Which Of The Following Statements About Gregorian Chant Is True

Music Unit 2 Flashcards

*Approximately 1,650 of their tunes have been saved. A majority of their songs dealt with courtly love, combat, and dancing. In relation to troubadours, which of the following claims is correct? * * Composers used drinking songs and birdcall imitations into their pieces. Polyphonic music was not always dependent on Gregorian chant, as was the case in the Renaissance. Which of the following statements accurately describes the developments in music throughout the fourteenth century? Gregorian chants were heard in the background Theologian, scientist, and physician Hildegard of Bingen produced treatises on a variety of subjects.

Hildegard is credited with writing the world’s first surviving mortality play.

The vielle, which is a medieval Musical instrument, is used to provide the accompaniment for this particular performance.

There are two lower voices in the group.

  1. There are also two upper voices with more dynamic, syncopation-based rhythyms to be found throughout the piece.
  2. *They were the fundamental musical scales that were utilized throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
  3. Seven tones are found in both church modes and contemporary scales.
  4. * Some of the texts for mass were repeated on a daily basis.
  5. Some passages were only used at mass on special occasions, like as Christmas, and others were used on a regular basis.
  6. Is this true or false: Additionally, there were female troubadours, whose songs were performed to men from the point of view of a female character.
  7. *Wondering Jongluers.

That were the people who performed secular music in the Middle Ages, and where did they come from?

In their compositions, composers incorporated drinking chants and birdcall impersonations.

*Parties, games, and dancing were all accompanied by music, both indoors and out.

Identify which of the following assertions is true regarding secular music in Paris during the Middle Ages.

Texture might change depending on the music, ranging from homophonic to polyphonic.

* It was derived from a piece of vocal composition.

*Renaissance artists used a variety of instruments, including wind, string, and percussion instruments.

Because Renaissance composers did not specify which instruments should be used to perform their compositions, performers were free to utilize whatever instruments were available.

Composers frequently employ the technique of imitating the primary melody in their works.

*A harp may be found in the bottom middle of the photo, at the front of the picture.

In the lower left corner of the photo, there is an organ or a regal, according on your preference.

*It represents poetic imagery through the use of word painting.

The interest in language that humanists have for it is reflected in vocal music.

Notre Dame musicians were at the forefront of the creation of polyphonic music.

It was a cultural and intellectual hub, with the University of Paris attracting experts from all over the world.

The majority of medieval music manuscripts do not provide comprehensive performance directions; instead, they mostly suggest .* There was a war called the Hundred Years’ War.

Sensuality is a subject that appears in literature.

* The first organum was a Gregorian chant with a second melodic line layered on top of the original.

Early organum is characterized by which of the following assertions is correct?

In addition, they were among the first to make use of music notation to indicate a certain beat.

His disappointment at having been forgotten by the young girl he admired and admired him.

The melody of the song has been preserved in music notation.

During this period, significant changes occurred in the musical landscape.

It was generally the melody that was sung in slow, lengthy notes when the original chant was performed in organum.

When used in religious ceremonies, such as prayers and rites, Gregorian chant is enhanced.

Gregorian chant is characterized by which of the following assertions is correct?

*The beat that was measured had a clearly defined meter.

Why were rhythmic advances made by Notre Dame composers in the late 1110s so significant to the history of music?

Throughout the year, they stayed the same on a daily basis.

* An early kind of instrumental music, a medieval dance in triple meter with a powerful, quick rhythm.

What are some of the descriptions that apply to an Estample?

He was employed as a chaplain.

There was no longer a restriction on the melody line’s ability to move in tandem with the chant.

Identify which of the following assertions concerning the features of organum by the year 1100 is right.

When compared to other chants, O Successores has a stronger sense of developing momentum towards a climax (on the word officio).

It was created just for the nuns of Hildegard’s monastery, and they were to perform it.

* A section that finishes with “Grant us Peace” rather than “Have compassion upon us” follows two parts that are similar to one another.

According to Machaut’s Notre Dame Mass, which of the following claims is correct about the Anguus Dei?

Which of the following reflects a significant development in medieval organum?

OFFICE services were provided on a daily basis and were considered the highlight of each day.

* Gregorian chant’s “otherworldly” quality was attributed to the usage of church modes.

Both the church modes and the contemporary scales include seven tones.

There are two lower voices in the group.

Two higher voices, each with more aggressive, syncopated rhythms, are also included.

This section has two sections that are similar to one another, followed by a part that finishes with “Grant us peace” rather than “Have compassion on us.” Are the Angus Dei’s words from Machaut’s Notre Dame Mass accurate statements?

* He traveled extensively, composing music for a variety of courts and churches.

What was it that Josquin Desprez did?

* The imitation of the primary melody is a typical technique employed by composers.

* Because the numerous melodies overlap, the rhythm is not easily discernible.

*The word “together” is sung by all of the voices.

*When the text is depicted by the music.

Basically, it was a string instrument in the shape of a half-pear.

This is a true statement concerning the Lute during the Renaissance period.

The Motet * Mass and other genres of holy music were generally performed.

Which of the following is more accurate when comparing the Motet and the Mass in the Renaissance?

For Queen ElizabethIt is a polyphonic English Madrigal with no instruments and a great deal of word painting.

Describe the music you’ve heard:*It is mostly polyphonic;*there are just a few individual voices;*it is a choral piece.

Using secular melodies and dramatic singing in Catholic church music had resulted in the loss of the purity of the music, according to some.

*By employing a slow tempo,* composers began to take advantage of the capabilities of popular instruments.

A composer employs polyphonic imitation, which was popular throughout the Renaissance.

What occurs in Josquin’s Ave Maria is a mystery.

Palestrina’s music is concerned with The lute imitates the rising jumps of the vocals and grows more prominent.

It was derived from a piece of vocal composition. What was the distinguishing feature of instrumental music? An arrangement of the Latin hymn “Ave Maria” with polyphonic imitation is presented in this piece.

The Middle Ages

Historically, the traditions of Western music may be traced back to the social and theological changes that occurred in Europe throughout the Middle Ages, which corresponded to the period roughly spanning 500 to 1400 years before the present. Because of the dominance of the early Christian Church during this time period, religious music was the most common type of music heard. The development of church music began with Gregorian Chant and progressed to a polyphonic melody known asorganum, which was sung at Notre Dame in Paris around the eleventh century.

  • Before the Middle Ages, music had been a part of the world’s civilizations for hundreds of years, if not thousands of years.
  • The term music stems from the ancient Greek muses, who were nine goddesses of art and knowledge who were worshipped in ancient Greece.
  • Pythagoras and others were responsible for establishing the Greekmodes, which are scales composed of entire tones and halfsteps.
  • The early Church was able to assert ultimate control over these feudal lords primarily via the use of superstitious terror.
  • In these days and times, western music was almost the exclusive property of the Christian Church.
  • Christianplainchant, like all music in the Western culture until to this point, was monophonic: that is, it consisted of a single melody with no harmonic support or accompaniment.
  • The melodies are loose and appear to roam, as if they are being guided by the Latin liturgical texts to which they have been composed.

In the sixth century, it was claimed that Pope Gregory I (reigned 590-604) standardized them, ensuring universal usage across the Western Church.

In the Easter hymn, Victimae paschali laudes, you may get a sense of the clear, floating melody that it has.

(Insert audio clip) The Ars Antiqua and Notre Dame are two of the most famous buildings in the world.

Organum was the name given to the hollow-sounding music that resulted as a result of this process during the following hundred years.

This was followed by a slow singing of the original chant tune in the tenor voice, with additional melodies weaving around and embellishing the resultant drone.

Leonin (fl.

1163-1190), who produced organa for two voices, and his successor Pérotin (fl.

Pérotin’s work is an exceptional example of this extremely early type of polyphony (music for two or more voices that sound at the same time), as may be heard in his arrangement of Sederunt principes (Sederunt principles) (sound clip).

The Trouvères and the Troubadours are two types of street performers.

There were no restrictions on this music because it did not follow the traditions of the Church, and it was not even written down until sometime after the tenthcentury.

Even so, hundreds of these songs were written and performed (and much later recorded) by bands of musicians that flourished across Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, the most renowned of whom were the French trouvères and troubadours, who were the most famous of all.

See also:  Pagan Chant, When You're Magic

It is love, in all its incarnations of joy and agony, that is the theme of the vast majority of these songs.


Additionally, he has been recognized as the author of a large number of songs and verses, someof which take the form of themotet, a musical composition in which two or more separate lines are stitched together at the same time, without regard to what we now consider normal harmonies.

(sound clip) is an example of such a work.

Guillaume de Machaut and the Ars Nova Guillaume de Machaut was born in the Champagne area of France about 1300 and died in Rheims in 1377.

He remained at the court of John until the monarch’s death in battle at Crécy in 1346, during which time he worked as the king’s secretary.

Several significant patrons, including the future Charles V of France, sought out his talents as a composer and conductor.

Machautis is arguably most known for being the first composer to construct a polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Catholic Mass, which he did in 1845.

The “Gloria” from Machaut’s Messe de Notre Dame exemplifies the new style of the fourteenthcentury, which was dubbed theArs Nova by composers of the time (sound clip).

Despite the fact that the Mass is perhaps his most well-known work today, Machaut also penned scores of secular love songs, many of which were in the manner of the polyphonic Ars Nova or “new art,” which he admired.

The secular motets of the Middle Ages eventually developed into the massive quantity and outpouring of music produced by the great RenaissanceMadrigalists of the Renaissance period. Jason R. Ogan conducted research in 2001.

Gregorian chant

Gregorian chant is a type of liturgical music performed in unison or in monophony by the Roman Catholic Church to accompany the readings of the mass and the canonical hours, sometimes known as the divine office. The Gregorian chant is named after St. Gregory I, who was Pope from 590 to 604 and during whose reign it was collected and codified. King Charlemagne of the Franks (768–814) brought Gregorian Chant into his country, which had previously been dominated by another liturgical style, the Gallican chant, which was in general usage.

  • The passages that are repeated from one mass to the next are included in theOrdinary of the Mass.
  • The first appearance of the Gloria was in the 7th century.
  • The Gloria chants that follow are neumatic.
  • TheSanctus andBenedictus are most likely from the period of the apostles.
  • Since its introduction into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century, theAgnus Dei has been written mostly in neumatic form.
  • The Proper of the Mass is a collection of texts that are different for each mass in order to highlight the significance of each feast or season celebrated that day.
  • During the 9th century, it had taken on its current form: a neumatic refrain followed by a psalm verse in psalm-tone style, followed by the refrain repeated.

As time progressed, it evolved into the following pattern: opening melody (chorus)—psalm verse or verses in a virtuously enriched psalmodic structure (soloist)—opening melody (chorus), which was repeated in whole or in part.

Its structure is similar to that of the Gradual in several ways.

Synagogue music has a strong connection to this cry.

Sacred poems, in their current form, the texts are written in double-line stanzas, with the same accentuation and amount of syllables on both lines for each two lines.

By the 12th century, just the refrain had survived from the original psalm and refrain.

The Offertory is distinguished by the repeating of text.

The song has a neumatic feel to it.

Responses are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic chant; psalms, with each set to a psalm tone; hymns, which are usually metrical and in strophes or stanzas and set in a neumatic style; and antiphons or refrains, which are short texts that precede or follow each psalm and are mostly set in syllabic The Gradual’s form and style are influenced by the sponsor’s contribution.

Amy Tikkanen has made the most current revisions and updates to this page.

What is Gregorian Chant – GIA Publications

Before reviewing the main Gregorian chant books and resources, perhaps it is good to state what Gregorian chant is.Gregorian chant is the church’s own music, born in the church’s liturgy. Its texts are almost entirely scriptural, coming for the most part from the Psalter. For centuries it was sung as pure melody, in unison, and without accompaniment, and this is still the best way to sing chant if possible. It was composed entirely in Latin; and because its melodies are so closely tied to Latin accents and word meanings, it is best to sing it in Latin. (Among possible exceptions are chant hymns, since the melodies are formulaic and are not intrinsically tied to the Latin text.) Gregorian chant is in free rhythm, without meter or time signature.Because the liturgy was sung almost entirely in Gregorian chant in the Middle Ages (with polyphony saved for special occasions), every type of liturgical text has been set in chant: readings, prayers, dialogs, Mass propers, Mass ordinaries, office hymns, office psalms and antiphons, responsories, and versicles. Although Pope St. Gregory the Great (590–604) certainly did not play a role in the creation or compilation of our chant melodies, popular legend led the church to name Gregorian chant after this great leader.Many other types and styles of music are similar to Gregorian chant or inspired by it, but one should distinguish them from Gregorian chant. Taizé chants, for example, are generally in Latin, similar to Gregorian chant antiphons. But the musical style is quite different: metered and with choral harmonies and/or instrumental accompaniments.Many psalm tones have been written since the Second Vatican Council. They are much like Gregorian chant psalm tones with their free rhythm and their repeatable melodic formulas. By Gregorian psalm tones, however, we mean a set of particular melodies, one for each of the Gregorian modes, always in the form of two measures. The Gregorian psalm tones are well suited to the Latin language, but do not work very well with English accents, unless one takes freedom in adapting them. For English psalm verses, it is probably wiser to use psalm tones written for the English language. Back to Gregorian Chant Resources

Which of the following statements is not true of the Renaissance A Education was

This sample displays pages 2 – 4 of a total of 14 pages. Intro to Music Exam 2 MedRen (Introduction to Music Exam 2) 7.Which of the following assertions about the intellectual movement known as humanism that emerged during the Renaissance is incorrect? A.The Madonna was handled as if she were a lovely young lady. B.The humanists had fundamentally atheistic ideas at their core. C.The humanists were enchanted by the paganism of ancient Greece and Rome, and they sought to emulate it. D.Humanists were concerned with the accomplishments of human beings and their lives.

  1. During this time period, the Renaissance in music happened.
  2. Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.
  3. Aristocrats and members of the upper middle class saw education as a marker of social position.
  4. A steady movement in musical activity occurred from the church to the courtroom.
  5. St.
  6. Get a response to your question and much more by completing the form below.
  7. 13.Many notable Renaissance composers, who held key positions throughout Europe, hailed from a region known at the time as 14.Which of the following assertions about Renaissance music is not true?

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Mark’s Cathedral inspired the creativity of Venetian composers.

D.the employment of female musicians 16.The most important musical center in sixteenth-century Europe was the city of Milan.

Getting an answer to your query and much more in Venice was the main point of musical activity.

The texture of Renaissance music is primarily characterized by Get an answer to your inquiry, as well as a whole lot more.

Identify which of the following assertions is not correct.

Mark’s Cathedral in Venice engaged as many as twenty instrumentalists and thirty vocalists at a time.

C.The a cappella polyphonic texture characteristic of Renaissance music was preferred by the composers of the Venetian school. The polychoral motets of D.Giovanni Gabrieli necessitate the participation of an unprecedentedly vast number of singers.

MUL1010 Section 2 – Subjecto.com

The phrase Middle Ages refers to the period ofEuropean history spanning_ 450-1000
In the Middle Ages, most important musicians were_ priests
A virtual monopoly on learning during the MiddleAges was held by_ monks and monasteries
During the Middle Ages, women_ were not permitted to sing in church
The church frowned on instruments because of their_ earlier roles in pagan rites
The use of organs in the church_ distracted the listeners from worship
The music the Medieval monks and nuns sang wascall_ Gregorian Chant
The two types of services at which monks and nunssang were_ the office and the mass
In the Middle Ages, the organ_ was a prominent church isntrument
An important woman composer of the Middle Ages was_ Hildegard of Bingen
Most medieval music was_ vocal
The view of the later medieval church on musicduring religious services was that it should be_ used only as a discreet accompaniment
Gregorian chant_ All of these
Gregorian chant is_ monophonic in texture
Gregorian chant consists of_ melody sung without accompaniment
Which of the following is not true of Gregorianchant? It is usually polyphonic in texture
Pope Gregory the Great_ reorganized the liturgy of the Catholic churchduring his reign from 590-604
The earliest surviving chant manuscripts date fromabout the_century ninth
The church modes were_ the basic scales of western music during the MiddleAges
Alleluia_ -may be translated as “praise ye theLord” -is Latinized form of the Hebrew hallelujah -is often used inGregorian chants all of these are correct
Hildegard of Bingen was_ -the first woman composer to leave a large numberof works that have survived -abbess the convent at Rupertsberg -a visionaryand mystic active in religious and diplomatic affairs all of these arecorrect
The first large body of secular songs that survivesin decipherable notation was composed_ during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries byFrench nobles called troubadours and troveres
One function of secular music in the late MiddleAges was to provide accompaniment for_ dancing
The French secular music in the late Middle Ageswas to provide accompaniment for_ dancing
A famous French woman troubadour was_ Beatriz de Dia
The notation of the secular songs of the MiddleAges does not indicate_ rhythm
The medieval jongleurs, important sources ofinformation in a time when there were no newspapers, were_ ranked at the lowest social level
An estampie is a medieval dance
Which of the following statements is not true ofthe medieval estampie? It was intended for religious services
The first steps toward the development of polyphonywere taken sometime between 700 and 900, when_ monks in monastery choirs began to add a secondmelodic line the Gregorian chant
_is a term applied to medieval music thatconsists of Gregorian chant and one more additional melodic lines Organum
The earliest known composers to write music withmeasured rhythm were_ Leonin and Perotin
The terms ars nova refers to_ French and Italian music of the fourteenth century
One of the major characteristic of ars nova musicis its use of_ syncopation
The foremost composer of fourteenth-century Francewas_ Guillaume de Machaut
The Notre Dame Mass by Guillaume de Machaut was_ -written for three voices without instrumentalaccompaniment -is the only mass from the middle ages to incorporate theentire proper of the mass into one work’ -the first polyphonic treatment ofthe mass ordinary by a known composer all of these are correct
Cantus firmus is the term used for_ a chant that is used as the basis of polyphony
The Renaissance in music occurred between_ 1450-1600
The dominant intellectual movement of theRenaissance was called_ humanism
Which of the following statements is not true ofthe intellectual movement of the Renaissance known as humanism? The humanists were basically atheistic in theirbeliefs
Many prominent renaissance composers, who heldimportant posts all over the continent, came from an area of Europe known atthat time as_ Flanders
Which of the following statements is not true ofRenaissance music? Instrumental music became more important than vocalmusic during the Renaissance
Renaissance music sounds fuller than medieval musicbecause_ -composers considered the harmonic effect of chordsrather than superimposing one melody above another -the bass register is usedfor the first time -the typical choral piece has four, five, or six vocalparts of nearly equal melodic interest all of these are correct
The texture of Renaissance music is chiefly_ polyphonic
A cappella refers to_ unaccompanied choral music
Renaissance melodies are usually easy to singbecause_ the melody usually moves along a scale with fewlarge steps
The two main forms of sacred Renaissance music andthe mass are the_ motet
The Renaissance motet is a_ polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin textother than the ordinary of the mass
Josquin Desprez was a contemporary of_ Christopher Columbus
Palestrina’s career centered in_ Rome
Giovanni Pierluigi de Palestrina’s_ music includes 104 masses and some 450 other works
An attempt was made to purify Catholic Church musicas a result of the_ deliberations of the Council of Trent
During the Renaissance every educated person wasexpected to_ -read musical notation -play a musical instrument-be skilled in dance all of these are correct
The Renaissance madrigal is a_ piece for several solo voices set to a short poem,usually about love
The madrigal anthology The Triumphes of Oriana waswritten in honor of_ Queen Elizabeth I
Thomas Weelkes’s As Vesta Was Descending is notablefor its_ word painting
Much of the instrumental music composed during the Renaissancewas intended for_ dancing
A versatile plucked string instrument with a bodyshaped like half a pear, popular during the Renaissance, was the_ lute
The passamezzo is a_ stately dance in duple meter
Among the most important Italian Renaissancecomposers was_ Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
See also:  What Is Ohm Chant


OUTLINE FOR MUSIC Since the dawn of recorded history, humans have played an essential role in a variety of activities. Music today plays an extremely essential and critical function in the lives of all human beings. It can be found virtually everywhere on our planet. One more stimulation to add to the huge ocean of impulses that our senses acquire on a daily basis. Humans utilize music for a variety of purposes, including: Amusement for one’s own amusement Activities that promote contemplation.

  • �Stimulation.
  • Sound is transmitted and received in two ways.
  • Areceiverto is a device that can detect and record sound vibrations.
  • A membrane made of animal hide or synthetic material is used to protect the skin.
  • Beads rattling in a confined container can be heard.
  • In a tiny resonating tube, the buzzing of lips may be heard.
  • The movement of small pieces of reed linked to a tube is triggered by the action of human breathing.
  • Sound may also be created artificially through the use of electrical synthesis.
  • Notation, melody, rhythm, harmony, texture, form, dynamics, and timbre are all elements of music.

NOTATION Written on paper in order for the music to be performed again and over again is the goal. System of notation for music Having the ability to read and interpret written music notation is not necessary for most people to enjoy and comprehend most music, but it does help. MELODY – A song about love and loss (Line, Space) Melody A series of single tones or pitches that are thought to be coherent in their appearance. Melody has the following characteristics: �Pitch The highness or lowness of a tone is determined by the frequency of the tone (rate of vibration) �Interval The distance between two pitches, as well as their connection.

  • (either narrow, medium, or broad) �Shape The direction that a melody follows as it ascends or descends, or as it remains static, is called the tempo.
  • �Cadence Musical punctuation is a location where a musical phrase can take a break.
  • RHYTHM – A rhythm is a pattern of beats (Rhythm, Pattern, Repetition, Time) Rhythm In music, the concept of time is present.
  • Accentuation is the placement of emphasis on a note such that it is louder or lasts longer than another.
  • In music, there are many different types of styles.
  • �Meter Measurement is the grouping of beats into bigger, more regular patterns that are notated.

�Downbeat In any meter, the first beat of a measure is the most powerful beat. Syncopation is the deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse by a brief change of the accent to a weak beat, or an offbeat, in a musical composition.

  • Polyrhythmic – The employment of numerous different rhythmic patterns or meters at the same time

Nonmetric music is music that does not have a strong sense of rhythm or meter. A HARMONY – (Balance)Harmony is the simultaneous combination of notes, as well as the connections between intervals and chords that result. Harmony has the following characteristics: �Chord A single block of harmony is formed by the simultaneous combination of tones (usually three or more) that form a single block of harmony. �Scale A succession of tones or pitches that are either rising or decreasing in pitch. �Tonality The principle of structuring a work around a core tonic, or home pitch, that is based on a major or minor scale is called tonic structure.

  • Diatonic
  • Chromatic
  • Consonance
  • Dissonance
  • Drone
  • Tonic and diatonic

THE TEXTURE – (Texture) Texture A musical fabric is formed by the intertwining of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) parts. Generally speaking, they are as follows: A single melody is presented by a single voice or section in a monophonic composition. Heterophonic compositions are those in which two or more voices/parts elaborate on the same melody at the same time. Homophonic music consists of a main melody and an accompanying harmony. The term polyphonic refers to the combination of two or more melodies into a multi-voiced texture.

Formal characteristics include: �Repetition Within a form, repetition cements the material in our minds and fulfills our craving for the familiar; it brings a form’s elements together as a whole.

(Variety) �Variation A principle that allows for some characteristics of the music to be changed while remaining recognizable.

�Theme In music composition, a melodic concept is employed as a fundamental building component in the production of the piece.

  • Motive A tiny, thematic fragment that serves as the basis of a melodic-rhythmic structure
  • Sequence The same notion repeated at a higher or lower pitch level
  • Obligato A brief musical pattern- melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic- that is repeated repeatedly throughout a work or a main portion of a composition In this example, a brief (four-note) descending pattern in the bass can be heard throughout the piece beneath the vocals.

DYNAMICS – The study of motion (Emphasis, Subordination, Value) Dynamics The relative loudness or quietness of music is indicated via the use of designations. Pianissimo, Piano, Mezzo-piano, Forte, Fortissimo, Pianissimo, Piano, Mezzo-piano �Crescendo The dynamic effect of progressively becoming louder as time passes �Decrescendo The dynamic effect of becoming progressively softer over time. �Sforzando A single note or chord is given a rapid emphasis or accent by pressing down on the note or chord.

  • “Tone color” is another term for this.
  • Strings are a kind of string.
  • (Violins, violas, cellos, bass, harp, guitar, and percussion) Woodwinds are a group of instruments.
  • (Flute, piccolo, clarinet, bassoon, oboe, bass clarinet, and saxophone are among the instruments represented.) The Brass Clad Family Trumpet, French horn, trombone, and tuba are examples of brass instruments.
  • Surface-playing instruments are those that are played by striking the instrument’s surface.

(Piano, harpsichord, and synthesizers are among the instruments used). �Ensembles Groups of people that play music (instrumental, vocal and mixed)

Medieval/Renaissance Music

Summary of Medieval and Renaissance Music

Dark Ages ca. 500-1000 later Middle Ages ca. 1000-1400 Renaissance ca. 1400-1600
music Gregorian chant polyphonic vocal music (sacred and secular)
notation crude notation (approximate indication of pitch) staff notation (precise indication of pitch and rhythm)
See also:  How Old Is Gregorian Chant

General Features

The shift from the medieval to the Renaissance periods in the structure of Western music was a watershed moment in history. As time progressed through the Middle Ages, monophony evolved into polyphony (seeMusical Texture). During the Renaissance, the shell harmony of the Middle Ages was replaced with genuine harmony, which is still in use today.

Transitions in the Structure of Western Music

Middle Ages Renaissance Baroque
monophonypolyphony shell harmonytrue harmony church modesmajor/minor scales

A major and a minor scale were used in Western art music throughout the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods, respectively (seeTonality). Thechurch modes were a set of eight scales that were used in medieval and Renaissance music, as opposed to the scales used in modern music. 4 Benjamin D. Esham “>The church modes proved to be extremely useful in the composition of smooth melodies. They proved unsuitable for the task of composing harmony, which became increasingly difficult as the practice of harmony-writing became more widespread and complex.

Main Article

Between the years 500 and 1400 During theEarly Christianperiod (ca. 200-500), sections of scripture were put to customary Roman tunes, a practice that continues today. As a result of Pope Gregory I’s efforts, these pieces were gathered into an official Church repertory throughout the Dark Ages (about 500-1000). As a result, they are referred to as Gregorian chant. 2 Gregorian chants are monophonic vocal pieces that have traditionally been sung at a variety of Roman Catholic rituals. An individual soloist to a whole choir performs chants on various scales and styles.

  • It was during the late Middle Ages that the development of polyphony started, when some musicians began to enhance Gregorian chants with a parallel melodic line.
  • In practice, lines were never exactly parallel throughout the duration of a piece; otherwise, some unpleasant-sounding intervals would surely be produced.
  • When each line acquired independent pitch movement and rhythm, fully-developed polyphony arose in the later medieval period (ca.
  • The number of lines increased as well, leading to the widespread use of three- and four-part polyphony.
  • The roots of staff notation may be traced back to the Middle Ages, when melodies were approximated by simple marks on the page.
  • I49,6
Evolution of Western Music Notation

Dark Age notation addition of staff lines modern notation
Credit:Zman Credit:public domain Credit:Mezzofortist

To summarize, the primary form of Western art music throughout the Dark Ages was Gregorian chant, which was performed in a monophonic style. In the beginning, polyphonic music consisted of chants that were enhanced with extra melody lines; later, completely unique polyphonic music was produced (along with polyphonic music built on top of Gregorian chants). Even after hundreds of years, the pattern of composing polyphonic music on top of an existing melody would persist; it was only during the Baroque era that it became usual practice to produce entirely fresh music.

Secular Music

In the Middle Ages, improvements in music practice and theory were primarily driven by holy music, which continued to be the case today. Over the course of centuries, these developments helped to spread secular music (non-religious music). I61,3 Since antiquity, secular vocal music has been written for the purpose of public amusement and recreation. This type of composition was popular from antiquity to the early Middle Ages, and its common subjects included heroic narratives, love romances, and sarcastic reflections (see Musical Texture).

I18,3 Later on in the Middle Ages, minstrels were joined by groups such as thetroubadours (from southern France), thetrouveres (from northern France), and minnesingers and meistersingers (from Germany) (Germany).

Up to the Baroque era, polyphonic secular compositions were frequently based on pre-existing melodies (rather than being produced entirely from scratch) in the same way that their religious equivalents were.

Renaissance Music

Approximately 1400-1600 The term “Renaissance” refers to the resurgence of classical culture in the Western world (i.e. Greco-Roman culture). In other circumstances, this resurgence was relatively straightforward; for example, sculptors resurrected the classical statue by analyzing old originals. Because there was no extant ancient music to model their work by, composers participated in the Renaissance by adhering to the generalclassical ideals of simplicity, balance, order, and clarity, among other things (seeWestern Aesthetics).

  1. Renaissance composers were in the forefront of this trend, favoring melodies and harmonies that were simpler and more straightforward.
  2. It is via the use of imitation that a melody may be expanded and amplified, and it also acts as an uniting factor throughout a musical composition.
  3. There are two pieces to “shell harmony”: the root note and the fifth note of the root note.
  4. I86-89,3 Generally speaking, France held the reins of Western civilization throughout the latter Middle Ages, while Italy held the reins during the Renaissance.

Music, on the other hand, is an exception to this generalization. However, while later medieval music was actually dominated byFrance, Renaissance music was dominated by three regions, all of which were in succession: Burgundy, the Low Countries, and Italy.

Instrumental Music

Music for vocal works (both holy and secular) dominated the musical landscape during the Middle Ages and Renaissance periods, with instrumental music serving mostly as an accompaniment for vocal pieces or dancers. Nonetheless, the Renaissance saw the emergence of autonomous instrumental music as a distinct genre. Most Renaissance instrumental compositions were written for the lute, keyboard instruments (organs, harpsichores, and clavichords), or small ensembles (stringed instruments and/or brass instruments) rather than large orchestras.

4 – “Diatonic,” according to the Encyclopedia Britannica.

5 – “Church mode,” as defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica.

6) “Musical notation,” Encarta 2004.7 “Josquin Desprez,” Encarta 2004.8 “Claudio Monteverdi,” Encarta 2004.9 “Opera,” Encyclopedia Britannica This page was last updated in September 2010.


Practice Test Number Two DESCRIPTION OF THE MIDDLE AGES AND RENAISSANCE (476-1400) ����Answers Questions with a true or false answer: 1. The term “Middle Ages” refers to a period of European history that spans over a thousand years. The majority of learning during the Middle Ages was monopolized by monks who lived in monasteries. Music manuscripts from the Middle Ages reveal that the majority of medieval music was instrumental in nature. 4. The Gregorian chant has a homophonic structure in terms of sound.

The melodies of Gregorian chants tend to advance in leaps and bounds across a wide range of pitch values.

Organum is a term used to refer to medieval music that comprises of Gregorian chant plus an extra melodic line in addition to the chant.

During the Renaissance, educated individuals were frequently instructed in music, literature, drama, and visual arts.

The texture of Renaissance music is predominantly homophonic in nature.

A large portion of the instrumental dance music written during the Renaissance was intended for use in the ecclesiastical setting.

Troubadours were poets and musicians who lived throughout the Middle Ages.

During the 1400s, there was a decline in the emphasis placed on secular music.

During the Renaissance, solo instrumental music, particularly on the lute, witnessed an increase in popularity.

The madrigal’s text is religious in nature, while the texture is homophonic in nature.

The Renaissance madrigal was very expressive, employing tactics such as word painting to achieve this effect.

The Renaissance Mass was composed in a single movement for singers and instruments.

The creation of the printing press in Western Europe was a development associated with the Renaissance period.

The Second Part consists of the following sections: Fill in the blanks 18.

The few surviving medieval dances, as well as the music that accompanied them, are collectively referred to as_.

Hildegard of Bingen is recognized by the following titles: a.

The mother of Richard the Lion-Hearted was a nun, a church composer, a natural historian, and a poet.

Who has usually been tasked with the task of collecting and codifying the chants of the Catholic Church?

Single line melodies from the early Christian Church that are performed in unison are referred to as_.

It has a monophonic texture in terms of sound.

It is mostly always not metricated.


Which of the following genres was most popular among medieval entertainers?

Chants of the Gregorian calendar 25.


This was dubbed as_ by the media.

In the Renaissance mass, melodies travel from one voice to another, mimicking one another; this texture is referred as as_.

This is the name given to the expressive method employed by Renaissance composers to musically pictorialize words from sung text.




a.Mass celebrated by Pope Marcellus A Madrigal in the style of “As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending Descending” by Thomas Weelkes; c.Organum Leonin’s on the theme of “Benedicamus Domino” by William Byrd; d.Monsiers Almain by William Byrd 34.

This technique is known as_ 35.


dancing musicc.

instrumental music to accompany the singing in church.

There were two forms of Renaissance chansons: the pavane and the galliard.

Raissance danced in the same meter as a couple of Raissance dancers d.

35 Which of the following works was authored by Bernard de Ventadorn?

What is the title of the work composed by Hildegard of Bingen?

Plainchant “Columba aspexitb.

Motet “Quant en moyd.

Troubadour song “La dousa votz 38 Which of the following works was authored by Guillaume de Machaut?

Plainchant “Columba aspexitb.

Motet “Quant en moyd.

Troubadour song “La dousa votz For number forty, which of the following works was written by Leonin or Perotin?

Plainchant “Columba aspexitb.

Motet “Quant en moyd.

Troubadour song “La dousa votz 41.


Lute solo “Fantasia No.

Madrigal “As Vesta was” d.

Mass “Pange lingua” b. Lute solo “Fantasia No. 7” John Dowland is the author of which piece of work? a. Mass “Pange lingua” b. Lute solo “Fantasia No. 7” c. Madrigal “As Vesta was” d. Pavane “Celeste giglio” a. Mass “Pange lingua” b. Lute solo “Fantasia No. 7” Reactions to the question

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