Music Unit 2 Flashcards
Nottingham Forest is despised by many people in the city. They’re a trash! We despise Evertontoo. Manchester United is despised by us. But, Liverpool, you’re a team that we adore and respect.
The Middle Ages
Nottingham Forest is despised by us. We despiseEvertontoo (they’re a shithole!) We despise Manchester United. But, Liverpool, you’re a team that we adore.
MUSIC APPRECIATION – Quizzes
Nottingham Forest is despised by many people. We despiseEvertontoo (they’re a crap!) Man United is a team that we despise. But, Liverpool, we adore you.
Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.
- The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.
- The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.
- The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.
- TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
- Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
- The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
- During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.
As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.
Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.
Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.
Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.
By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.
The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.
The song has a neumatic feel to it.
Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.
Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.
Free Music Flashcards about MUS 165
|The traditional Gregorian chant sung at funerals?||Dies Irae|
|The monophonic chant originally sung unaccompanied in Latin by monks and priests in the Roman Catholic Church?||Gregorian Chant|
|A ritual for public worship?||Liturgy|
|The parts of the Mass that are ordinarily included, regardless of the church season: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei.||Ordinary|
|The portion of the Mass that is “proper” for a designated day in the church year?||Proper|
|The funeral Mass of the Roman Catholic Church?||Requim|
|Two composers at the Nortre Dame Cathederal in Paris who experimented in polyphonic music and were among the first to write in rhythmic modes?||Leonin and Perotin|
|French composer who also wrote poetry and is generally considered to be the first to write a complete polyphonic setting of the Mass Ordinary?||Guilllame de Machaut (1300-1377)|
|A preexisting melody that is used as the basis for a polyphonic vocal work?||Cantus Firmus|
|A low, continuous sound that lasts throughout a piece of music?||Drone|
|An instrumental dance during the Middle Ages?||Estampie|
|A sacred composition for voices?||Motet|
|The constant repetition of certain rhythm patterns, much like poetic meters?||Rhythmic modes|
|Flemish composer who was the highest paid composer of his time, he also perfected the point of imitation compositional technique?||Josquin Des Prez (1440-1521)|
|German woman who believed she received visions from God and wrote music, including Ordo Virtutum, an early morality play?||Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)|
|An Italian composer who was the perfection of the Renaissance A Capella style?||Palestrina (1526-1594)|
|An English composer known mainly for his church music and madrigals?||Thomas Weelkes (1576-1623)|
|Unaccompanied choral music is?||A capella|
|A French polyphonic song of the seventeenth century?||Chanson|
|A free, secular, imitative work for voices?||Madrigal|
|A sacred vowel composition developed during the Renaissance?||Renaissance Motet|
|The compositional technique of having the musical sounds reinforce the words being sung?||Text (Word) Painting|
|The music of the early Greeks sounded like?||No one knows what it really sounded like|
|A Greek chorus accompanied dramas with melodic songs.||False (The chorus did not sing, however; instead, it chanted in a singsong style.)|
|A mass for the dead includes all but which one of the following||Gloria|
|Gregorian chant has no?||All of these choices (Metrical rhythm, Harmony, Dramatic qualities, Major/Minor scales)|
|Many of the practices of the Christian church were adapted from?||Judaism|
|The original notation of the Gregorian chant consisted of square notes and no indication of meter.||True|
|Gregorian chants were basically hymns sung by the congregation at worship services.||False|
|The early Greek who discovered the basic acoustical quality of musical sounds was?||Pythagoras|
|An important Greek philosopher who strongly advocated music as essential for an educated person was?||Plato|
|Does not have a metrical rhythm?||Gregorian chant|
|The Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei constitute what part of the Mass?||The Ordinary|
|Hildegard’s Ordo Virtutum is?||A morality Play|
|All parts of Ordo Virtutum were sung except?||The devil’s|
|The approximate years of the medieval period are?||1100-1450|
|Chivalry was an outlook or attitude that?||Glorified women|
|Polyphony began?||When Monks and Priests tired of Gregorian Chant|
|Polyphony in music is?||Two or more different melodies being performed at the same time|
|Leonin and Perotin had all but which of the following in common?||They sought recognition for their music throughout France|
|This is true of medieval motets.||They were based on a phrase of Gregorian Chant.|
IB Music/Music History/Medieval Period – Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Return to the IB Music Archive Middle Ages (450-1450) Sacred and secular music were distinguished in the Medieval Period, which was divided into two distinct categories. Sacred music was music that was used by the Roman Catholic Church, whilst secular music was music that had no connection to the Church and was utilized by other organizations.
Return to the IB Music Archive. Middle Ages (450-1450): Sacred and secular music were distinguished in the music of the Middle Ages (450-1450). In the Roman Catholic Church, sacred music was music that was utilized for religious purposes, whereas secular music was music that did not have any connection with the Church.
Characteristics of Gregorian chants
- Return to the IB Music History page. Medieval Period (450-1450) Music of the Medieval Period was divided into two categories: religious music and secular music. Sacred music was music that was utilized by the Roman Catholic Church, whilst secular music was music that had no connection to the Church and was thus not used by it.
Around the year 700, the Gregorian chant began to take shape. From 700 to 900, composers would write a line in parallel motion to the chant at a predetermined interval of a fifth or a fourth above the original line, resulting in a total of nine lines. From 900 until 1200, this technology underwent considerable development. During this time, the upper line moved in its own right, independent of the initial chanting pattern. After 1100, top lines began to develop rhythmic independence and eventually became independent.
This is the name given to the Gregorian chant on which the higher lines are based, which is known as thecantus firmus.
Leonin and Perotin, two composers who worked together on organum, were important in its development.
It is therefore legitimate to speak to these two composers and their pupils collectively as theSchool of Notre Dame.
- Leonin – He is the first known composer to employ measured rhythm in his works
- He is also the first known composer to utilize measured rhythm in his compositions. The composer Perotin is credited with being the first known composer to create three separate lines at the same time.
In his pieces, Leonin is credited with being the first known composer to employ metered rhythm. The composer Perotin is credited as being the first known composer to create three separate lines at the same time;
In contrast to religious music, secular music had a more clearly defined rhythm and a texture that was closer to homophony or polyphony than holy music. Because chords were merely inferred, it wasn’t pure homophony in this case. The texture was predominantly vocal, as was the case with holy music, albeit it did not treat instruments with the same level of distrust as the Church.
Religious music had a more clearly defined rhythm, whereas secular music had a texture that was closer to homophony or polyphony. Because chords were just inferred, it was not real homophony. The texture was predominantly vocal, as was the case with holy music, however it did not hold instruments in the same respect that the Church did.
- Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine
- Chastelain di Couci
- Beatriz de Dia (a female troubadour)
- Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine
Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine; Chastelain di Couci; Beatriz de Dia (a female troubadour); Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine; Guillaume IX, Duke of Aquitaine
Around the year 1350, a new type of music known as Ars Nova (New Art) began to emerge.
The period known as Ars Nova encompasses both ecclesiastical and secular music, however secular music gained prominence during this time. The following are some of the most important aspects of Ars Nova:
- Polyphony is being developed, as is the use of duple meter and syncopation.
The emergence of a great form for religious music, themass ordinary, occurred during the Ars Nova period. The ordinary of the mass is made up of five prayers that are put to music in five separate movements. The prayers are as follows:
In part as a result of the Church’s declining power, secular music began to gain in popularity during the Ars Nova Period. Instruments were employed more often, while the majority of the song was still performed vocally. The ballata is a new secular form that emerged during the Ars Nova period. Theballatais a dance that takes the shape of the letters A BB AA. A ballata is also referred to as a falala due to the fact that it employs this line throughout its compositions.
- Works of significance
- It is the first known polyphonic mass, and it is celebrated at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
- Works of significance
- Ecco la Primavera – This is an example of an Ars Nova ballata
- It was composed in the early twentieth century.
Instruments of the Period
Sonja Maurer-Dass contributed to this article. Gregorian chant is one of the most famous musical legacies of medieval Europe, distinguished by its free-flowing melodies, holy Latin lyrics, and distinctive monophonic texture. Gregorian chant, which was developed and propagated during the Carolingian dynasty, appears to be a world away from the much more contemporary epochs of Western music to which many of our ears are accustomed; however, it is from this ages-old liturgical tradition that our current understanding of Western music and its accompanying system of musical notation derives from.
This section will look at how Gregorian chant came to be and how it spread throughout the world.
Many medieval music fans nowadays are aware with Gregorian chant (also known as Frankish-Roman chant), which is the most well-known of the liturgical chant traditions; nevertheless, throughout early medieval Europe, there were numerous distinct styles of holy chant that differed according to area.
- When one considers the several diverse Western liturgical chant traditions that have existed throughout the centuries, one would wonder why Gregorian chant has become the most generally recognized and maintained of them all.
- The development of Gregorian chant took place between the seventh and ninth centuries CE, during a period in which Frankish monarchs, most notably Charlemagne, tried to bring liturgical consistency to their kingdoms.
- Charlemagne declared in 789 that all of his kingdoms would be consolidated under a single Roman liturgy and chant, which became known as the Roman Rite.
- In essence, Gregorian chant was, as Margot Fassler puts it, “the revised song of the Franks,” which arose from a fusion of Old Roman chant with the Gallican chant of the Franks, according to Fassler.
- So far, we’ve looked at how the Carolingians had a crucial part in the spreading and development of Gregorian chant, but what about the popular tale that claims that Pope Saint Gregory I (“Gregory the Great”) is responsible for the spread of Gregorian chant?
- Because it was sung to Gregory I by the Holy Spirit, who came to him in the guise of a white dove, it was considered the most sacred and true type of liturgical chant.
- Some musicologists, on the other hand, have speculated that Gregory may have had a role in the codification and consolidation of previous chants, which eventually served as the foundation for later Gregorian chant.
A common depiction of the dove is that it is singing its sacred songs to Gregory, while Gregory is concurrently dictating the dove’s melodies to a nearby scribe.
Gregorian Chant’s Texture and Melody are both beautiful.
“Monophonic” is a musical word that refers to the performance of a single tune with no accompaniment (that is, there is no harmony played with a melody).
In the opening minute of the following chant sample, which was produced by the twelfth-century abbess, philosopher, mystic, and composer Hildegard of Bingen, you can hear a drone that is repeated several times.
For those who have heard different recordings of Gregorian chant, you may have noticed that its melodies are quite flowing in comparison to many modern types of Western art music and popular music.
Classical Gregorian melodies were produced using the notes of an organized pitch system known as modes (which were distinct from the major and minor keys that are now employed in Western music), and they were set to sacred Latin texts from religious services such as the Mass and the Divine Office.
- Gregorian Chant and Early Types of Medieval Musical Notation are two examples of medieval musical notation.
- This necessitated the development of a method of recording tunes that could be correctly taught and conveyed without the limitations of human memory.
- Instead, it made use of symbols known as “neumes,” which served as a kind of trigger for melodies that had previously been acquired and retained as part of an oral culture.
- They reflect the relative rising and descending melodic motion of the text.
- The St.
- Gall in Switzerland, is one of the earliest existing sources of this notation (which was copied in the tenth century).
- Guido d’Arezzo, a prominent music theorist who lived in Arezzo in the eleventh century, continued to create the framework for modern music notation by developing a four-line musical staff divided by intervals of thirds (an interval is the distance between two pitches).
Guido described the manner in which his employees worked in the preface to his antiphoner (of which only the prologue has been preserved): As a result, the notes are organized in such a manner that any sound, no matter how many times it appears in a song, can always be located in the same row.
–Margot Fassler provided the translation.
As a singer or member of a chorus, you may be acquainted with the syllable pattern Do-Re-Mi-Fa Sol, etc., in which each syllable corresponds to a written note (Guido’s syllable pattern differed somewhat in that the first syllable he used was “Ut” instead of “Do”).
Square notation allowed for the inclusion of more melodic elements that may be interpreted by vocalists who were unfamiliar with the source material.
It’s possible that you’ve already seen some square notation in medieval chant manuscripts, such as punctum (a single note sung to a single syllable); podatus (two notes—one is written on top of the other and the lowest of the two notes is sung first followed by the second note which moves in ascending motion); clivis (contains two notes that are sung in descending motion); and torculus (three notes sung consecutively When compared to our modern experiences of melody and notation, the notation and melodies of Gregorian chant may appear to be foreign and unfamiliar at first glance and listen; however, upon closer examination, it is fascinating and possible to see how the earliest attempts to record and accurately transmit sacred chant evolved over many centuries and eventually matured into the comprehensive system that is widely used and understood in the modern day.
Sonja Maurer-Dass is a Canadian musicologist and harpsichordist who specializes in Baroque music.
In addition, she possesses a Master’s degree on Musicology from York University, where she specialized in late medieval English choral music and the Old Hall Manuscript, among other things (Toronto, Canada).
The paper was presented at the 9th International Medieval Meeting.
Read on for more information: Willi Apel is the author of this work.
Western Music in Context: Western Music in the Medieval West is a book on music in the Medieval West (W.W.
Carolingians and Gregorian Chant are two examples of medieval music (Princeton University Press, 1998) Richard Taruskin is the author of this work.
From the earliest notations through the sixteenth century, there has been music (Oxford University Press, 2010) Adiastematic gregorian aquitanian notation is seen in the top image. Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons