Music Unit 2 Flashcards
*Approximately 1,650 of their tunes have been saved. A majority of their songs dealt with courtly love, combat, and dancing. In relation to troubadours, which of the following claims is correct? * * Composers used drinking songs and birdcall imitations into their pieces. Polyphonic music was not always dependent on Gregorian chant, as was the case in the Renaissance. Which of the following statements accurately describes the developments in music throughout the fourteenth century? Gregorian chants were heard in the background Theologian, scientist, and physician Hildegard of Bingen produced treatises on a variety of subjects.
Hildegard is credited with writing the world’s first surviving mortality play.
The vielle, which is a medieval Musical instrument, is used to provide the accompaniment for this particular performance.
There are two lower voices in the group.
- There are also two upper voices with more dynamic, syncopation-based rhythyms to be found throughout the piece.
- *They were the fundamental musical scales that were utilized throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
- Seven tones are found in both church modes and contemporary scales.
- * Some of the texts for mass were repeated on a daily basis.
- Some passages were only used at mass on special occasions, like as Christmas, and others were used on a regular basis.
- Is this true or false: Additionally, there were female troubadours, whose songs were performed to men from the point of view of a female character.
- *Wondering Jongluers.
That were the people who performed secular music in the Middle Ages, and where did they come from?
In their compositions, composers incorporated drinking chants and birdcall impersonations.
*Parties, games, and dancing were all accompanied by music, both indoors and out.
Identify which of the following assertions is true regarding secular music in Paris during the Middle Ages.
Texture might change depending on the music, ranging from homophonic to polyphonic.
* It was derived from a piece of vocal composition.
*Renaissance artists used a variety of instruments, including wind, string, and percussion instruments.
Because Renaissance composers did not specify which instruments should be used to perform their compositions, performers were free to utilize whatever instruments were available.
Composers frequently employ the technique of imitating the primary melody in their works.
*A harp may be found in the bottom middle of the photo, at the front of the picture.
In the lower left corner of the photo, there is an organ or a regal, according on your preference.
*It represents poetic imagery through the use of word painting.
The interest in language that humanists have for it is reflected in vocal music.
Notre Dame musicians were at the forefront of the creation of polyphonic music.
It was a cultural and intellectual hub, with the University of Paris attracting experts from all over the world.
The majority of medieval music manuscripts do not provide comprehensive performance directions; instead, they mostly suggest .* There was a war called the Hundred Years’ War.
Sensuality is a subject that appears in literature.
* The first organum was a Gregorian chant with a second melodic line layered on top of the original.
Early organum is characterized by which of the following assertions is correct?
In addition, they were among the first to make use of music notation to indicate a certain beat.
His disappointment at having been forgotten by the young girl he admired and admired him.
The melody of the song has been preserved in music notation.
During this period, significant changes occurred in the musical landscape.
It was generally the melody that was sung in slow, lengthy notes when the original chant was performed in organum.
When used in religious ceremonies, such as prayers and rites, Gregorian chant is enhanced.
Gregorian chant is characterized by which of the following assertions is correct?
*The beat that was measured had a clearly defined meter.
Why were rhythmic advances made by Notre Dame composers in the late 1110s so significant to the history of music?
Throughout the year, they stayed the same on a daily basis.
* An early kind of instrumental music, a medieval dance in triple meter with a powerful, quick rhythm.
What are some of the descriptions that apply to an Estample?
He was employed as a chaplain.
There was no longer a restriction on the melody line’s ability to move in tandem with the chant.
Identify which of the following assertions concerning the features of organum by the year 1100 is right.
When compared to other chants, O Successores has a stronger sense of developing momentum towards a climax (on the word officio).
It was created just for the nuns of Hildegard’s monastery, and they were to perform it.
* A section that finishes with “Grant us Peace” rather than “Have compassion upon us” follows two parts that are similar to one another.
According to Machaut’s Notre Dame Mass, which of the following claims is correct about the Anguus Dei?
Which of the following reflects a significant development in medieval organum?
OFFICE services were provided on a daily basis and were considered the highlight of each day.
* Gregorian chant’s “otherworldly” quality was attributed to the usage of church modes.
Both the church modes and the contemporary scales include seven tones.
There are two lower voices in the group.
Two higher voices, each with more aggressive, syncopated rhythms, are also included.
This section has two sections that are similar to one another, followed by a part that finishes with “Grant us peace” rather than “Have compassion on us.” Are the Angus Dei’s words from Machaut’s Notre Dame Mass accurate statements?
* He traveled extensively, composing music for a variety of courts and churches.
What was it that Josquin Desprez did?
* The imitation of the primary melody is a typical technique employed by composers.
* Because the numerous melodies overlap, the rhythm is not easily discernible.
*The word “together” is sung by all of the voices.
*When the text is depicted by the music.
Basically, it was a string instrument in the shape of a half-pear.
This is a true statement concerning the Lute during the Renaissance period.
The Motet * Mass and other genres of holy music were generally performed.
Which of the following is more accurate when comparing the Motet and the Mass in the Renaissance?
For Queen ElizabethIt is a polyphonic English Madrigal with no instruments and a great deal of word painting.
Describe the music you’ve heard:*It is mostly polyphonic;*there are just a few individual voices;*it is a choral piece.
Using secular melodies and dramatic singing in Catholic church music had resulted in the loss of the purity of the music, according to some.
*By employing a slow tempo,* composers began to take advantage of the capabilities of popular instruments.
A composer employs polyphonic imitation, which was popular throughout the Renaissance.
What occurs in Josquin’s Ave Maria is a mystery.
Palestrina’s music is concerned with The lute imitates the rising jumps of the vocals and grows more prominent.
It was derived from a piece of vocal composition. What was the distinguishing feature of instrumental music? An arrangement of the Latin hymn “Ave Maria” with polyphonic imitation is presented in this piece.
musical performance – The Middle Ages
The history of sung prayers and psalms may be traced back to the dawn of civilisation itself. It was common for such sacredsinging to be accompanied by instruments, and its rhythmic aspect was noticeable. The sung prayers, on the other hand, were frequently unaccompanied in the synagogue. Due to the rhythmic nature of holy music, ritual dance was forbidden in the synagogue, and the synagogue lost its more sensuous qualities as a result. So much so that rhythmic poetry was replaced by prose in the prayers themselves.
- The liturgical heritage of Judaism served as the foundation for the Christian practice of musical performance and worship.
- More Information on This Subject may be found here.
- The majority of the music in the RomanCatholic liturgy was performed for the congregation.
- In the ancient Christian Church, women had an active role in musical performances until 578, when former Hebraic norms that barred them from participating were reinstated.
- Pope Gregory I, during his papacy (590–604), is credited with creating the first code of early church music.
- These chants were allocated to certain services in the liturgical calendar as a result of his codification.
- Even in the twenty-first century, the music in this collection continues to serve as a model of melodic design, and it is considered as one of the great monuments of Western musical literature.
- Specifics about the way in which the chant was sung have been lost to history.
- It is impossible to determine the actual rhythmic style of chant.
- There appeared to be some variation in pitch levels and tempos depending on the situation.
Even though modern Western musical traditions are based to a large extent on the principles of antiquity preserved in the notated music of the early church, secular musical practice did exist; however, due to the pervasive influence of the church, the dividing line between sacred and secular aspects was thin for much of the medieval period.
In most cases, musical notations are inadequate to provide a proper picture of the music, although it is clear that the core monophonic nature of liturgical music was kept.
However, it was intended to be performed during religious plays or processions, and did not use any traditional liturgical melodies or themes.
Thegoliardsongs, which date back to the 11th century, are considered to be among the first instances of secular music.
Thejongleurs, a group of traveling entertainers in western Europe who sang, performed tricks, and danced for a living; the troubadours in the south of France and thetrouvères in the north; and theminnesingers, a class of artist-knights who wrote and sang love songs tinged with religious fervor, were just a few of the groups of medieval performers who developed literary and musical genres based on vernacular texts.
- During the Middle Ages, instruments like as thevielle, harp, psaltery, flute, shawm, bagpipe, and drums were all employed to accompany dancing and singing, as were other types of music.
- The existence of secular instrumental music before to the 13th century is, on the whole, poorly documented.
- Modern experts, on the other hand, do not rule out the prospect of accompanying liturgical music in the future.
- The advances in rhythmic notation that were required to make separate melody lines synchronized were possibly the most significant advancements in the wake of polyphony for performers and for performance as a whole.
- The environment for new advances in music migrated from the holy field to the secular field, from the church to the court, in part as a result of the church’s waning political power in the 14th century.
- Already, the lower voices were being played on instruments, both because their lengthy notes made it impossible to sing them and because their words (which were only a few syllables in length) were meaningless when sung outside of their intended liturgical contexts.
- It was during this time period that the polyphonic music of the church blended with the poetic art of the troubadours.
The majority of the music by these composers appears to have been written for a combination of vocal and instrumental performance, despite the fact that this is rarely explicitly stated in the manuscripts.
From the 17th century onwards, and even into the 19th century in the case of home performance, the choice of instruments was likely to be influenced as much by the availability of performers as it was by any other factor.
Loud instruments (shawm, bombard, trombone, organ) would be used for outside or ceremonial music, whereas delicate instruments would be used for indoor music (lute, viol, recorder, harp).
The parts for these instruments are never discovered in the musical sources and must be recreated in order to be performed in the present day.
Accidentals (sharps and flats, which were previously referred to as “musica ficta”) were frequently removed since they were assumed to be understood.
A technique calledfauxbourdon was used to enhance sections of some 15th-century two-part vocal music; the notation of the 15th-centurybasse danseconsisted of only a single line of unmeasured long notes, which was evidently used by the performing group of three instrumentalists for improvisation, much like a modern jazz combo’s chart.
In fact, it was only until the introduction of music printing that the notion of improvisation as a single subcategory within performance practice could be established, despite the fact that it initially had little obvious impact on performance. During the 16th century, extemporized ornamentation of polyphonic music persisted and increased in both secular and holy performances of instrumental, vocal, and combination performance, as well as in religious performances. Later in the century, in the wake of the Council of Trent (1545–63), liturgical music once again became less extravagant, with the council ordering that masses be sung “clearly and at the proper speed” and that singing “be composed not to give empty pleasure to the ear, but in such a way that the words may be clearly understood by all.” Music printing was initially prohibitively expensive, making it impossible to significantly alter the social structure of musical performance; however, the traditions of ostentation and exclusivity established by Guillaume Dufayfor the Burgundian court in the early 15th century were carried on in the magnificent musical establishments of the Italian Renaissance princes and popes.
The Medici, a strong Florentine family, organized extravagant musical celebrations for their marriages and baptisms, and there are detailed accounts of these events.
The printing of music and books, as well as the printing of manuscripts, provides evidence of the ever-increasing growth and sophistication of instrumental music during the sixteenth century.
There was a growing tendency to construct instruments in families (whole consorts of homogeneous timbre, high, middle, and low), a tendency that may have been influenced by recent expansion at both ends of the musical scale: with more space available, contrapuntal parts no longer crossed so frequently and no longer required the differentiation provided by the markedly contrasting timbres of the high, middle, and low instruments.
MUSIC APPRECIATION- The Middle Ages and the Renaissance – Subjecto.com
|Among other causes, why did secular music becomemore important than sacred music in the fourteenth century?||All answers are correct|
|Why does Renaissance music sound fuller thanmedieval music?||All answers are correct.|
|Josquin Desprez was a contemporary of _.||Christopher Columbus|
|A versatile plucked string instrument with a bodyshaped like half a pear, popular during the Renaissance, was the _.||lute|
|Terpsichore, a collection of over 300 dance tunes,was arranged for instrumental ensemble by _.||Michael Praetorius|
|The wandering minstrels, or jongleurs, of theMiddle Ages _.||All answers are correct.|
|The center of polyphonic music in Europe after 1150was _.||Paris|
|A famous French woman troubadour was _.||Beatriz, Countess of Dia|
|The first large body of secular songs that survivesin decipherable notation was composed _.||during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries|
|A virtual monopoly on learning during the MiddleAges was held by _.||monks in monasteries|
|Which of the following statements regarding theRenaissance is not true?||Much of the instrumental music composed during theRenaissance was intended for church use.|
|What did Beatriz, Countess of Dia, compose?||A chantar|
|The _ was the most popular instrument inthe Renaissance home.||lute|
|The word Alleluia _.||All answers are correct.|
|What is the Renaissance motet?||A polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin textother than the ordinary of the mass|
|Guillaume de Machaut was a _ as wellas a musician.||poet|
|The notation of troubadour and trouvère melodiesdoes not indicate _.||rhythm|
|The lute song was widely cultivated in England from_.||the late 1590s to the 1620s|
|An estampie is a medieval _.||dance|
|A new system of music notation that allowedcomposers to specify almost any rhythmical pattern had evolved by the _.||early fourteenth century|
|The texture of Renaissance music is chiefly _.||polyphonic|
|Pope Gregory the Great _.||reorganized the Catholic church liturgy during hisreign from 590 to 604|
|During the Middle Ages, what institution was thecenter of musical life?||The church|
|The use of organs in church _.||bothered the clergy because they distracted thelisteners from worship|
|The first steps in a revolution that eventuallytransformed western music began sometime between 700 and 900 with the _.||addition of a second melodic line to Gregorianchant|
|Which of the following statements is not true ofhumanism?||The humanists were basically atheistic in theirbeliefs.|
|The earliest extant liturgical morality play, Ordovirtutum (Play of the Virtues), was composed by _.||Hildegard of Bingen|
|During the Renaissance, every educated person wasexpected to _.||All answers are correct|
|Which of the following statements is not true ofthe Renaissance?||The Catholic church was even more powerful in theRenaissance than during the Middle Ages.|
|The leading music center in sixteenth-centuryEurope was _.||Italy|
|Which of the following statements is not true?||Medieval music theorists favored the use of triads,the basic consonant chords of music.|
|During the late Middle Ages, the church believedthat instrumental music during religious services should be _.||used only as a discreet accompaniment|
|The church frowned on instruments because of their_.||earlier role in pagan rites|
|Gregorian chant _.||All answers are correct.|
|Which of the following is not a part of the massordinary?||Ave Maria|
|What is the passamezzo?||A stately dance in duple meter similar to thepavane|
|To what does a cappella refer?||Unaccompanied choral music|
|The phrase Middle Ages refers to the period ofEuropean history spanning _.||450-1450|
|What is the Renaissance madrigal?||A piece for several solo voices set to a shortpoem, usually about love|
|Thomas Weelkes’s As Vesta Was Descending is notablefor its _.||word painting|
|One of the major characteristics of ars nova musicis its use of _.||syncopation|
|Gregorian chant consists of _.||melody sung without accompaniment|
|Which of the following composers is not animportant madrigalist?||Josquin Desprez|
|Much of the instrumental music composed during theRenaissance was intended for _.||dancing|
|Which of the following describes a differencebetween English and Italian madrigals?||A lighter and more humorous tone|
|The form of the chant Alleluia: Vidimus stellam is_.||ABA|
|A(n) _ can be defined as two simultaneous,repeated notes at the interval of a fifth, played on a psaltery (a plucked orstruck string instrument).||drone|
|Why are Leonin and Perotin notable?||All answers are correct.|
|An attempt was made to purify Catholic church musicas a result of the _.||deliberations of the Council of Trent|
|Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina’s _.||music includes 104 masses and some 450 other sacredworks|
|The first steps toward the development of polyphonywere taken sometime between 700 and 900, when _.||monks in monastery choirs began to add a secondmelodic line to Gregorian chant|
|The term ars nova refers to _.||Italian and French music of the fourteenth century|
|Which statement is true about Palestrina’s Pope MarcellusMass?||All answers are correct.|
|Which of the following statements is not true?||Josquin spent most of his life in the province ofHainaut, today a part of Belgium.|
|The intellectual movement called humanism _.||focused on human life and its accomplishments|
|Why are Renaissance melodies usually easy to sing?||The melody often moves along a scale with few largeleaps.|
|Bernard of Clairvaux ordered his monks to sing_.||vigorously with manliness|
|Many prominent Renaissance composers, who heldimportant posts all over Europe, came from what was then _.||Flanders|
|We know from paintings and literary descriptions ofthe Middle Ages that _.||instruments were used|
|Who was Hildegard of Bingen?||All answers are correct.|
|What is the galliard?||A lively dance in triple meter|
|Medieval music that consists of Gregorian chant andone or more additional melodic lines is called _.||organum|
|The Renaissance in music occurred between _.||The Renaissance in music occurred between _.|
|Gregorian chant _.||is monophonic in texture|
|Why did the Council of Trent attack the churchmusic of the Renaissance?||It used secular tunes, noisy instruments, andtheatrical singing.|
|Most medieval music was _.||vocal|
|Lute songs are mostly _ in texture.||Homophonic|
|The medieval jongleurs, important sources ofinformation in a time when there were no newspapers, were _.||on the lowest social level|
|The expression of _, as heard in JohnDowland’s Flow My Tears, was a prominent feature of English literature andmusic in the time of William Shakespeare.||melancholy|
|Guillaume de Machaut’s compositions consist mainlyof _.||love songs with instrumental accompaniment|
|The development of the English madrigal can betraced to 1588 and considered a result of _.||the publication in London of a volume of translatedItalian madrigals|
|In the Middle Ages, most important musicians were_.||priests|
|Which of the following statements is not true ofRenaissance music?||Instrumental music became more important than vocalmusic during the Renaissance.|
|Church officials expected monks to sing _.||with proper pronunciation and tone quality|
|Palestrina’s career centered in _.||Rome|
|As a young student in Paris, Henri de Malines sang_.||monophonic songs in various languages|
|What we know about instruments in church comesmainly from _.||the pictures and literary descriptions of the day|
|Which of the following is not true of Gregorianchant?||It is usually polyphonic in texture.|
|How do Gregorian chant melodies tend to move?||Stepwise within a narrow range of pitches|
|The music the medieval monks sang was called_.||Gregorian chant|
|One function of secular music in the late MiddleAges was to provide accompaniment for _.||dancing|
|The earliest surviving chant manuscripts date fromabout the _ century.||ninth|
|Which of the following is not one of the fivesections of the Renaissance mass?||Alleluia|
|The Renaissance madrigal began around 1520 in_.||Italy|
|Secular music in the fourteenth century _.||All answers are correct.|
|The movement in which the Catholic church sought tocorrect abuses and malpractices within its structure is known as _.||the Counter-Reformation|
|Gregorian chant is named after Pope Gregory I, who_.||was credited by medieval legend with having createdit|
|In the recording of the medieval estampie, themelody is played on a rebec, a _.||bowed string instrument|
|The highlight of the day for monks and nuns was_.||the mass|
|A leading English composer of lute songs was_.||John Dowland|
|The Renaissance may be described as an age of_.||All answers are correct.|
|An outstanding composer of the ars nova was _.||Guillaume de Machaut|
|In most lute songs, the lute accompaniment _.||is subordinate to the voice|
|John Dowland’s Flow My Tears consists of _musical sections that are each immediately repeated.||three|
|Josquin Desprez spent much of his life in _.||Italy|
|Why is Gregorian chant seldom heard today?||The Second Vatican Council of 1962 to 1965 decreedservices be in the native language of each country.|
|William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, Prince Jaufre Rudel,Bernart de Ventadorn and Guillaume le Vinier were all famous _.||troubadours|
|The earliest known composers to write music withmeasured rhythm were _.||Leonin and Perotin|
|Which of the following statements is not true ofthe medieval estampie?||It was intended for religious services.|
|Church authorities in the Middle Ages_ their religious services.||wanted music only as a discreet accompaniment to|