The Middle Ages
If you find yourself in this situation, Donald Trump stalked the presidential debate stage on Sunday, threatening to imprison an opponent he referred to as “the devil,” in a desperate push to save his fading campaign ambitions. Moving with malice in the background Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump dominated the night as he dodged assaults on everything from her husband’s sex life to Wall Street and her foreign policy judgment. But he made no attempt to win over new voters. His strategy instead was to convene a news conference in the morning to discuss allegations of sexual assault against Bill Clinton, then confronting his opponent directly about her private email server in the afternoon and early evening.
It is not accurate what you have just heard from Donald on the situation in the Middle East.
Donald Trump, adopting the spirit of the “lock her up” crowd shouts at his rallies, threatened: “If I win, I am going to urge my attorney general to appoint a special prosecutor to look into your case, because there have never been so many falsehoods and so much dishonesty.” Clinton remarked that it was “awfully fortunate” that someone with Trump’s temperament did not hold the reins of power in the country, prompting another Trump jab: “Because you’d be in jail.” In response to Clinton’s attempt to defend leaked Wall Street speech transcripts, Trump said, “She was caught in a blatant falsehood and now she’s blaming the lie on the late, great Abraham Lincoln.” In fact, the Republican’s leonine menace turned on the moderators at Washington University, asking them half a dozen times why they were interrupting him but not asking harsher questions of Clinton.
During her response to a question from the audience, Donald Trump can be seen lurking behind her.
- Soon after the candidates took the stage – without exchanging hands – the evening descended into a vicious battle of words between two nominees who were bereft of politeness, a scene unlike any other presidential debate in recent history.
- A brief exchange of words ensued immediately after Trump was pressed to address the recently revealed 2005 tape in which he is shown talking about grabbing women without their consent.
- “Women have a tremendous deal of respect in my eyes.
- According to Clinton, the released tape demonstrated “what he feels about women and what he does to them.” The video, he has stated, does not accurately portray who he is.
- However, I never questioned their suitability to serve because of politics, policy, or ideals,” she continued.
- Donald Trump, on the other hand, is different.
- Instead of showing any sign of regret over the tape, Trump seized on Bill Clinton’s misdeeds, making unsubstantiated claims that the former president had sexually abused female staffers.
In any case, President Donald Trump wasn’t interested in changing the subject.
But Trump’s response was to falsely blame Clinton’s 2008 presidential campaign for conspiracy theories surrounding Obama’s birthplace.
The discussion over Clinton’s use of a private email server while serving as secretary of state became even more tense, and Trump’s bulldozing attack caused significant harm to the discussion.
“Both Putin and the Russian government are conducting cyberattacks against American accounts in an attempt to influence our election,” the statement said.
“Never before in history has it been so difficult for a foreign power to influence the outcome of an election,” she continued..
“I’m not familiar with Putin; I believe it would be wonderful if we could work together with Russia, but I’m not familiar with Putin.” ” Then he went on to say, “I have no knowledge of Russian culture.” When the candidates were asked to describe one nice thing about each other at the end of an emotionally charged ninety minutes, there was a brief pause in the fighting.
- The president said, “She isn’t going to stop.” “She is tenacious in her pursuit of justice….” The fact that she is a warrior is something I like about her.
- Onstage, Clinton spokesperson Brian Fallon told reporters in the spin room, “there was only one president on stage today.” Only one individual possessed the manner, temperament, commitment and discipline necessary to serve as president.
- Kennedy III.
- Jason Miller, a senior communications strategist to the Republican presidential campaign, stated that when Trump “turned the Honest Abe issue around on Mrs Clinton, it was a knockout.
- According to Ben Carson, a former Republican primary season adversary of Trump’s, “that was a very different moment in his life and at that time he was a billionaire playboy and the language that he used at that time was commensurate with that” when Trump made those comments.
- Rudy Giuliani is the former mayor of New York City.
- Giuliani stated that “Republicans can be a touch weak in the knees.” My political affiliation is Republican, and I have excellent knees.
The lack of Republican elected officials who have come out in support of Trump following the debate, Smith told the Guardian: “I am reminded of what my grandfather told me, that ‘people will hurt you a lot to help themselves a little,’ and elected officials who are willing to go out and have kneejerk reactions when they are losing focus of issues, that is the problem.” According to the Missouri Republican, individuals who have abandoned Trump were “the last to come and the first to depart,” and “what we have to remember as a party is that we are fighting for ideas and issues and don’t make personality such a huge part of it.” During the debate, Hillary Clinton makes a point.
- DDP (Digital Documentation Project).
- The principles of Hillary Clinton must be rejected if you believe in democracy and believe in having control over your own future.
- A half-hour before the debate began, Trump attempted to divert attention away from a recently disclosed recording in which he boasted of abusing women by orchestrating a surprise maneuver to draw attention to allegations made about his opponent’s spouse years previously.
- Trump appeared with Paula Jones, Juanita Broaddrick, Kathy Shelton, and Kathleen Willey in a conference room before a small group of reporters in an event broadcast live on Facebook.
- Clinton was appointed by an Arkansas court to defend Shelton, who was the victim of a rape in 1975.
- Following Trump’s praise for their “courageousness,” the women took turns speaking.
Upon hearing of the news conference, Clinton spokesperson Jennifer Palmieri commented, “We are not shocked to see Donald Trump continuing his divisive race to the bottom.” In this town hall, Hillary Clinton realizes that she has a chance to speak with voters on stage and in the audience about the issues that important to them, and her stunt does nothing to change that.” It was just 48 hours before the press stunt that a tape was revealed in which Trump made crude boasts about using his celebrity to kiss and grope women without their permission.
- It was captured on video in 2005, when Trump was on a live microphone with then-Access Hollywood anchor Billy Bush, and it contains the phrase “I am naturally drawn to attractive women.” They are kissed by me immediately.
- I don’t even bother to wait…
- When you’re a celebrity, they’ll let you do whatever you want to.
- “Anything is possible for you.” Despite the fact that the Republican nominee released a filmed apology after midnight on Friday, the rising scandal has led to an increasing number of Republicans announcing that they would not vote for Trump in the next presidential elections.
- Even though it is exceedingly improbable under Republican party rules, many supporters of Trump’s running mate, Indiana Governor Mike Pence, have argued in favor of allowing him to continue to oppose Clinton for the duration of the campaign.
- Immediately following the debate, Clinton looked to be in a good mood, joking and laughing with her husband Bill and members of her team as she boarded her jet returning to New York City.
- Clinton laughed when asked if she was aware that Trump was standing behind her as she answered questions.
- “I was able to tell, absolutely.” The area was limited, so I made an effort to allow him some breathing room when he was conversing with others.
- That someone could stand there and continue to spout deception after deceit is absolutely inconceivable to me.” You’re all aware that Politifact declared him to be the most untruthful candidate they’d ever assessed…
‘I believe they stated that he was 70 percent untruthful, and I believe he went over and above that figure tonight.’
Music Quiz 2 – Subjecto.com
|The beginning of the Middle Ages was marked by the_.||fall of the Roman Empire|
|During the Middle Ages, all power came from whichreligious organization?||The Roman Catholic Church|
|Which secular leader in the Middle Ages promoted astrong, centralized government?||Charlemagne|
|The main European port for cultural exchange ofEastern luxuries was:||Venice|
|The violent series of events that took place aspart of an attempt to capture the Holy Land from the Muslims is known as:||the Crusades|
|During the Renaissance, lands new to the Europeanswere discovered, including _.||the Americas|
|One of the major advancements in the Renaissancewas the invention of printing, pioneered by:||Johannes Gutenberg|
|Which of the following was a Renaissance artist?||Leonardo da Vinci|
|The most universally idealized woman in Westernculture during the Middle Ages was _.||the Virgin Mary|
|Who were the most prominent performers of secularmusic in medieval France?||troubadours and trouvères|
|Musicians could find employment in which of thefollowing professions?||instrument building, teaching, copyists|
|The early Christian church had very little power inEurope during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.||False|
|The Middle Ages spanned nearly one thousand years.||True|
|Our understanding of the musical culture of ancientcivilizations is limited by the few fragments of music that have survived.||True|
|Trade flourished in the later Middle Ages, when amerchant class arose outside of feudal society.||True|
|The Renaissance marks the passing of Europeansociety from a predominately secular society to a more sacred one.||False|
|Compared to the MiddleAges, more professional womenmusicians made their mark in society in the Renaissance.||True|
|The literature of ancient Greece and Rome was oflittle interest to artists and writers of the Renaissance.||False|
|The Middle East had no influence on Europeanmusical styles.||False|
|The major narrative of Western musical developmentbegins with notated music.||True|
|Music performed with exchanges between a soloistand chorus is called _.||responsorial singing|
|Which of the following is NOT true of Gregorianchant (plainchant) melodies?||They are in Hebrew and Syrian|
|Hildegard of Bingen was born into a _ noblefamily.||German|
|Modal melodies of the early Christian church aresimilar to melodies and scales from _.||The Middle East|
|In chant from the Middle Ages, if there are manynotes per syllable, the style is called _.||melismatic|
|When multiple people sing a monophonic chanttogether, it is called singing in_?||unison|
|Hildegard’s collection of poetry and visions iscalled:||Scivias|
|How many Gregorian chants survive?||over three thousand|
|What musical aspect is found in Hildegard’s praisesongs, but is not found in most Gregorian chant?||wide leaps|
|What might explain why medieval chants can soundunfamiliar to a modern listener?||they are modal|
|The term liturgy refers to the set order of churchservices and the structure of each service.||True|
|Gregorian chant features regularly phrased melodiclines supported by instrumental accompaniment.||False|
|The chants of the church used only the major andminor scale patterns found in later music.||False|
|Hildegard’s chant Alleluia, O virga mediatrix wasintended for performance on a feast day of the Virgin Mary.||True|
|The text setting in Alleluia, O virga mediatrix ismostly syllabic.||False|
|Hildegard’s Alleluia, O virgo mediatrix is aGregorian chant.||False|
|In the Middle Ages, it was assumed that women weredivinely connected.||False|
|Hildegard took her vows at age fourteen.||True|
|Pope Gregory the Great composed all of theGregorian chant melodies.||False|
|Music, mathematics, geometry, and astronomy werethe four topics considered essential to medieval _.||education|
|Which secular medieval musicians entertainedaudiences at the higher social levels?||troubadours|
|What was the period that immediately preceded theArs nova called?||Ars antiqua|
|How does Machaut convey the medieval fascinationfor puzzles in Ma fin est mon commencement?||palindromic structure|
|Which of the following is/are poetic forms used inmedieval chansons?:||all of these choices|
|Which of the following is NOT a medievalwriter/poet?||Pythagoras|
|Where did Machaut work as a priest?||Reims Cathedral|
|Which of the following topics might be found inmedieval lyrics?||unrequited love, politics, songs of the Crusades|
|Machaut’s own poetry often centers around the ideaof:||medieval chivalry|
|With whom did Machaut exchange poems and letters?||Peronne|
|Religious wars and medieval explorations enhancedcultural exchange.||True|
|The last part of the Middle Ages is referred to asthe Ars nova.||True|
|In the Western tradition, music historically hasnot been linked to mathematics and geometry.||False|
|Composers in the Ars nova style wrote both sacredand secular songs.||True|
|Machaut took holy orders, but worked for multipleFrench courts.||True|
|Machaut was the first composer to self-consciouslyattempt a compositional legacy.||True|
|There was an interest in both the regularity andcomplexity of musical patterns during the Ars nova.||True|
|All chansons are monophonic||False|
|The Ars Nova began around the early 1400s in Italy.||False|
|Machaut only wrote sacred music||False|
|The mood of Farmer’s madrigal Fair Phyllis can bestbe described as _.||light and pastoral|
|Farmer’s Fair Phyllis is written for _ voices.||four|
|Farmer “paints” the first line of thetext, “Fair Phyllis I saw sitting all alone,” through the musicaluse of _.||monophony|
|At which point in the text of Fair Phyllis does thework change to an imitative texture?||“Up and down he wandered”|
|Which of the following instruments was likely foundin prosperous homes during the Renaissance?||lute|
|In addition to the Italian madrigal, what othergenre arose from the union of poetry and music?||French chanson|
|In which of the following ways did Renaissancecomposers enhance the emotional content of madrigals?||through the use of madrigalisms|
|Which of the following composers was influential inthe later Italian madrigal tradition?||Claudio Monteverdi|
|Which of the following statements are true inregard to typical English madrigals?||All choices are correct|
|The performing forces for Farmer’s madrigal consistof a four-voice SATB ensemble.||True|
|The English madrigal preceded the development ofthe Italian madrigal by some twenty years.||False|
|The text of John Farmer’s Fair Phyllis refers toreal historical figures.||False|
|Both Italian and English madrigals often featureword-painting.||True|
|Sometimes humorous madrigals would have a refrainof syllables such as “fa la la.”||True|
a Greek 2 Hildegard of Bingen was born into a noble family a German 3 Hildegards
A person who has been cornered Last-ditch effort to save his dwindling campaign chances, Donald Trump prowled the presidential debate stage on Sunday, threatening to imprison an opponent he dubbed “the devil.” Leaving a threatening trail behind him Hillary Clinton, as she deflected assaults on everything from her husband’s personal life to Wall Street and her foreign policy judgment, dominated the night, but made no attempt to win over new voters.
- His strategy instead was to convene a news conference in the morning to rehash allegations of sexual assault against Bill Clinton, before attacking his opponent directly on her private email server in the afternoon.
- “Anything to get away from your campaign and the way Republicans are abandoning you.” Everything you’ve heard from Donald up to this point is untrue.
- The Democratic frontrunner fired off a few of her own barbs, accusing Trump of being in the clutches of Russian President Vladimir Putin, but she appeared shaken by the relentless attack on her record as president.
- As Hillary Clinton answers a question from the audience, Donald Trump can be seen lurking behind her.
- Without even exchanging a handshake, the night descended into a nasty battle of words between two nominees who were bereft of decency, a scene unlike any other presidential debate in recent memory.
- It came just after Trump was asked to address the recently disclosed 2005 tape in which he was seen talking about grabbing women against their will.
- “I have more regard for women than anyone else,” Trump stated.
- Yet, Clinton asserted, “I believe the message is apparent to everybody who hears it: It embodies exactly who he is.” “I had a problem with previous Republican presidential nominees.
- “Donald Trump is a different kind of person.” As Clinton talked, the real estate billionaire could be seen obviously enraged, scowling, and pacing around the room.
Donald Trump said that “there has never been anyone in the history of politics who has been so terrible to women.” “Mine are words, whereas his are deeds.” Instead of responding, Clinton cited first lady Michelle Obama’s iconic address from the Democratic National Convention in July, which stated: “When they go low, we go high.” Trump, on the other hand, was not in the mood to shift gears.
- When the discussion shifted to Clinton’s use of a private email server while serving as secretary of state, the atmosphere became even chillier – and Trump’s bulldozing attack inflicted significant harm.
- Clinton blasted Trump once more for his support for Russian President Vladimir Putin, and she pointed out the repeated cyber-attacks carried out by Russian-backed hackers in an attempt to influence the election.
- “WikiLeaks is a part of it,” Clinton stated.
- Trump answered by speculating that “maybe there was no hacking” and by denying any links to Russia.
- “I have a lot of respect for his children,” Clinton added after first tossing her head back and giggling.
- “She is tenacious in her pursuit of justice.
- According to Clinton’s spokesperson Brian Fallon, there was only one president on the stage tonight.
- That person was Barack Obama.
- Jason Miller, a key communications consultant to the Trump campaign, stated that when Trump “turned the Honest Abe issue around on Mrs Clinton, it was a knockout.” In the face of the recent recording discoveries, Trump loyalists in the spin room have likewise stayed by their man.
- “Republicans may be a touch weak in the knees,” Giuliani said.
When asked about the lack of Republican elected officials who have come out in support of Trump following the debate, Smith told the Guardian: “I am reminded of what my grandfather told me, that ‘people will hurt you a lot to help themselves a little,’ and elected officials who are willing to go out and have kneejerk reactions when they are losing focus of issues, that is the problem.” According to the Missouri Republican, individuals who have abandoned Trump were “the last to come and the first to depart,” and “what we have to remember as a party is that we are fighting for ideas and issues and don’t make personality such a huge component.” During the debate, Hillary Clinton makes a statement that is worth mentioning.
- Image courtesy of ddp USA/Rex/Shutterstock Nigel Farage, the interim leader of the United Kingdom Independence Party, was also in the spin room to defend Trump and slam Clinton as a threat to democracy.
- In the hour before the debate began, Trump attempted to divert attention away from a recently disclosed audio in which he boasted of abusing women by orchestrating a surprise maneuver to draw attention to allegations made against his opponent’s spouse years earlier.
- Trump appeared with Paula Jones, Juanita Broaddrick, Kathy Shelton, and Kathleen Willey in a conference room to speak to a small group of reporters in an event that was broadcast live on Facebook.
- Clinton was appointed by an Arkansas court to defend Shelton, who was the victim of a rape in 1975.
- They were then invited to join him in the discussion chamber.
- The recording, which was made in 2005 with then-Access Hollywood anchor Billy Bush, captures Trump saying, “I am naturally drawn to attractive women.” I simply begin kissing them.
- I don’t even bother to wait for a kiss…
when you’re a celebrity, they’ll let you do whatever you want.
“You are capable of anything.” Despite the fact that Trump offered a filmed apology after midnight on Friday, the rising scandal has led to an increasing number of Republicans announcing that they would not vote for him in November.
Many have argued in favor of allowing Trump’s running mate, Indiana Governor Mike Pence, to continue to battle Clinton for the duration of the race, despite the fact that such a situation is exceedingly implausible under Republican Party rules.
Following the discussion, Clinton looked to be in a good mood, joking and laughing with her husband Bill and members of her team at the front of her plane on the way back to New York.
After being asked if she was aware that Trump was standing behind her as she answered questions, Clinton laughed.
The area was limited, so I made an effort to allow him some breathing room when he was chatting to other individuals.
“It’s simply unfathomable to me that someone could stand there and continue to utter deception after deceit.” You’re all aware that Politifact declared him to be the most untruthful candidate they’d ever rated….
“I believe they claimed he was 70 percent untruthful, and I believe he went over and above that amount tonight.”
MUSIC APPRECIATION – Quizzes
Practice Test Number Two DESCRIPTION OF THE MIDDLE AGES AND RENAISSANCE (476-1400) ����Answers Questions with a true or false answer: 1. The term “Middle Ages” refers to a period of European history that spans over a thousand years. The majority of learning during the Middle Ages was monopolized by monks who lived in monasteries. Music manuscripts from the Middle Ages reveal that the majority of medieval music was instrumental in nature. 4. The Gregorian chant has a homophonic structure in terms of sound.
- The melodies of Gregorian chants tend to advance in leaps and bounds across a wide range of pitch values.
- Organum is a term used to refer to medieval music that comprises of Gregorian chant plus an extra melodic line in addition to the chant.
- During the Renaissance, educated individuals were frequently instructed in music, literature, drama, and visual arts.
- The texture of Renaissance music is predominantly homophonic in nature.
- A large portion of the instrumental dance music written during the Renaissance was intended for use in the ecclesiastical setting.
- Troubadours were poets and musicians who lived throughout the Middle Ages.
- During the 1400s, there was a decline in the emphasis placed on secular music.
During the Renaissance, solo instrumental music, particularly on the lute, witnessed an increase in popularity.
The madrigal’s text is religious in nature, while the texture is homophonic in nature.
The Renaissance madrigal was very expressive, employing tactics such as word painting to achieve this effect.
The Renaissance Mass was composed in a single movement for singers and instruments.
The creation of the printing press in Western Europe was a development associated with the Renaissance period.
The Second Part consists of the following sections: Fill in the blanks 18.
The few surviving medieval dances, as well as the music that accompanied them, are collectively referred to as_.
Hildegard of Bingen is recognized by the following titles: a.
The mother of Richard the Lion-Hearted was a nun, a church composer, a natural historian, and a poet.
Who has usually been tasked with the task of collecting and codifying the chants of the Catholic Church?
Single line melodies from the early Christian Church that are performed in unison are referred to as_.
It has a monophonic texture in terms of sound.
It is mostly always not metricated.
Which of the following genres was most popular among medieval entertainers?
Chants of the Gregorian calendar 25.
This was dubbed as_ by the media.
In the Renaissance mass, melodies travel from one voice to another, mimicking one another; this texture is referred as as_.
This is the name given to the expressive method employed by Renaissance composers to musically pictorialize words from sung text.
a.Mass celebrated by Pope Marcellus A Madrigal in the style of “As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending Descending” by Thomas Weelkes; c.Organum Leonin’s on the theme of “Benedicamus Domino” by William Byrd; d.Monsiers Almain by William Byrd 34.
This technique is known as_ 35.
instrumental music to accompany the singing in church.
There were two forms of Renaissance chansons: the pavane and the galliard.
Raissance danced in the same meter as a couple of Raissance dancers d.
35 Which of the following works was authored by Bernard de Ventadorn?
What is the title of the work composed by Hildegard of Bingen?
Plainchant “Columba aspexitb.
Motet “Quant en moyd.
Troubadour song “La dousa votz 38 Which of the following works was authored by Guillaume de Machaut?
Plainchant “Columba aspexitb.
Motet “Quant en moyd.
Troubadour song “La dousa votz For number forty, which of the following works was written by Leonin or Perotin?
Plainchant “Columba aspexitb.
Motet “Quant en moyd.
Troubadour song “La dousa votz 41.
Lute solo “Fantasia No.
Madrigal “As Vesta was” d.
Mass “Pange lingua” b. Lute solo “Fantasia No. 7” John Dowland is the author of which piece of work? a. Mass “Pange lingua” b. Lute solo “Fantasia No. 7” c. Madrigal “As Vesta was” d. Pavane “Celeste giglio” a. Mass “Pange lingua” b. Lute solo “Fantasia No. 7” Reactions to the question
mode – Plainchant
No. 2 of the Practice Exam THE MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE PERIODES (476-1400) ����Answers Questions with a true or false answer include the following: In Europe, the word “Middle Ages” refers to a period of over a thousand years in history. The majority of learning throughout the Middle Ages was monopolized by monks in monasteries. 2. According to the evidence found in medieval music manuscripts, most medieval music was instrumental in character. A homophonic texture can be seen in the textures of Gregorian chant.
- The term “Organum” is used to describe a type of medieval music in which Gregorian chant is combined with an extra melodic line.
- During the Renaissance, educated individuals were frequently instructed in music, literature, theater, and visual arts.
- Eighth, the texture of Renaissance music is predominantly homophonic in nature.
- A large portion of the instrumental dance music created during the Renaissance was intended for use in the churches.
- A group of Medieval writers and musicians known as Troubadours was born.
- There was a decline in the emphasis placed on secular music beginning in the 1400s.
- Solo instrumental music, particularly on the lute, grew in popularity throughout the Renaissance.
The madrigal’s text is religious in nature, and the texture is homophonic.
It was a one-movement piece for voices and instruments, entitled the Renaissance Mass.
Western Europe’s Renaissance growth was characterized by the advent of the printing press.
is referred to as_.
is also known as Minnesingerb.
a nun who was also a church composer, natural historian, and poetd.
When it comes to the chants of the Church, who has traditionally been responsible for collecting and cataloguing them?
Single line melodies from the early Christian Church that are performed in unison are referred to as_ Gregorian chant contains the following falsehoods: 23.
A harmonious background is provided.
Most of the time, it is in conjunction with another motion.
Performers and players of which type of music were the most common among medieval entertainers who played instruments, danced, and performed tricks?
Canticle Gregorian 25.
Twenty-sixth, music changed dramatically throughout the Medieval period, with advancements in rhythm, meter, counterpoint, and harmony taking place.
The_, a fretted string instrument with a pear-shaped body that was immensely popular during the Renaissance, was a fretted string instrument that was comparable to the guitar.
Performance refers to the presentation of a vocal piece without the use of an instrument.
The following person played an important role in the Protestant Reformation: 31.
In the Renaissance, what was the predominant vocal genre of secular music?
a.Mass of Pope Marcellus A Madrigal in the style of “As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending Descending” by Thomas Weelkes; c.Organum Leonin’s on the theme of “Benedicamus Domino” by William Byrd; d.Monsiers Almain by William Byrd; 34.
instrumental music to accompany the singing in church 36.
two distinct styles of Renaissance chansons, the pavane and the galliard In Renaissance masses, there were a variety of forms to choose from.
Bernard de Ventadorn wrote which piece of literature?
In this section, you’ll find the plainchant “Columba aspexit,” the organum “Alleluia,” the motet “Quant en moy,” and the song “La dousa votz” from the Troubadours.
Troubadour song “La dousa votz” d.
The author Guillaume de Machaut wrote which book, number 39.
Plainchant “Columba aspexitb.
Motet “Quant en moyd.
Troubadour song “La dousa votzd.
Troubadour song “La dousa votz” d.
a piece by Josquin Desprez or Giovanni Palestrina, depending on your preference.
Madrigal “As Vesta was” d.
Mass “Pange lingua” b.
Madrigal “As Vesta was” d.
Pavane “Pange lingua” John Dowland is the author of which piece of literature? 42. As Vesta was” c. Madrigal “As Vesta was” d. Pavane “Celeste giglio” a. Mass “Pange lingua” b. Lute solo “Fantasia No.” 7″ c. Madrigal “As Vesta was” d. Pavane “Pange lingua” Questions and Answers
The eight modes
Gregorian chants are based on eight distinct modes, which are referred to as “church modes” in terms of their melody. In ancient Greece, seven of the modes had names that were identical to those used today. These were Dorian and Hypodorian; Phrygian and Hypophrygian; Lydian and Hypolydian; and Mixolydian. The Greek term for the eighth mode, Hypomixolydian, was developed from the names of the first seven modes. Each mode is comprised of an adiatonic scale with a compass of one octave in length.
- An “genuine” mode is defined by the finalis of each of the four notes of the tetrachordD–E–F–G (D–E–F–G) (see chart below).
- A B C D are the letters of the alphabet.
- If the finalisfalls on the lowest note of its pentachord, it is considered successful.
- The finalis is denoted by a capital letter in the following chart of the eight church modes: thefinalis.
|1.D e f g a b c d||Dorian|
|2.D e f g a||Hypodorian||a b c|
|3.E f g a b c d e||Phrygian|
|4.E f g a b||Hypophrygian||b c d|
|5.F g a b c d e f||Lydian|
|6.F g a b c||Hypolydian||c d e|
|7.G a b c d e f g||Mixolydian|
|8.G a b c d||Hypomixolydian||d e f|
The tones of the Hypomixolydian mode are identical to those of the Dorian mode, however the finalis of the two modes is located in a different part of the scale. The nature of the church modes was further defined by a variety of specific melodic formulae, and the individual modes were sometimes associated with a particular ethos. While the Byzantine classification specifies first the four authentic modes and subsequently the four plagal modes, the Roman classification alternates between the authentic and plagal modes, resulting in modes with the same finalisfollowing each other in the order of appearance.
The Dorian and Hypodorian modes are represented by the first pair, orprotus maneria; the Phrygian and Hypophrygian modes are represented by the second pair, ordeuterus; the Lydian and Hypolydian modes are represented by the third pair, ortritus; and the Mixolydian and Hypomixolydian modes are represented by the fourth pair, ortrardus.
Perhaps the most noticeable difference is the distinct meanings assigned to the names of the Greek Octave species and the names of the church modes.
This resulted in dorian (D–D), phrygian (E–E), lydian (C–c), and mixolydian (B–b) appearing in the church modes, respectively, in place of the Greek octave species Dorian, phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian (B–b).
Gradual emergence of major and minor tonality
Despite the fact that the two notes B and B never appeared in sequence, the rigorous coherence of the system of church modes was progressively eroded by the occurrence of B as an additional note to the B. Because medieval musicians were attempting to avoid the tritone F–B, they used a tone not included in the basicscalepattern as a primary rationale for using this tone. Because it contains three whole tones, the tritone (also known as the tritone interval) was seen as an unpleasant interval, especially when compared to the perfect fourth F–B.
For example, theLydian mode with a flattened B was identical to the modern major mode, specifically with the F–major scale (F G A B C D E F); and theDorian mode with a flattened B generated a minor mode corresponding to the natural D minor scale (D E F G A B C D); and the Dorian mode with a flattened B generated a minor mode corresponding to the natural D minor scale (D E F G A B C D).
A manifestation of this unwillingness to recognise the presence of extra modes is found in the so-called musica ficta genre.
It was a result of two distinct developments that took place between the 12th and 16th centuries that led to the radical transformation of modal theory: the infiltration of folk music into the ecclesiasticaand secular art forms, and the gradual development of a fabric of harmony that was intended to unify the growing complexity of polyphonic (many-voiced) musical texture.
Adding the following four modes to the system of eight church modes in hisDodecachordon(1547; from Greekddeka, “twelve,” andchorda, “string”), possibly the most important musical treatise of the day, Glareanus expanded the system of eight church modes by adding the following four: Major and minor modes are represented by Ionian and Hypoionian modes, respectively, whereas Aeolian and Hypoaeolian modes correspond to the “natural” minor mode.
The 12 modes of the Dodecachordoncomprising authentic and plagal structures with tonal centers on the notes C, D, E, F, G, and A, without resort to sharpened or flatted tones, are composed of authentic and plagal structures with tonal centers on the notes C, D, E, F, G, and A.
However, because the fifth degree above it, F, and the fifth degree above it, B, constitute a “false” (i.e., reduced, or flattened) fifth (another version of the banned tritone), Glareanus claims that there are only 12 modes usable for practical purposes.
Throughout the Western Hemisphere, the further evolution of art music is marked by the progressive rejection of the ancient religious modes in favor of the dual major-minor system that dominated harmony in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, respectively.
Major and minor scale patterns, on the other hand, possess all of the key properties of modes and should be treated as such in their evaluation.
Medieval Church Music: Gregorian Chant & Plainchant – Video & Lesson Transcript
The arts were associated with the liturgy during the Middle Ages (500-1450), according to the church. They were powerful and wealthy, and they were in charge of the majority of choices, including dictating the job and paying musicians.
The arts were associated with the liturgy during the Medieval period (500-1450), according to the church. Their position as rulers was enhanced by their wealth and power, which allowed them to dictate labor and pay musicians in large quantities.
According to legend, the standardizing components It came from a dove who spoke in hushed tones to Pope Gregory. This may seem absurd, but it is the only record available, and as a result, the probable myth has endured for years. We’ll never know where it originates from in its true form. As a result, the tale continues to exist as status quo, with the belief that he is the one who established the cans and can’ts, which is why we refer to it as Gregorian Chant. Plainchant is a style of song that is sung in unison.
There was no harmony or instrumental accompaniment; they all sang the same song.
It was derived from other ancient religions, and perhaps simply a few inflections were borrowed from them.
Long, free-flowing rhythms were created from such a little quotation.
Organum and Interval Definitions
Supposedly, the standardizing components These words were spoken to Pope Gregory by a dove that spoke in whispers. This may seem absurd, but it is the only record available, and as a result, the potential myth has endured for years.. We’ll never know where the source of the problem is. Consequently, the mythology continues on as the status quo, with the belief that he is the one who established the cans and cannots, which is why we refer to it as Gregorian Chant (Gregorian Chant). Singing in unison is required for this kind of plainchant.
Because there was no harmony or instrumental accompaniment, they all sang in the same key.
Other ancient faiths were referenced, and inflections may have been slightly lifted from them.
For a short quotation, this resulted in extended, free-flowing rhythms.
A Historical Approach to the Elements of Music
While there are many various techniques to describe the fundamental parts of music, we commonly divide music down into five basic elements: melody, texture, rhythm, form, and harmony (or a combination of these). However, while it is true that not every piece of music has all of the components listed above, it is extremely possible that every piece of music you have recently listened to does. There are two aspects in particular that nearly usually appear first among these five: melody and rhythm.
Whether the very first music consisted of a melody being sang or a beat being tapped is just conjecture at this point, but it is simple to believe that these two experiences were among the very first human musical compositions.
The first of these parts, melody, will be the subject of our brief examination — not because it is more significant than rhythm, but because the first piece of music we will explore in the Middle Ages will be Gregorian chant. Gregorian chant, also known as plainsong or plainchant, is a musical form in which the element of melody is emphasized to the exclusion of all other aspects.
By moving on to texturenext, we will continue to let history to inform our examination of musical aspects. One of the most significant musical advances occurred during the Middle Ages, when a new melodic line was added to an old Gregorian chant tune as part of an experiment. As you’ll soon discover, this approach was known as organum, and it was responsible for introducing a new texture to sacred music throughout the Middle Ages, known as polyphony, into a genre that had previously been dominated by the monophonic texture of plainchant.
For the most part, Gregorian chant was sung without a regular beat, according to what we can determine from the historical record. Plainchant is characterized by a flowing, unstructured freedom that might be loosely defined as without rhythm. This is, without a doubt, the most typical style in which we hear chants sung nowadays. However, with the introduction of organum, it became vital for the singers who were delivering the two melodic lines to be able to maintain a sense of cohesiveness. This necessitated the use of a more regular beat or pulse (rhythm).
When singing in this way, one holds out the notes of the Gregorian chant while another sings an extremely energetic new melody over it.
This might be looked of as the beginning of an important component of rhythm: the meter of the piece in question.
The essential concepts of form in music are repetition, contrast, and variety, which are all related. The way portions of a musical work are ordered is referred to as the piece’s form. Later stages of music history saw a significant increase in the specialization and standardization of musical form and structure. In light of the fact that we are starting with music from the Middle Ages and Renaissance, for the time being we shall confine ourselves to general notions of form. The importance of form was not placed in the forefront of composers’ minds until later times, and we shall examine specific structural elements later in this course.
While we’re on the subject of elements that won’t be covered until later in the course, harmony (as it is most commonly taught today) is a musical element that developed during the Baroque period (1600–1750) and evolved into increasingly complex constructions during the Classical and Romantic periods.
This highly important musical aspect will not be included until later since composers during the Middle Ages and Renaissance did not think of their music in harmonic terms (major and minor keys, chords, chord progressions, and so on).