  • Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
  • The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
  • During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.

As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.

Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.

Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.

Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.

By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.

The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.

The song has a neumatic feel to it.

Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.

Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.

IB Music/Music History/Medieval Period – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Return to the IB Music Archive Middle Ages (450-1450) Sacred and secular music were distinguished in the Medieval Period, which was divided into two distinct categories. Sacred music was music that was used by the Roman Catholic Church, whilst secular music was music that had no connection to the Church and was utilized by other organizations.

Sacred Music

Return to the IB Music Archive. Middle Ages (450-1450): Sacred and secular music were distinguished in the music of the Middle Ages (450-1450). In the Roman Catholic Church, sacred music was music that was utilized for religious purposes, whereas secular music was music that did not have any connection with the Church.

Characteristics of Gregorian chants

  • The melody of a Gregorian chant is highly free-flowing, as is the rhythm of the chant. The chant progresses upward and downward in little increments and jumps within a limited range. Melodies are frequentlymelismatic, meaning that syllables are stretched across numerous notes. Harmony- Because Gregorian chants have a monophonic texture, they do not include any harmony. Although drone (singing the same note over a lengthy period of time, generally in entire notes) was popular, it wasn’t always used. It is impossible to determine the exact timing of each word in a Gregorian chant. It is permissible to hold notes for a “short” or “long” period of time, but no complicated rhythms are employed. In terms of structure, several Gregorian chants are written in ternary (ABA) form. An incipit, or introduction solo, is performed by a cantor at the start of the composition. The piece is subsequently performed by the chorus, and at the conclusion, the cantor ends with a solo that was frequently performed at a lower dynamic level and with a more limited range of notes. Timbre- Sung by entirely male choirs in a hushed tone. However, they were occasionally composed as a teaching tool for women who were nuns in convents. Structure-Gregorian chants are one of the rare pieces of music that is totally monophonic, as seen by its texture. In a Gregorian chant, there is just one melodic line to be heard. The Gregorian chants were employed by the Church to help in the performance of prayers. They were sung by monks (and, on occasion, women in convents) in the past. In addition, because it was the official music of the Roman Catholic Church, all gregorian chants were just vocalists, as instrumentation was regarded to be Pagan by the Church. As a result, every text was written in Latin as a result of this. They were performed at the “office” and “mass” of religious ceremonies, and all gregorian chant was passed down orally because the use of written music was quite unusual at the time. Church Modes were the scales in which gregorian chants were performed, and they were divided into three categories. Up to the Renaissance period, they were in widespread usage during the middle ages. The phrase “what can we do with a drunken sailor” is an example of how they are used frequently in folk song. Church modes are composed of seven tones, with the eighth tone duplicating the tonic an octave higher than the tonic.

Organum

Its melody is quite free-flowing, and this is true of all Gregorian chants. With short steps and small jumps, the chant goes up and down a restricted range of pitch. Melisma is a musical term that refers to the way syllables are stretched across many notes. Aspects such as harmony are absent from Gregorian chants because of their monophonic texture. Although drone (singing the same note over a lengthy period of time, generally in entire notes) was popular, it wasn’t used very often. When singing Gregorian chants, there is no set beat to adhere to.

  1. An incipit, or introduction solo, is performed by a cantor at the start of the work..
  2. Male choirs perform in a timbre-based style.
  3. It is one of the rare pieces of music that is totally monophonic, and Gregorian chants are one of those pieces of music.
  4. In the context of the Church, Gregorian chants were utilized to assist in the performance of prayers.
  5. Aside from that, because it was the official music of the Roman Catholic Church, all gregorian chants were performed solely with voices because instruments was thought to be Pagan.
  6. They were performed at the “office” and “mass” of religious ceremonies, and all gregorian chant was passed down orally because the use of sheet music was so unusual at the time.
  7. Up to the Renaissance period, they were in widespread usage.
  8. Church modes are composed of seven tones, with the eighth tone duplicating the tonic an octave higher than the first.

Significant Composers

  • Leonin – He is the first known composer to employ measured rhythm in his works
  • He is also the first known composer to utilize measured rhythm in his compositions. The composer Perotin is credited with being the first known composer to create three separate lines at the same time.

Sacred music was usually performed by singers. This was mostly owing to the association between instruments and paganic ceremonies. Although instruments were increasingly significant throughout the Medieval Period, this was not the case throughout the whole period.

When it comes to holy music throughout the Medieval Period, the organ is the most essential instrument. Even while early organs were quite loud, they were significantly more difficult to operate and necessitated a considerable lot of physical power on the part of the player.

Secular Music

In contrast to religious music, secular music had a more clearly defined rhythm and a texture that was closer to homophony or polyphony than holy music. Because chords were merely inferred, it wasn’t pure homophony in this case. The texture was predominantly vocal, as was the case with holy music, albeit it did not treat instruments with the same level of distrust as the Church.

TroubadoursTrouvères

During the Medieval Period, a great deal of secular music was composed by troubadours and troubavères. These were nobility from France, and they were known for writing music in order to earn status.

Significant Composers

  • Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine
  • Chastelain di Couci
  • Beatriz de Dia (a female troubadour)
  • Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine

Jongleurs

Jongleurs also created and performed secular music in addition to his religious works. Jongleurs were traveling minstrels who would go from town to town entertaining people with music, juggling, and theatre. They had no civil rights, yet they were vital members of society since they were responsible for spreading news from town to town. The estampie was one of the types of music that they performed. Anestampie is a quick dance in triple meter that is performed in a circle.

Ars Nova

Around the year 1350, a new type of music known as Ars Nova (New Art) began to emerge. The period known as Ars Nova encompasses both ecclesiastical and secular music, however secular music gained prominence during this time. The following are some of the most important aspects of Ars Nova:

  • The Ars Nova (New Art) style of music first appeared about the year 1350. Although secular music gained prominence during this era, both religious and secular music are included in Ars Nova. Aspects of Ars Nova that are noteworthy include:

Sacred Music

The emergence of a great form for religious music, themass ordinary, occurred during the Ars Nova period. The ordinary of the mass is made up of five prayers that are put to music in five separate movements. The prayers are as follows:

Secular Music

In part as a result of the Church’s declining power, secular music began to gain in popularity during the Ars Nova Period. Instruments were employed more often, while the majority of the song was still performed vocally. The ballata is a new secular form that emerged during the Ars Nova period. Theballatais a dance that takes the shape of the letters A BB AA. A ballata is also referred to as a falala due to the fact that it employs this line throughout its compositions.

Significant Composers

  • Works of significance
  • It is the first known polyphonic mass, and it is celebrated at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
  • Works of significance
  • Ecco la Primavera – This is an example of an Ars Nova ballata
  • It was composed in the early twentieth century.

Instruments of the Period

OUTLINE FOR MUSIC Since the dawn of recorded history, humans have played an essential role in a variety of activities. Music today plays an extremely essential and critical function in the lives of all human beings. It can be found virtually everywhere on our planet. One more stimulation to add to the huge ocean of impulses that our senses acquire on a daily basis. Humans utilize music for a variety of purposes, including: Amusement for one’s own amusement Activities that promote contemplation.

  1. �Stimulation.
  2. Sound is transmitted and received in two ways.
  3. Areceiverto is a device that can detect and record sound vibrations.
  4. A membrane made of animal hide or synthetic material is used to protect the skin.
  5. Beads rattling in a confined container can be heard.
  6. In a tiny resonating tube, the buzzing of lips may be heard.

The movement of small pieces of reed linked to a tube is triggered by the action of human breathing. There are a plethora of different naturally occurring vibrating sources. Sound may also be created artificially through the use of electrical synthesis. Elements of Music

  • Notation, melody, rhythm, harmony, texture, form, dynamics, and timbre are all elements of music.

NOTATION Written on paper in order for the music to be performed again and over again is the goal. System of notation for music Having the ability to read and interpret written music notation is not necessary for most people to enjoy and comprehend most music, but it does help. MELODY – A song about love and loss (Line, Space) Melody A series of single tones or pitches that are thought to be coherent in their appearance. Melody has the following characteristics: �Pitch The highness or lowness of a tone is determined by the frequency of the tone (rate of vibration) �Interval The distance between two pitches, as well as their connection.

  • (either narrow, medium, or broad) �Shape The direction that a melody follows as it ascends or descends, or as it remains static, is called the tempo.
  • �Cadence Musical punctuation is a location where a musical phrase can take a break.
  • RHYTHM – A rhythm is a pattern of beats (Rhythm, Pattern, Repetition, Time) Rhythm In music, the concept of time is present.
  • Accentuation is the placement of emphasis on a note such that it is louder or lasts longer than another.
  • In music, there are many different types of styles.
  • �Meter Measurement is the grouping of beats into bigger, more regular patterns that are notated.
  • �Downbeat In any meter, the first beat of a measure is the most powerful beat.
  • NOTATION This piece of music was written on paper so that it may be performed several times. a system of musical notation Having the capacity to read and interpret written music notation is not required in order to enjoy and comprehend most music. MELODY – a song about love and longing (Line, Space) Melody Unification is regarded as a series of single tones or pitches that are perceived as a cohesive whole Melody possesses the following characteristics: �Pitch Based on the frequency, the highness or lowness of a tone is determined (rate of vibration) �Interval The distance between two pitches as well as their connection �Range When the lowest and highest tones of a tune, an instrument, or a voice are separated by a certain distance. (small, medium, or large) �Shape The direction that a melody follows as it ascends or descends, or while it remains static, is called the arc. �Phrase As in English, a phrase is a discrete unit of meaning within a broader framework
  • Hence, a melody may be broken down into individual phrase components. �Cadence Temporal punctuation—a place of repose in a musical phrase �Countermelody When played in conjunction with a primary melody, it is called an accompanying melody. A RHYTHM is anything that moves from one place to another (Rhythm, Pattern, Repetition, Time) Rhythm In music, time is an important factor. Features of a rhythmic pattern include the following. �Beat Musical time is measured in beats per second, which is a regular pulsing. Note with greater emphasis placed on it than another Note with greater emphasis placed on it than another Note with greater emphasis placed on it Tempo is the rate at which the musical pulse moves forward or backward. In music, there are many different types of tempos: grave, largo, adagio, andante, allegro, andante with passione. �Measure A rhythmic group or unit that comprises a definite number of beats and is split on the musical staff by bar lines is referred to as a bar. �Meter In music, measures are used to denote the grouping of beats into bigger, regular patterns. �Upbeat Last beat of a measure, which is a weak beat, which foreshadows the next measure’s downbeat, which is the first beat of that measure. �Downbeat In any meter, the first beat of a measure is the most powerful. By moving the attention to a weak beat, or an offbeat, syncopation can cause a deliberate upsetting of the meter and pulse of a piece of music.

Nonmetric music is music that does not have a strong sense of rhythm or meter. A HARMONY – (Balance)Harmony is the simultaneous combination of notes, as well as the connections between intervals and chords that result. Harmony has the following characteristics: �Chord A single block of harmony is formed by the simultaneous combination of tones (usually three or more) that form a single block of harmony.

�Scale A succession of tones or pitches that are either rising or decreasing in pitch. �Tonality The principle of structuring a work around a core tonic, or home pitch, that is based on a major or minor scale is called tonic structure.

  • Diatonic
  • Chromatic
  • Consonance
  • Dissonance
  • Drone
  • Tonic and diatonic

THE TEXTURE – (Texture) Texture A musical fabric is formed by the intertwining of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) parts. Generally speaking, they are as follows: A single melody is presented by a single voice or section in a monophonic composition. Heterophonic compositions are those in which two or more voices/parts elaborate on the same melody at the same time. Homophonic music consists of a main melody and an accompanying harmony. The term polyphonic refers to the combination of two or more melodies into a multi-voiced texture.

Formal characteristics include: �Repetition Within a form, repetition cements the material in our minds and fulfills our craving for the familiar; it brings a form’s elements together as a whole.

(Variety) �Variation A principle that allows for some characteristics of the music to be changed while remaining recognizable.

�Theme In music composition, a melodic concept is employed as a fundamental building component in the production of the piece.

  • DIFFERENTIATIONS IN TEXTURE (Texture) Texture A musical fabric is created by the intertwining of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic parts. According to general consensus, A single melody is presented by a single voice or section in monophonic form. Two or more voices/parts elaborate on the same melody concurrently in a heterophonic composition (also known as a polyphonic composition). homophonic: a melody with accompanying harmony that is used as the primary melody. Multiple melodies unite to create a multi-voiced texture when they are polyphonic. The word “FORM” refers to the shape of anything (Shape, Form) Form Structure or form of a musical piece that is based on repetition, contrast, and variation
  • The structuring concept of musical composition Types of Form Characteristics: �Repetition Repeating a shape over and over again cements the material in our minds and fulfills our want for the familiar
  • It gives a form its coherence. (Pattern)�Contrast Within a shape, contrast keeps our attention and satisfies our desire for constant change and transformation. (Variety) �Variation In accordance with this idea, some components of the song are changed while remaining recognizably familiar. Compositional methods such as repetition, variety, and contrast are the core procedures on which music is built. �Theme In music composition, a melodic concept is utilized as a fundamental building piece to produce a composition. It is possible to develop theme development in a number of different ways (motive, sequence, ostinato).
  • Sequence The same notion repeated at a higher or lower pitch level
  • Sequence A reiteration of a thought at a higher or lower pitch level

DYNAMICS – The study of motion (Emphasis, Subordination, Value) Dynamics The relative loudness or quietness of music is indicated via the use of designations. Pianissimo, Piano, Mezzo-piano, Forte, Fortissimo, Pianissimo, Piano, Mezzo-piano �Crescendo The dynamic effect of progressively becoming louder as time passes �Decrescendo The dynamic effect of becoming progressively softer over time. �Sforzando A single note or chord is given a rapid emphasis or accent by pressing down on the note or chord.

  • “Tone color” is another term for this.
  • Strings are a kind of string.
  • (Violins, violas, cellos, bass, harp, guitar, and percussion) Woodwinds are a group of instruments.
  • (Flute, piccolo, clarinet, bassoon, oboe, bass clarinet, and saxophone are among the instruments represented.) The Brass Clad Family Trumpet, French horn, trombone, and tuba are examples of brass instruments.
  • Surface-playing instruments are those that are played by striking the instrument’s surface.

(Piano, harpsichord, and synthesizers are among the instruments used). �Ensembles Groups of people that play music (instrumental, vocal and mixed)

[Solved] What are the characteristics of Gregorian Chant?

In what ways does Gregorian Chant differ from other styles of music? AnswerExplanation Solution provided by a verified expert RatedHelpfulp rem ipsum dolor sit amet, adipiscing elit, consectetur adipiscing. Nec facilisis nam lacinia pulvinar tortor et. al. The dapibus efficitur laoreet is a Pellentesque. Ut ac magna, adipiscing a molestie consequat, imperdiet ultrices. Assuming that you have read the book, you will be able to write your own summary of the book in your own words. Congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio in, fusce dui lectus, ac eget ac.

  • In what ways does Gregorian Chant differ from other types of music? AnswerExplanation a verified expert has provided the solution. RatedHelpfulp Rectum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, rem in ipsum dolor sit amet Nec facilisis nam lacinia pulvinar tortor et. The dapibus efficitur laoreet adipiscing eget. Ut ac magna, adipiscing a molestie consequat, imperdiet ultricies Assuming that you have read the book, you will be able to write your own dictum. Congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio in, fusce dui lectus. Id eget aliquet elit.

A step-by-step description of how to use the pulvinar tortor. Nec facilisis nam lacinia pulvinar tortor et. al. The dapibus efficitur laoreet is a Pellentesque. Ut ac magna, adipiscing a molestie consequat, imperdiet ultrices. Congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio in, fusce dui lectus, ac eget ac. Donec aliquet aliquet. Consectetur adipiscing elit, lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, adipiscing elit. lacinia nam lacinia p Examined by students a hundred percent (1 rating) Explanation in great detail Simple to read and understandClear formatting

Free Flashcards about Mus Quiz Ch 7&8

FocusNode Didn’t realize it till now? Please see the link below. You were aware of it? Please see the link below. If you’d like to include this activity on your website, copy the script below and paste it into your website’s HTML code (see example). Sizes: Standard Sizes and Small Sizes Demonstrate to me how

Question Answer
All are characteristics of Gregorian Chant except: Homophonic
The earliest form of polyphonic music in the Christian church was: Organum
The Doctrine of Ethos concerned: The moral and ethical aspects of music
In the listening example Kyrie, from the Mass “Cum Jubilo” the genre is: Gregorian Chant
In the listening example Kyrie, from the Mass “Cum Jubilo” the texture would be described as: Monophonic
In the listening example: Nunc aperuit nobis by Hildegard of Bingen, the rhythm could be described as: Unmetered
In the listening example: Nunc aperuit nobis by Hildegard of Bingen, all of the following are characteristics except: Timbre of male voices
In the listening example:Sumer is icumen the texture is: Polyphonic
In the listening example:Sumer is icumen there is a repeated bass motive called a(n): Ostinato
A 14th century composer who. supposedly composed the first complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass: Guillaume de Machaut
In the listening example, gloria, from the Messe de Nostre Dame, the melody and harmony are: Unison
In the listening example, gloria, from the Messe de Nostre Dame, the texture is: Polyphonic
The two sections of the 14th century mass were: Proper and Ordinary
All aresections of the Ordinary of the Mass except: Easter sections
Music in 14th century Europe included all but one of the following characteristics: Reflected and Interest in one melody line (monophonic texture)
An important contributor to the study of intervals in the 6th century BC was: Pathagorus
Unaccompanied by instruments: a cappella
Scales that preceded major and minor scales Modes
Polyphonic piece; All voices perform the same melody at different times Canon
The text and formal arrangement of a religious service: Liturgy

What is Gregorian Chant – GIA Publications

Before reviewing the main Gregorian chant books and resources, perhaps it is good to state what Gregorian chant is.Gregorian chant is the church’s own music, born in the church’s liturgy. Its texts are almost entirely scriptural, coming for the most part from the Psalter. For centuries it was sung as pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment, and this is still the best way to sing chant if possible. It was composed entirely in Latin; and because its melodies are so closely tied to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best to sing it in Latin.

Although Pope St.

Taizé chants, for example, are generally in Latin, similar to Gregorian chant antiphons.

They are much like Gregorian chant psalm tones with their free rhythm and their repeatable melodic formulas.

The Gregorian psalm tones are well suited to the Latin language, but do not work very well with English accents, unless one takes freedom in adapting them.

For English psalm verses, it is probably wiser to use psalm tones written for the English language. Back to Gregorian Chant Resources

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *