Medieval Church Music: Gregorian Chant & Plainchant – Video & Lesson Transcript
The arts were associated with the liturgy during the Middle Ages (500-1450), according to the church. They were powerful and wealthy, and they were in charge of the majority of choices, including dictating the job and paying musicians.
The church established a set of standards that everyone must adhere to. This music, which was termed plainchant, had a hollow tone to it. It was only slightly different from one location to the next when it came to unaccompanied church music (sang in unison). Despite this, holy music was the most popular, and it is said that the music regulations were delivered from above.
According to legend, the standardizing components It came from a dove who spoke in hushed tones to Pope Gregory. This may seem absurd, but it is the only record available, and as a result, the probable myth has endured for years. We’ll never know where it originates from in its true form. As a result, the tale continues to exist as status quo, with the belief that he is the one who established the cans and can’ts, which is why we refer to it as Gregorian Chant. Plainchant is a style of song that is sung in unison.
There was no harmony or instrumental accompaniment; they all sang the same song.
It was derived from other ancient religions, and perhaps simply a few inflections were borrowed from them.
Long, free-flowing rhythms were created from such a little quotation.
Organum and Interval Definitions
As time went on, the music became monotonous. One melody has missing notes, but they wanted it to be complete. Their hopes and ambitions came fulfilled in the year 900. Rather than simply one note, they might have two notes instead. The organum was composed of two melodic lines. Songs are sung at parallel intervals that have been properly defined The distance between two pitches on a football team’s field. You just read the notes as if they were a graph on a computer screen. It is possible to calculate the interval by counting the number of lines and spaces, which includes both notes and empty spaces.
- The clergy conferred at three different intervals: the fourth, fifth, and octave were all deserving of the title.
- It makes no difference whether you begin with a space or a line.
- Thefifthis is another one that’s regularly encountered.
- Both of the pitches lie on lines or spaces, which makes it easier to distinguish the fifth from the other pitches.
Finally, the octave is the longest span that has been seen. In between, there is a pitch range of eight different pitches. It’s a great choice for men’s and boys’ choruses. This wonderful sound is produced by an octave.
The Study of Fugue Flashcards
An early style of polyphonic music that was based on plainsong and had an accompaniment that was either sung below the melody or above it. Which time encompassed the Early Organum and the Free Organum? a bass line that is put underneath the plainchant melody It is one of the most common varieties of Oraganum. What exactly is the parallel organum? In this case, the plainchant melody is followed by a parallel movement. What was the earliest known manifestation of Organum? The melody of the Gregorian chant, as well as the same tune transposed by a consonant interval, generally a perfect fifth or fourth, are both included.
- One section was written down, while the other was improvised.
- What section of the organum was marked as notated?
- The portion of the organum that has been noted What exactly is the organalis vox?
- When the voices travel in oblique motion, opposite motion, and comparable motion to distinct intervals, this is referred to as free organum.
- The term discantus (which literally translates as “singing apart”) refers to a form of liturgical setting that arose in the Middle Ages and was related with the creation of the Notre Dame school of polyphony.
- It is not a musical form, but rather a method of performing music.
- It was first used as a kind of liturgical setting in the Middle Ages, and its name literally translates as “singing apart.” What are the imperfect consonances in this sentence?
If you hear the same melody repeated in several voices in a polyphonic texture, you are hearing it for the first time in a different voice.
One of the simplest types of musical textures, monophony is comprised solely of a melody (or “song”), which is often sung or played by a single musician (for example, a flute player), with no accompanying harmony or chords.
Similarly, a melody is regarded to be monophonic when a number of singers (for example, a chorus) sings the same melody at the same pitch (exactly the same pitch) or with the same melody notes reproduced at the octave (for example, in a concert) (such as when men and women sing together).
Is there a Latin term for a comparable motion?
Modus operandi optimus organisandi Sacred, but non-liturgical vocal composition for one or more voices, conductus (plural: conductus) is a sort of sacred, but non-liturgical vocal composition in medieval music.
During the ars antiqua period of medieval music history, the conductus was one of the most important genres of vocal composition to emerge.
There are other sub-types, such as a “gospel lectionary” or evangeliary, and an epistolary, which contains readings from the New Testament Epistles, among others.
The motet was one of the preeminent polyphonic genres of Renaissance music, and it is still performed today.
“It is not to be celebrated in the presence of common people because they do not notice its subtlety, nor are they delighted in hearing it,” according to the late 13th-century theorist Johannes de Grocheo.
This includes the time of the Notre Dame school of polyphony (the use of many, simultaneous, independent melodic lines), as well as the years following, which saw the beginnings of the motet, a highly diversified choral musical composition that is still in use today.
However, the word “ars antiqua” is frequently used more broadly to refer to all European music from the thirteenth century and before, including music from the Middle Ages.
The word canzone in Italian literally translates as “song.” A canzone (pronounced, plural: canzoni; cognate with the English word chant) is a ballad or song from Italy or Provençal.
A canzone is a simple, songlike piece that is often labelled as such, especially if it is composed by a non-Italian composer; a notable example is the aria “Voi che sapete” from Mozart’s Marriage of Figaro, which is designated as such.
Canzoni da sonar are compositions that are frequently classified as such; these pieces are considered to be a key forerunner to the sonata.
According to the work of certain composers, such as Paolo Quagliati, the phrases appear to have had no formal connotation in the first place.
A musical genre that originated in Spain around the mid-15th century is known as baroque music.
By the end of the 16th century, the tiento had become solely a keyboard form, particularly in the context of organ compositions.
Additionally, several composers from the twentieth century have created compositions with the title “tiento.” a musical style that originated in Spain about the middle of the 15th century It is formally comparable to the fantasia (fantasy), which was originally discovered in England, Germany, and the Low Countries, as well as the ricercare, which was discovered in Italy.
- As a result, it, like the impromptu, seldom approximates the textbook requirements of any rigorous musical style.
- is a type of musical composition that has its origins in the art of improvised music.
- When referring to a piece of music, capriccio or caprice (also pluralized as caprices, capri or, in Italian, capricci) is used to refer to a piece of music with a lively nature that is generally free in style.
- The phrase has been used in a number of contexts, encompassing works that employ a wide range of processes and forms, as well as a diverse range of vocal and instrumental forces, across time.
- In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, it might refer to madrigals, which were works of music meant for either singers or instruments, or it could refer to solely instrumental pieces, particularly keyboard compositions, during this period (Schwandt 2001).
- (Sinfonias are compositions in the same way as an invention, but with three-part counterpoint instead of two-part counterpoint.
- Inventions are often not played in front of an audience, but rather serve as practice exercises for keyboard students and as instructional activities for composition students who study composition.
In what language do you refer to a two-part intention?
While in discant style, the top half of a phrase may have more notes towards the conclusion of the phrase, resulting in a more melismatic passage at the end of the phrase.
This style is distinguished by the usage of rhythmic modes throughout each section of the piece.
The great fugue is both free and sought after at the same time.
What is the distinction between free imitation and rigorous imitation?
As a result, a round is an excellent example of exact mimicry.
A resemblance in the shape, rhythm, or gesture of two objects.
When Nicola Vicentino (1511 – 1575 or 1576) uses the word modo moderno, it is unclear to what he is addressing in his work.
just employing a portion of the material rather than all of it.
To what does he allude when he says “non moderni”?
What are the four (basic) genuine modalities of communication?
Hypodorian Hypophrygian Hypolydian Hypomixolydian Identify the six real gregorian modes: The authenticus tones are as follows: I.Protus authenticus, primus tonus dorian, dóricoIII.
tretardus authenticus, septum’s bonus, mixolydian, mixolidioIX.
Dorian, genuine, D, and A 2.
Phrygian, genuine, E, C, E, C, Phrygian 4.
Hypolydian, plagal, F, and A are the sixth elements.
G, C, and Hypomixolydian in the last stanza 8.
Protus plagius, secondus tonus hypodorian, hipodóricoIV Deuters plagius, Quarts tonus hypophrigian, hipofrigioII Protus plagius, secondus tonus hypodorian, hipodórico Tonus hypolydian, octaves, VI hypolydian, traits plagues, sexts tonus hypolydian, hipolidioVIII tretardus plagues, octaves VI hypolydian, octaves tonus hypomyxolydian, hipomixolidioX decimus tonus hypoaeolian, hipoeólicoXII duodecimos tonus hypoionian, hipojónicoXII duodecimos tonus hypoionian, hipojónicoXII duodecimos tonus hypoionian, hipojónicoXII duodecimos tonus hypoionian, hipojón “feigned” or “false music” refers to notes raised or lowered from the notated pitch during a performance; alterations were an important part of the music; singers were trained to know when it was acceptable to do so; most frequently occurred at cadence or to avoid the tritone; often occurred at cadence or to avoid the tritone Where does musica ficta appear on a regular basis?
in time with the cadence or in order to prevent the tritone
Hallucinating Melismas with Hildegard of Bingen
The world of the European Middle Ages was plagued by superstition, ignorance, and religious befuddlement, to name a few factors. Women, in particular, had it particularly tough at this period. Many were forced into arranged marriages and were denied access to further education. During the Middle Ages, the monastic life, such as that of a cloistered nun, was one of the few opportunities for a woman to further her education. One highly educated medieval lady was Hildegard of Bingen, a German abbess, religious mystic, and musician who lived in the 11th century (1098-1179 CE).
- She was particularly good at the genre of liturgical theater, which she specialized in.
- It is a type of drama in which the characters are intended to portray human characteristics such as evil, compassion and honesty among other things.
- Personified virtues and personified evils are used to create dramatic tension in Star Wars, The Lord of the Rings, The Godfather, Superman, and a slew of other novels, movies, and stage productions.
- Aside from her numerous accomplishments, the most unusual aspect of this medieval nun was her claim to be in contact with the divine.
Hildegard was born in Germany, in the town of Bingen, and was sent to a convent by her parents when she was eight years old as an anoblate, which is the practice of submitting one’s tenth child to the priesthood. The majority of the time, oblation is made for political purposes, but in Hildegard’s case, she was given to the clergy since she was unwell as a child and was most likely a burden on her family. Hildegard had strange hallucinations and distressing mental crises since she was three years old, which occurred frequently when she was ill, which she was.
By the age of five, she was aware that no one else in her immediate vicinity had seen such visions.
According to neurosurgeon Oliver Sacks, who studied Hildegard’s written descriptions of her episodes for his 1970 bookMigraine, “a careful consideration of these accounts and figures leaves no room for doubt concerning their nature: they were unquestionably migrainous, and they illustrate, in fact, many of the varieties of visual aura…”.
- Regardless, Hildegard was unwell and susceptible to hallucinations as a kid, and as a result, she was adopted by the clergy.
- At the adjacent Disibodenberg abbey, where they were both cloistered, Jutta taught Hildegard how to sing the psalms and hymns of the liturgy, which she then passed on to her daughter.
- Volmar would later on in life rise to the position of Hildegard’s secretary and best friend.
- Jutta, like Hildegard a century later, gained popularity and recognition as a Christian mystic, much like Hildegard herself.
- Jutta’s ideas are lost to history, in contrast to Hildegard’s situation, where historians have amassed a wealth of recorded knowledge about her life and times.
- Hildegard rose up the ranks to become Jutta’s personal assistant and confidante, a position known as Lady-in-Waiting in the industry.
- She also started making up chants on the spot.
By this point, knowledge of Hildegard’s odd visions had spread across the community.
Cuno, desirous of gaining the reputation that would come with having a genuine mystic at his monastery, informed the archbishop—Heinrich of Mainz.
The pope dispatched investigators to ascertain whether or not there was any evidence of heresy in the area.
Hildegard, on the other hand, was no heretic.
The delegates then took pieces of her work and brought them back to the Vatican, where the Pope was equally persuaded.
Having a desire for more independence, she desired to relocate all of the nuns to Rupertsberg (another monastery near the town of Bingen) and establish her own abbey.
She replied with an extreme bout of sickness and visionary possession that included paralysis, which she most likely inflicted on herself.
When Cuno eventually relented, Hildegard proceeded with her Rupertsberg-abbey-plan, bringing with her eighteen nuns and Volmar to the monastery.
Hildegard of Bingen requested that the Ordo Virtutum be conducted for the first time at the consecration ceremony of the Rupertsberg monastery in 1152.
Hildegard was now able to freely express her religious and musical beliefs without fear of retribution.
Several literary works were generated as a result of her encouragement from the Pope.
Scivias(1141-1151), her theological masterwork, is one of these works of art. Ordo Virtutum, her musical masterwork, is based on the last chapter of Scivias, which serves as the literary inspiration for the composition.
Hildegard amassed the biggest collection of liturgical plainsong created by a single composer in the Gregorian tradition, surpassing all other authors combined. Melismatic composition was her primary approach of composition. It was like this: she’d improvise extended sequences of notes starting with the same syllable and then apply the melody to newly written words. Her visions would frequently provide the words for her writing. Just as he did with her visions, it’s possible that Volmar would transcribe and record the improvised chant for her, as he did with her visions.
- When she relocated to the abbey at Rupertsberg, the shift in environment sparked a creative fervor that would last the remainder of her days there.
- This song has a speaking role for Satan, gorgeous, unearthly melodies, and intriguing lyrics that were concocted by Hildegard’s delusional mind.
- The narrative is as follows: There are seventeen ladies who play the roles of the Virtues, which include personalities such as Humility, Chastity, Hope, Discretion, Innocence, and other characteristics.
- The Virtues come face to face with the main character of the narrative, who is also played by a woman, and inform her that she must first live her life before she may enter the kingdom of God.
- The devil, being the purest manifestation of evil, is unable to sing since singing is a heavenly activity.
- The Virtues gladly accept her return and capture the demon.
- The Ordo is significantly less melismatic in its musical composition than Hildegard’s liturgical chants.
- However, other sections of the work, such as the interaction between Satan and the Virtues, are responsorial in nature.
- That is, having sections of the melody that contain phrases and motifs that are comparable to those found in other sections of the melody.
- Here’s an example of a respectable work of Ordo virtutum: In addition to Ordo Virtutum, Hildegard composed a collection of poetry, which she placed to a variety of antiphons, responsories, and hymns, utilizing her own compositions as the tunes.
This piece is commonly referred to asSymphonia for short. In total, Hildegard is responsible for forty-three antiphons, eighteen responsories, seven sequences, four hymns, five additional chants, and the Ordo, which is more music than any other known composer of liturgical chant (including Bach).
With her liturgical plainsong, Hildegard accumulated the biggest collection of liturgical plainsong created by any one author in the Gregorian tradition. Melismatic composition was her primary mode of expression. Her method was to compose extended sequences of notes with a single syllable and then apply the melody to fresh words that she had written. Her visions would frequently provide her with the words she needed to express herself. Almost certainly, Volmar would transcribe for her, as well as record, the spontaneous chant—much in the same way that he recorded her visions.
- When she relocated to the abbey at Rupertsberg, the shift in environment sparked a creative fervor that would last the rest of her days.
- This song has a speaking role for Satan, lovely, unearthly melodies, and intriguing lyrics that were concocted by Hildegard’s hallucinatory imagination.
- There are seventeen ladies who play the roles of the Virtues, which include personalities like Humility, Chastity, Hope, Discretion and Innocence, among others.
- A group of Virtues come across the main character of the narrative, who is also played by a woman, and inform her that she must first live her life before she may enter paradise.
- The devil, being the purest manifestation of evil, is unable to sing since singing is associated with the heavenly realm of beings and things.
- When she returns, the Virtues accept her and bind the demon in place.
- When it comes to music, Hildegard’s Ordo is significantly less melismatic than her liturgical chants.
- However, other sections of the work, such as the interplay between Satan and the Virtues, are responsorial rather than instrumental.
- For example, certain melodic sections feature phrases and motifs that are identical to those found in other sections of the song.
- As an example of Ordo virtutum, here is a reasonably good production: In addition to Ordo Virtutum, Hildegard composed a collection of poetry, which she placed to a variety of antiphons, responsories, and hymns, utilizing her own compositions as the basis for the melodies.
Shortly speaking, this piece is referred to asSymphonia In total, Hildegard is responsible for forty-three antiphons, eighteen responsories, seven sequences, four hymns, five additional chants, and the Ordo, which is more music than any other known composer of liturgical chant can claim.
Fiona Maddocks is the author of this work. Hildegard of Bingen was known as “the Woman of Her Time.” Doubleday Publishing Group, New York, 2001. Oliver W. Sacks’ Migraine: The Evolution of a Common Disorder is available online. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970. D. Grout, J. Burkholder, and C. Palisca are co-authors on this paper (2014). A look back at the history of Western music. Norton & Company, New York. R. Taruskin’s et al (2005). The Oxford history of Western music is a compendium of information on the subject.
“Hildegard of Bingen” is a topic covered in the Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.