Which Of The Following Refers To A Musical Note Used In Gregorian Chant

Gregorian chant

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No. 2855: Gregorian Chant

Today, plain and simple. The University of Houston�s College of Engineering presents this series about the machines that make our civilization run, and the people whose ingenuity created them.I t�s easy to take the rich textures of today�s music for granted. Whether listening to a symphony or a rock band, the many layers of instruments and vocals create complex, captivating harmonies. How boring music would be if everything we listened to was mere melody — a lone voice floating on the wind.Yet for much of history that�s exactly what music consisted of. In western civilization we see this quite starkly in the music of the Roman Catholic Church.Cantus planus, orplainchant, refers to the form of music used in Church liturgy for almost a thousand years. Plainchant could be sung by one or many voices, but always consisted of a single, unaccompanied melody.Many different plainchant traditions developed, but central to Church history, and by extension to the history of western music, wasGregorian chant. Gregorian chant is distinguished by its own stylistic elements, but also as the result of formal efforts by the Church to capture and codify plainchant for Church liturgy. It led to the development of an early form of musical notation that bears many similarities to our present notation. Gregorian chant is traditionally credited to the efforts of Saint Gregory the Great, who served as Pope at the turn of the seventh century. However, its actual origins remain open to debate.Much of what is popularly considered Gregorian chant is actuallyorganum. Organum permits the use of more than a single melodic line. The harmonies are often quite simple, but organum proved an important milestone on the road to modern music.The use of Gregorian chant waned in the late Middle Ages as it was supplanted by ever more elaborate musical forms. But it never altogether disappeared. Gregorian chant is no longer required as part of Roman Catholic liturgy, but its use is still encouraged.And it has a following beyond church walls. In 1994 the Angel record label released a recording of Gregorian chants performed by Spanish monks. Marketed as a remedy for stress, it went triple platinum in the U.S. and sold six million copies worldwide. A similar feat was achieved by Austrian monks in 2008, who also sold millions of recordings, mostly in Europe.I for one am glad music�s evolved beyond the limited structures found in plainchant. Still, its haunting simplicity coupled with the acoustics of stone abbeys or cathedrals is admittedly transcendent.I�m Andy Boyd at the University of Houston, where we�re interested in the way inventive minds work.(Theme music)

Notes and references:Gregorian Chant.The Florida Schola Cantorum website. Accessed January 15, 2013.Gregorian Chant. Wikipedia.. Accessed January 15, 2013.The Gregorian Chant: An examination of the ancient musical and spiritual tradition. From theCross Rhythms website. Accessed January 15, 2013.Plain Chant. From the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, taken from thisWikisource website. Accessed January 15, 2013.All pictures are from Wikimedia Commons.This episode was first aired on January 17, 2013.The Engines of Our Ingenuity is Copyright © 1988-2013 by John H. Lienhard.

How Plainchant Started and Where It Is Now

Plainchant is a type of medieval church music that is characterized by the use of chanting or the singing of lyrics without the use of any musical accompaniment. Plainsong is another name for this type of music. You may be more familiar with the name Gregorian Chant, which you may have come across when reading about early music forms or heard about it during a church service or concert. Even though the phrases are sometimes used improperly as synonyms, Gregorian Chant is a type of plainchant that is derived from the Latin language.

Christian Tradition

Plainchant, a primitive style of music, first appeared about the year 100 C.E. Early on, it was the only sort of music that was permitted in Christian churches. A common belief among Christians is that music should make the listener more open to spiritual ideas and reflections. This belief is supported by research. As a result, the melody was maintained clean and unaccompanied throughout. This was especially true because the same tune would be replayed throughout the plainsong. There are no harmonies or chords to enhance the melody in this song.

Why Is it Also Called Gregorian Chant?

There were numerous various types of plainchant in use during the early centuries, and there was no standardization. A collection of chants was envisioned by Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory the First) about the year 600, and it was completed by Pope Gregory the First in the year 600. This collection of music was known as Gregorian Chant since it was named after him. Later, the word Gregorian Chant was adopted to denote this type of music in general. Prayer, reading, psalm, canticle, hymn, prose, antiphon, responsory, introit, alleluia, and many more varieties of Gregorian Chant are among the many types of Gregorian Chant.

Musical Notation of Plainchant

Ordinarily, modern music notation is written on five lines, whereas plainchant is written on four lines. It was also common to employ a sign known as “neumes” to express pitch and syllable phrasing. When it comes to the earliest types of plainchant, there is no trace of any notation.

Plainchant Today

Gregorian chants are still chanted in Roman Catholic churches all throughout the world today, despite the passage of time. In this version, it is adapted to Latin text and performed either by a soloist or by a chorus. Listen to the Gregorian Chants from Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris to get a sense of what plainchant sounds like. Plainchant has had a cultural renaissance outside of the church and has even made its way into mainstream culture in recent decades. An unexpected international hit was achieved by the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos in Spain when they published their CD named, Chant, in 1994.

During their interviews on The Tonight Show and Good Morning America, the monks expressed their gratitude.

The Cistercian Monks of Austria’s Heiligenkreuz Abbey made another popular Gregorian Chant CD in 2008, titled Chant – Music for Paradise, which became a bestseller in the United States.

It peaked at number 7 on the UK charts, number 4 on the Billboard classical music charts in the United States, and was the best-selling album on the Austrian pop music charts.

Medieval Music: Introduction to Gregorian Chant

Sonja Maurer-Dass contributed to this article. Gregorian chant is one of the most famous musical legacies of medieval Europe, distinguished by its free-flowing melodies, holy Latin lyrics, and distinctive monophonic texture. Gregorian chant, which was developed and propagated during the Carolingian dynasty, appears to be a world away from the much more contemporary epochs of Western music to which many of our ears are accustomed; however, it is from this ages-old liturgical tradition that our current understanding of Western music and its accompanying system of musical notation derives from.

This section will look at how Gregorian chant came to be and how it spread throughout the world.

Many medieval music fans nowadays are aware with Gregorian chant (also known as Frankish-Roman chant), which is the most well-known of the liturgical chant traditions; nevertheless, throughout early medieval Europe, there were numerous distinct styles of holy chant that differed according to area.

  • When one considers the several diverse Western liturgical chant traditions that have existed throughout the centuries, one would wonder why Gregorian chant has become the most generally recognized and maintained of them all.
  • The development of Gregorian chant took place between the seventh and ninth centuries CE, during a period in which Frankish monarchs, most notably Charlemagne, tried to bring liturgical consistency to their kingdoms.
  • Charlemagne declared in 789 that all of his kingdoms would be consolidated under a single Roman liturgy and chant, which became known as the Roman Rite.
  • In essence, Gregorian chant was, as Margot Fassler puts it, “the revised song of the Franks,” which arose from a fusion of Old Roman chant with the Gallican chant of the Franks, according to Fassler.
  • So far, we’ve looked at how the Carolingians had a crucial part in the spreading and development of Gregorian chant, but what about the popular tale that claims that Pope Saint Gregory I (“Gregory the Great”) is responsible for the spread of Gregorian chant?
  • Because it was sung to Gregory I by the Holy Spirit, who came to him in the guise of a white dove, it was considered the most sacred and true type of liturgical chant.
  • Some musicologists, on the other hand, have speculated that Gregory may have had a role in the codification and consolidation of previous chants, which eventually served as the foundation for later Gregorian chant.
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A common depiction of the dove is that it is singing its sacred songs to Gregory, while Gregory is concurrently dictating the dove’s melodies to a nearby scribe.

Gregorian Chant’s Texture and Melody are both beautiful.

“Monophonic” is a musical word that refers to the performance of a single tune with no accompaniment (that is, there is no harmony played with a melody).

In the opening minute of the following chant sample, which was produced by the twelfth-century abbess, philosopher, mystic, and composer Hildegard of Bingen, you can hear a drone that is repeated several times.

For those who have heard different recordings of Gregorian chant, you may have noticed that its melodies are quite flowing in comparison to many modern types of Western art music and popular music.

Classical Gregorian melodies were produced using the notes of an organized pitch system known as modes (which were distinct from the major and minor keys that are now employed in Western music), and they were set to sacred Latin texts from religious services such as the Mass and the Divine Office.

  1. Gregorian Chant and Early Types of Medieval Musical Notation are two examples of medieval musical notation.
  2. This necessitated the development of a method of recording tunes that could be correctly taught and conveyed without the limitations of human memory.
  3. Instead, it made use of symbols known as “neumes,” which served as a kind of trigger for melodies that had previously been acquired and retained as part of an oral culture.
  4. They reflect the relative rising and descending melodic motion of the text.
  5. The St.
  6. Gall in Switzerland, is one of the earliest existing sources of this notation (which was copied in the tenth century).
  7. Sang.
  8. Sang.
  9. Sang.
  10. Guido d’Arezzo, a prominent music theorist who lived in Arezzo in the eleventh century, continued to create the framework for modern music notation by developing a four-line musical staff divided by intervals of thirds (an interval is the distance between two pitches).

Guido described the manner in which his employees worked in the preface to his antiphoner (of which only the prologue has been preserved): As a result, the notes are organized in such a manner that any sound, no matter how many times it appears in a song, can always be located in the same row.

–Margot Fassler provided the translation.

As a singer or member of a chorus, you may be acquainted with the syllable pattern Do-Re-Mi-Fa Sol, etc., in which each syllable corresponds to a written note (Guido’s syllable pattern differed somewhat in that the first syllable he used was “Ut” instead of “Do”).

Square notation allowed for the inclusion of more melodic elements that may be interpreted by vocalists who were unfamiliar with the source material.

It’s possible that you’ve already seen some square notation in medieval chant manuscripts, such as punctum (a single note sung to a single syllable); podatus (two notes—one is written on top of the other and the lowest of the two notes is sung first followed by the second note which moves in ascending motion); clivis (contains two notes that are sung in descending motion); and torculus (three notes sung consecutively When compared to our modern experiences of melody and notation, the notation and melodies of Gregorian chant may appear to be foreign and unfamiliar at first glance and listen; however, upon closer examination, it is fascinating and possible to see how the earliest attempts to record and accurately transmit sacred chant evolved over many centuries and eventually matured into the comprehensive system that is widely used and understood in the modern day.

  • Sonja Maurer-Dass is a Canadian musicologist and harpsichordist who specializes in Baroque music.
  • In addition, she possesses a Master’s degree on Musicology from York University, where she specialized in late medieval English choral music and the Old Hall Manuscript, among other things (Toronto, Canada).
  • The paper was presented at the 9th International Medieval Meeting.
  • Read on for more information: Willi Apel is the author of this work.
  • Western Music in Context: Western Music in the Medieval West is a book on music in the Medieval West (W.W.
  • Carolingians and Gregorian Chant are two examples of medieval music (Princeton University Press, 1998) Richard Taruskin is the author of this work.

From the earliest notations through the sixteenth century, there has been music (Oxford University Press, 2010) Adiastematic gregorian aquitanian notation is seen in the top image. Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

(Solved) – Test 4 chapter 5 1 Which of the following is NOT among the Saxon… – (1 Answer)

Test number four, chapter 51 According to legend, which of the following gods was not among the Saxon gods from whom the English names for the days of the week descended? a Tiwb a Tiwb Wodenc Thord is a fictional character created by author Wodenc Thord. Saturn 2 In Anglo-Saxon culture, which of the following phrases refers to a free man who possessed a farm ranging in size from 90 to 1000 acres? athaneb kenningc churld wergild athaneb kenningc churld wergild Three of the following words pertain to the “life-price” of a person in Anglo-Saxon culture, and they are as follows: Wergeld was given to the kenningb thanec churld.

  1. a kenningb thanec churld wergild churld wergild 5 On the Scottish island of Iona, a monastery was founded by a monk named St.
  2. Patrick an Augustineb Columbac Eadfrithd Augustineb Columbac 6 Who was responsible for the construction of the cathedral in Canterbury and the St Paul’s Cathedral in London?
  3. Patrick an Augustineb Columbac Eadfrithd Augustineb Columbac 8 According to an ancient tradition, who was it that drew the first Celtic cross on an antique standing stone monument by passing the mark of a Latin cross through the circle?
  4. copper, brass, and elephant tuskb conch shellc brass, and copper 10 What is NOT included in the stringent, albeit unwritten code of behavior that led a knight is (insert the letter of the answer here).

a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb a Gregoryb Benedictic Leo IIId (Benedictic Leo IIId) According to John XII12, the dining hall, where monks ate their meals, is located in which of the following types of monasteries?

  1. a wergildb kenningc churld neum a wergildb kenningc churld neum The Norman Invasion of England in 1066 is documented by which of the following sources?
  2. Which of the following claimed the bones of Mary Magdalene as a relic?
  3. a Vzelayb Chartresc Romed a Vzelayb Chartresc Romed Santiago de Compostela is a city in northern Spain.
  4. What architectural word refers to wedge-shaped stones that create the arch in a Romanesque church?
  5. It’s a trumeaub archivoltc barrel vaultd voussoir, to be precise.

a Tympanumb Mandorlac Trumeaud In the following sentence, which of the following offers a correct translation of memento mori: an ominous reminder of mortality, a reassurance of life, a source of enjoyment, a source of wisdom What was the author’s name for his book On The Misery of the Human Condition, whose message was later recognized as official doctrine by the Western Catholic Church?

22 Who is widely regarded as the inventor of one of the earliest efficient systems of musical notation–a method in which the letters A through G were employed to denote the seven notes of the Western scale–and why is he so revered?

Odo of Cluny, Bernard of Clairvaux, Guido of Arezzo, and Bernard of Clairvaux 24 How did she come up with the song “Cruel are the wounds I’ve endured,” in which she expresses her remorse for having decided to remain loyal to spouse rather than share her life and love with the knight with whom she has fallen in love?

Beatriz de Dia25 is a 25-year-old woman from Mexico. Was the Song of Roland important to you as a young man? The chivalric code is demonstrated in what manner? 26 What incentives were employed to get men to join the Crusades in the first place?

The Book of Gregorian Chant

Chapter 51 of Test 4 According to legend, which of the following gods was not among the Saxon gods from whom the English names for the days of the week were adapted? in the shape of a Tiwb Wodenc Thord is a fictional character created by Wodenc Thord in the fictional world of Wodenc Thord Saturn Describe a free man who possessed a farm of 90-1000 acres in Anglo-Saxon culture using one of the following phrases. an athaneb kenningc churld wergild an athaneb kenningc churld wergild an 3 In Anglo-Saxon culture, which of the following expressions relates to an individual’s “life-price” is correct?

  • thanec churld wergild a kenningb thanec 5 On the Scottish island of Iona, a monastery was founded by whom?
  • Agustineb Columbac Eadfrithd Patrick an Augustineb Columbac 7 Did the Lindisfarne Gospels come to be?
  • Agustineb Columbac Eadfrithd Patrick an Augustineb Columbac 9) What kind of material was used to make Roland’s horn?
  • a bravery in battleb devotion to his master and peersc charity to the poord civility that bordered on respect for ladies 11 In Charlemagne’s Frankish realm, all monasteries were required to adhere to a “Rule,” which was a set of standards.
  • John XII12 Infirmary for the novitiated refectoryb scriptoriumc Gregorian chant is characterized by the employment of which of the following musical notes?
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Beowulf, the Song of Roland, the Domesday Book, and the Bayeux Tapestry In response to a request by William I of Normandy for a comprehensive survey of England, which would allow him to more precisely estimate the amount of revenue he might earn to fund a new army, which of the following came to fruition?

  1. The half-cylinder-shaped elongated arched masonry building spanning an interior space and described by one of the following Romanesque architectural phrases is described by one of the following: It’s a trumeaub archivoltc barrel vaultd voussoir, to be sure.
  2. It’s a trumeaub archivoltc barrel vaultd voussoir, to be sure.
  3. The phrase “memento mori” can be accurately translated as “memorial to death.” It serves as a remembrance of death, as well as of life, pleasure, and understanding.
  4. Innocent III, Odo of Cluny, and others have written about Saint Benedict, St Augustine, and others.
  5. Saints Benedict and Odo of Cluny are represented by a Bernard of Clairvaux, Guido of Arezzo, and Saint Benedict.
  6. Saints Benedict and Odo of Cluny are represented by a Bernard of Clairvaux, Guido of Arezzo, and Saint Benedict.
  7. Christen de Troyes an Anne of Amiens b Anne of Amiens c Chrtien de Troyes Francesca (Marie de Franced) was a French noblewoman who lived in the 17th century.

Ms. Beatriz de Dia25 is a 25-year-old Colombian woman who is a member of the Dia25 organization. Was the Song of Roland important to you as a youngster? Which aspect of the chivalric code does it demonstrate? 26 To what extent were financial incentives utilized to persuade men to join the Crusade?


An acclamation that is sung immediately after the Introit in the Latin Mass is known as the Kyrie. Lord, have mercy on us,’ says the fundamental text, which is in Greek, which is composed of the phrases ‘Kyrie, eleison’ (three times), ‘Christe, eleison’ (three times), and ‘Kyrie, eleison’ (three times): ‘Lord, have mercy on us,’ says the text. Please, Christ, have mercy on me. ‘Lord, take compassion on me.’ After becoming popularized as part of pagan civic and religious events throughout the Roman Empire, the phrase ‘kyrie eleison’ continued to be employed in Christian rites, eventually becoming a staple of many Christian liturgies beginning in the 6th century and continuing today.

(This information comes from the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians Online.) The audio element cannot be played because your browser does not support it.

Kraybill’s performance of the Kyrie eleison is available on CD.


This Proper chant is performed after the Gradual during the Fore-Mass on liturgical days connected with penitence and fasting (most notably during Lent), and on liturgical occasions associated with sadness (such as the Requiem Mass), when it may be substituted by the Tract. During Paschal Time, which begins with Low Sunday and ends with High Sunday, the Gradual is skipped and two Alleluias are sung instead. After singing the word “alleluia” and closing with a prolonged melismatic flourish (the Jubilus), the Alleluia will be followed by a somewhat ornate verse, followed by another repetition of the phrase “alleluia.” The Alleluia will be done in a responsorial way.

Although there is no evidence of such participation by the chorus in the early sources, it is possible that the chorus sang at least the final iteration of the Alleluia at some point.



The Alleluia of the Mass is a Proper chant that is sung during the Fore-Mass following the Gradual on liturgical occasions associated with penitence and fasting (most notably during Lent), as well as on occasions associated with sorrow (such as the Requiem Mass), when it may be replaced by the Tract. It is customary to skip the Gradual during Paschal Time, which begins with Low Sunday and ends with High Sunday. After singing the word “alleluia” and culminating with a prolonged melismatic flourish (the Jubilus), the Alleluia will be followed by a somewhat ornate verse, followed by another repetition of the phrase “alleluia.” The Alleluia will be done in a responsorial fashion.

Musicians and composers are included in the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians Online. Audio elements cannot be played because your browser lacks support for them. The Alleluia is performed by Dr. Kraybill in recital.


According to an examination of the peculiarities of the notation, it appears that six scribes worked on the UMKC’s Book of Gregorian Chant. ‘Scribe 1’ is responsible for the majority of the manuscript’s work, which includes the biggest illumination in the text, a capital “P,” which occurs on folio 82r and takes up more than half of the page (left). In addition to the initial notation, other scribes “fixed” the work of prior scribes, which was done in a variety of ways. On the right is a page from the manuscript (folio 8r), which was written by another scribe and features an illumination of the letter “P,” but this illumination is much different from the previous one.

Kraybill, “the illuminations distinguish and enhance the beauty of this book, as is true of many medieval instances.” Many various colors of pen were used to produce these text decorations, including black, red, teal blue, dark blue, green and orange.

As a result, a wide variety of techniques were employed, yielding results that ranged from extremely ornate and colorful decorations that filled the margins from top to bottom with beautiful filigree to very crude, “colored-in” letters that appeared to be a clumsy attempt by an unskilled hand to imitate the beauty of the former.

Folio 8r has the final section of the Asperges Antiphon with Psalm, as well as the first section of an unnamed Credo, among other things (which also begins with an illuminated “P”).

Although we have three Latin Creeds (the ‘Apostles’, the ‘Nicene, and the ‘Athanasian’), the history of the texts is complicated; nonetheless, the one used at Mass is the one often referred to as the ‘Nicene.’ Early in the 6th century, the Credo was introduced into the eucharistic liturgy in the eastern church in the form known as the ‘Nicene’ (or ‘Nicea-Constantinople’) version (so named because it summarizes the doctrines agreed upon at the Councils of Nicea, 325, and Constantinople, 381), and soon after that, it was introduced into the Visigothic rite by the Council of Toledo (589).

In both cases, it was instituted in the wake of theological disputes, with the goal of defining the conviction that all those who participate in the Eucharist should hold in common.

Baptismal usage of the Credo (or Symbolum, as it was known in this capacity) persisted throughout the Middle Ages, and it is thought to have been responsible for the maintenance of a Greek text in Latin manuscripts depicting customs in northern France and Germany during this period.

(Image courtesy of the New Grove II Dictionary of Music and Musicians on the Internet.)

Gregorian Chant: An Integral Part to Music History

Middle-eastern music dates from around 500 to 1400 and is considered to be the first period in the history of music. During this period, liturgical vocal music for the Catholic Church, as well as secular vocal and instrumental compositions, were popular forms of entertainment. It was Gregorian chant, which was one of the most important elements of liturgical music during the medieval period. Many forms of music, not simply liturgical music, have benefited from the usage of Gregorian chant as the foundation for their development.

  1. It takes its name from Pope St.
  2. Many chants take their text from the Mass Ordinary, the elements of the Catholic Mass that are always the same and that are, or were, often chanted throughout the celebration of the Mass.
  3. The Mass Proper, which is a collection of prayers for mass that vary according to the season or feast being observed, provides the other texts for Gregorian chanting as well.
  4. Our modern approach, on the other hand, was derived from this old technique of representation.
  5. They began in the Middle Ages, when the only music that was being recorded was for the Church, and progressed through the centuries.
  6. It had been some years since chanting had been learnt orally rather than being written down.
  7. At some point, a staff or some variation of a staff was incorporated into the procedure to show how far higher or lower to go.
  8. This featured the introduction of a staff with four lines and the beginnings of our solfège system, both of which helped us to indicate pitch more precisely.
  9. A book called the Liber Usualis, which contains all of the chants of the Mass, was published in the late nineteenth century by monks from Solesmes, France, and is still in use today.

In churches and monasteries today, chants from the Liber Usualis, which were initially chanted in the Middle Ages, are still being sung in certain variations. Sources:;;;


OUTLINE FOR MUSIC Since the dawn of recorded history, humans have played an essential role in a variety of activities. Music today plays an extremely essential and critical function in the lives of all human beings. It can be found virtually everywhere on our planet. One more stimulation to add to the huge ocean of impulses that our senses acquire on a daily basis. Humans utilize music for a variety of purposes, including: Amusement for one’s own amusement Activities that promote contemplation.

  1. �Stimulation.
  2. Sound is transmitted and received in two ways.
  3. Areceiverto is a device that can detect and record sound vibrations.
  4. A membrane made of animal hide or synthetic material is used to protect the skin.
  5. Beads rattling in a confined container can be heard.
  6. In a tiny resonating tube, the buzzing of lips may be heard.
  7. The movement of small pieces of reed linked to a tube is triggered by the action of human breathing.
  8. Sound may also be created artificially through the use of electrical synthesis.
  • Notation, melody, rhythm, harmony, texture, form, dynamics, and timbre are all elements of music.
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NOTATION Written on paper in order for the music to be performed again and over again is the goal. System of notation for music Having the ability to read and interpret written music notation is not necessary for most people to enjoy and comprehend most music, but it does help. MELODY – A song about love and loss (Line, Space) Melody A series of single tones or pitches that are thought to be coherent in their appearance. Melody has the following characteristics: �Pitch The highness or lowness of a tone is determined by the frequency of the tone (rate of vibration) �Interval The distance between two pitches, as well as their connection.

  • (either narrow, medium, or broad) �Shape The direction that a melody follows as it ascends or descends, or as it remains static, is called the tempo.
  • �Cadence Musical punctuation is a location where a musical phrase can take a break.
  • RHYTHM – A rhythm is a pattern of beats (Rhythm, Pattern, Repetition, Time) Rhythm In music, the concept of time is present.
  • Accentuation is the placement of emphasis on a note such that it is louder or lasts longer than another.
  • In music, there are many different types of styles.
  • �Meter Measurement is the grouping of beats into bigger, more regular patterns that are notated.

�Downbeat In any meter, the first beat of a measure is the most powerful beat. Syncopation is the deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse by a brief change of the accent to a weak beat, or an offbeat, in a musical composition.

  • Polyrhythmic – The employment of numerous different rhythmic patterns or meters at the same time

Nonmetric music is music that does not have a strong sense of rhythm or meter. A HARMONY – (Balance)Harmony is the simultaneous combination of notes, as well as the connections between intervals and chords that result. Harmony has the following characteristics: �Chord A single block of harmony is formed by the simultaneous combination of tones (usually three or more) that form a single block of harmony. �Scale A succession of tones or pitches that are either rising or decreasing in pitch. �Tonality The principle of structuring a work around a core tonic, or home pitch, that is based on a major or minor scale is called tonic structure.

  • Diatonic
  • Chromatic
  • Consonance
  • Dissonance
  • Drone
  • Tonic and diatonic

THE TEXTURE – (Texture) Texture A musical fabric is formed by the intertwining of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) parts. Generally speaking, they are as follows: A single melody is presented by a single voice or section in a monophonic composition. Heterophonic compositions are those in which two or more voices/parts elaborate on the same melody at the same time. Homophonic music consists of a main melody and an accompanying harmony. The term polyphonic refers to the combination of two or more melodies into a multi-voiced texture.

Formal characteristics include: �Repetition Within a form, repetition cements the material in our minds and fulfills our craving for the familiar; it brings a form’s elements together as a whole.

(Variety) �Variation A principle that allows for some characteristics of the music to be changed while remaining recognizable.

�Theme In music composition, a melodic concept is employed as a fundamental building component in the production of the piece.

  • Motive A tiny, thematic fragment that serves as the basis of a melodic-rhythmic structure
  • Sequence The same notion repeated at a higher or lower pitch level
  • Obligato A brief musical pattern- melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic- that is repeated repeatedly throughout a work or a main portion of a composition In this example, a brief (four-note) descending pattern in the bass can be heard throughout the piece beneath the vocals.

Ostinato is a brief musical pattern—melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic—that is repeated repeatedly throughout a piece or main portion of a composition. Under the vocals in this example, a brief (four-note) descending pattern in the bass may be heard throughout.

Gregorian Chant

Gregorian Chant (Gregorian Chant) Jake Eudene’s biographical information Prior to the reign of Pope Gregory I, musical chant was a frequent activity, but not one that was practiced by all members of the church at the same time. The Catholic Church was expanding at the time of his rule, and there was no documented documentation of the chants prior to his reign. Given that “Gregorian music of the Mass and its offices” has been designated as a “living legacy of the people,” it became important to offer music for all those who are linked with the church.

A Watershed Moment The codification of Gregorian chant was the first attempt to record written music, and it was successful.

To be able to allocate certain chants to specific liturgical services in the liturgical calendar, Pope Gregory I commissioned experts to codify the chants.

Effect When chanting and singing was previously done by memory, it was now possible to write down the chants so that they could be taught to others through the use of a codification method.


The chants, according to Pope Pius X, have “always been recognized as the ideal example for holy music,” he says.

The transformation of Gregorian chant into easily discernible symbols known as neumes was a significant advancement in musical notation.

Because “the music in this collection serves as a model of melodic design even in the twenty-first century and is recognized as one of the monuments of Western musical literature,” musical experts place a high value on the codification.

“Gregorian Chant: A History of the Controversy Concerning its Rhythm” is a historical study of the Gregorian chant.

produced the following: 1.

published a 2013 edition.

Apel, Willi.

“Performance by a musical ensemble.” Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.

Willi Apel’s “Gregorain Chant” was published by Indiana University Press in 1958 and has a page count of 119.

“Gregorian Chant: A History of the Controversy Concerning its Rhythm” is a historical study of the Gregorian chant.

in 1964.

published a bibliography in 2013.

“Gregorian Chant.” Indiana University Press.99 – 120.1958.

“Gregorian Chant.” “Performance by a musical ensemble.” Encyclopedia Britannica is a reputable reference work.

Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., published in 2013. John Rayburn’s “Gregorian Chant: A History of the Controversy Concerning Its Rhythm” is available online. The McLaughlinReilly Co.1 and Co.2 are at 64.1964.

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