Which Voice In The Organum Carries The Original Chant In Sustained Notes

a Polyphony 5 The text setting of Gaude Maria virgo is a 6 Gaude Maria virgo is

A.Polyphony 5.Gaude Maria virgois’s poem was adapted to music, and 6.Gaude Maria virgois performed 7.Gaude Maria virgois is sung in the second part of the song. 8.The use of polyphonic notation in music allowed for greater detail and control over the melodic texture. Organum arose as a result of the improvisatory tradition of10.Pérotin’s organum. 11.In medieval religious groups, polyphony was widely acknowledged as a form of communication. The use of polyphony in church was intended to enhance worship on the most important feast days of the church year.

14.The compilation of early polyphony is a type of composition.

In that it is sung antiphonally, Gaude Maria virgo is a classic example of the genre’s performing practice.

Which of the following was the single most essential characteristic in the evolution of Western music?

  • Which of the following assertions is NOT correct?
  • In the organum, which voice is responsible for carrying the original chant in sustained notes?
  • 24.Who was the founder and first principal of Notre Dame School?
  • is credited for assembling theMagnus liber organi, which is a collection of organs.
  • How does Machaut express the medieval interest with riddles in Ma fin estmon commencement?4.In the Western tradition, music has not historically been associated with mathematics or geometry.
  • Is my finish line in sight for my commencementset?
  • 7.Which secular medieval artists provided entertainment for audiences from upper social classes in medieval times?
  • 9.Machaut’s own poetry frequently revolves on the concept of10.
  • 11.The Ars nova heralded the beginning of significant advances in that changed the art of music.

Concise History of Western Music, 4e: Chapter 3 Polyphony through the Thirteenth Century

Title Description
Polyphony Music or musical texture consisting of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody.
Organum (Latin; pronounced OR-guh-num; pl. organa) (1) One of several styles of early polyphony in use from the ninth through the thirteenth centuries, involving the addition of one or more voices to an existing chant. (2) A piece, whether improvised or written, in one of those styles in which one voice is drawn from a chant.
Organal voice (Latin,vox organalis) In an organum, the voice that is added above or below the original chant melody.
Principal voice (Latin,vox principalis) In an organum, the original chant melody.
Parallel organum Type of polyphony in which an added voice moves in exact parallel to a chant, normally a perfect fifth below it. Either voice may be doubled at the octave.
Free organum Style of organum in which the organal voice moves in a free mixture of contrary, oblique, parallel, and similar motion against the chant (usually above it).
Aquitanian polyphony Style of polyphony from the twelfth century encompassing both discant and florid organum.
Versus (Latin, “verse”) A type of Latin sacred song, either monophonic or polyphonic, setting a rhymed, rhythmic poem.
Florid organum A twelfth-century style of two-voice polyphony in which the lower voice sustains relatively long notes while the upper voice sings notegroups of varying length above each note of the lower voice.
Discant (Latin, “singing apart”) (1) A twelfth-century style of polyphony in which the upper voice or voices have about one to three notes for each note of the lower voice. (2) A treble part.
Notre Dame polyphony A style of polyphony from the late-twelfth and thirteenth centuries, associated with the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris.
Rhythmic modes System of six durational patterns (for example, mode 1, long-short) used in polyphony of the late-twelfth and thirteenth centuries and as the basis of the rhythmic notation of the Notre Dame composers.
Clausula (Latin, “clause”; pl. clausulae) In Notre Dame polyphony, a self-contained section, closing with a cadence, of an organum.
Triplum (from Latintriplus,”triple”) (1) In polyphony of the late-twelfth through fourteenth centuries, the third voice from the bottom in a three- or four-voice texture, added to a tenor and duplum. (2) In Notre Dame polyphony, an organum in three voices.
Quadruplum (Latin, “quadruple”) (1) In polyphony of the late-twelfth through fourteenth centuries, the fourth voice from the bottom in a four-voice texture, added to a tenor, duplum, and triplum. (2) In Notre Dame polyphony, an organum in four voices.
Conductus A serious medieval song, monophonic or polyphonic, setting a rhymed, rhythmic Latin poem.
Motet (from Frenchmot,”word”) A polyphonic vocal composition; the specific meaning changes over time. The earliest motets add a text to an existing discant clausula. Thirteenth-century motets feature one or more voices, each with its own sacred or secular text in Latin or French, above a tenor drawn from a chant or other melody.
Cantus firmus (Latin, “fixed melody”) An existing melody, often taken from a Gregorian chant, on which a new polyphonic work is based; used especially for melodies presented in long notes.
Franconian notation System of notation, described by Franco of Cologne around 1280, using noteshapes to indicate durations.
Voice exchange In polyphony, a technique in which voices trade segments of music, so that the same combination of lines is heard twice or more, but with different voices singing each line.

harmony

Harmony is the sound of two or more notes being played at the same time in music. It is possible that certain occurrences of notes heard one after the other will fall under this wide definition in practice. If the notes of a familiarchord(a group of notes heard together) are recalled by the ear after being consecutively sounded, the ear develops its own simultaneity in the same manner that the vision experiences movement in a motion image. When this happens, the ear sees the harmony that would have resulted if the notes had all been played at the same time.

Musical sound may be divided into two categories: horizontal components and vertical components.

Vertical aspect: This is the sum total of everything that is happening at any given moment, whether it is the result of notes that are played against each other in counterpoint or, as in the case of a melody and accompaniment, the result of chords that are underpinned by the principal notes of the melody that are provided by the composer.

  1. It does, however, have a horizontal element, because the composer not only makes a harmonic sound at any given instant, but also links these sounds together in a series of harmonies that gives the music its unique style.
  2. Does the speed at which music is performed have anything to do with harmony?
  3. In this music theory lesson, you’ll find out whether your mental notes are on tune or off-key.
  4. Nonharmonic music constitutes by far the majority of the world’s musical output.
  5. Simple chords are especially developed in just a few cases of folk and primitive music, and even then, only in a few situations.
  6. It first appeared in the music of western Europe less than a millennium ago, and it is still practiced now exclusively in those musical cultures that can trace their roots back to that region.
  7. Essentially, it is based on specific correlations between musical tones that the human ear accepts practically instinctively and that may be expressed through rudimentary scientific inquiry.
  8. When a stretched string was divided by simple arithmetical ratios (1:2, 2:3, 3:4,…) and plucked, it became one of his most well-known demonstrations.
  9. The octave, the fifth, and the fourth are intervals that appear in practically all cultures’ music, whether in melody or harmony, and are represented by the letters O, F, and G.
  10. A fifth, for example, from C to G, has five white notes; a fourth, for example, from C to F, contains four white notes.) As an example, in Pythagoras’s experiment, a string that sounds C when split in half hears C, or the note an octave above it.
  11. Additionally, the ratio 2:3 (or two-thirds of its length) produces the fifth and the ratio 3:4 (or the fourth) produces the fifth.

They are the essential musical intervals, and they are the pillars on which Western harmony is based. They are composed of the fundamental note and the notes a fourth, a fifth, and an octave above it.

The roots of harmony

As a result of earlier musical practices, the organized system of Western harmony as it was practiced fromc.1650 toc.1900 evolved: from polyphony — music in several voices or parts — of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance to the strictly melodic music of the Middle Ages that gave rise to polyphony in the first place. The organization of medieval music, on the other hand, originates from the scattered knowledge of ancient Greek music that the medieval thinkers had. In spite of the fact that ancient Greek music was exclusively composed of melodies that were sung in unison or, in the event of voices of unequal range, at the octave, the term harmony appears frequently in the texts on music from that time period.

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The Greek system had seven “harmonies,” or scale types, which were distinguishable from one another by the precise sequence in which tones and semitones were introduced into the system (i.e., whole steps and half steps).

survey of music

The Concertmaster is the first violinist in an orchestra, and he or she is the first violinist in the orchestra. Classical music performances are only available in big urban centers such as New York or Los Angeles, and they are not available anywhere else. false Is there a name that can be used to designate a piece of music that has been written that is similar to Composition and production A program will be handed out during the concert to inform you of the details. The identities of the artists and the works that will be performed at the concert are listed below.

  1. Alternate alternatives include: playing the music examples in the background to help you relax; 1.
  2. The way individuals consume music has changed as a result of technological advancements.
  3. true When performing “classical” music, classical musicians are often attired in black formal clothes.
  4. Oboe During a concert, there is frequently a gap during which you can roam about.
  5. The optimal time to come for a “classical” concert is when the doors open at 7 p.m.
  6. Audience participation on the stageii.
  7. Recognizing when it is appropriate to clap 2.

Encore When a symphony is performed in concert, the audience is normally expected to applaud only at the conclusion of the final movement of the piece.

When it comes to words, FalseMusic may be characterized as follows: True In musictexture, the interweaving of melody and harmony results in the production of_ Monophony is the term used to describe a single-line texture.

Monophonic texture is the easiest type of musical texture to understand.

Imitation Homorhythmic texture refers to a texture in which all of the voices move together in the same beat.

Polyphony The texture is created by a single individual singing Happy Birthday with only a few basic chords accompanying the song.

An instrumental melody is commonly referred to as a melody since it is performed on an instrument rather than sung.

False During the Renaissance, Europeans discovered areas that had previously been unknown to them, including The Amaricas are a group of islands in the Caribbean.

True The following are the names of the violent series of events that took place as part of an attempt to take the Holy Land from the Muslims: The Crusades were a period of warfare between Europe and Asia.

Hildegard of Bingen, a female composer and author who was engaged in church culture throughout the Middle Ages, was one such example.

The advent of the musician who performs for the love of music rather than for a living in Renaissance culture is characterized by the rise of the a(n) musician, who is a musician who plays for the love of music rather than for the sake of a living.

False Venice was the most important European port for the interchange of Eastern luxury in terms of culture.

The Roman Catholic Church is a religious institution in the United States.

With whom did secular leaders in the Middle Ages advocate for a powerful, centralized government?

The Middle Ages are approximately a thousand years in length.

Professional female musicians have built a name for themselves in society.

Trade prospered in the later Middle Ages as a merchant elite emerged outside of feudal society, allowing for more freedom of movement.

True Statements concerning Notre Dame Schoola that are factual.

Magnus liber organic is the title of the first book that contains pieces by composers associated with this school.

Perotin and Machaut are two of the most important composers.

(p80) False The chants of the church only made use of the major and minor scale patterns that were subsequently discovered in later musical composition (p75,76) False The medieval motet is characterized by the presence of many texts that occur at the same time.

Her poetry and musicc.

What section of the Mass does the text Alleluia, O virga mediatrix come from, exactly?

(p76) True 9.

(p80 True The majority of surviving samples of Gregorian chant remain unidentified.

(p78)True When a soloist and choir perform together, this is referred to as choral music (p75, 79) Singing in Response to a Call to Action The Kyrie has the following in its text: Greek text on page 77 Hildegard’s chant Alleluia, O virga mediatrix was written with the intention of being performed on the Virgin’s feast day.

  • (p77)False Almost all of the material of Alleluia, O virga mediatrix is written in syllabic meter (p79).
  • (p77)False The liturgy refers to the predetermined schedule of services as well as the specific structure of each service.
  • (page 80) The lowest voice Gregorian chant is characterized by melodic lines that are frequently stated and backed by musical accompaniment.
  • (p82)Latin Puis qu’en oubli exemplifies a particular period in music history.
  • Which of the following assertions regarding medieval instrumentalists is correct?
  • They were also involved in the performance of dancing music, as well.
  • In the Middle Ages, the recorder, the lute, and the hammered dulcimer were all classified as belonging to which group?

(p85)Rondeau The words and melody that are heard three times in Machaut’s chanson Puis qu’en oubli is referred to as the following: The refrain is on page 85.

(p86)Flase Puis qu’en oubli by Machaut may be divided into three categories: (p85) Music for a Secular Audience Instrumental music in the Middle Ages was often improvised rather than performed from a written score, as was the case in the Renaissance.

The Crusades are discussed on page 87.

(p85)True The following is the best way to explain the texture of Puis qu’en oubli: (p86)Polyphonic The text of Sumer is icumen in that it commemorates the following: (p83,84) Summer What composer lived and worked during the period known as the Ars Nova?

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Sumer’s lowest two voices, known as icumen, are used to sing brief, repeated concepts that are known as: (p83)An ostinato is a pause in a song.

(p86)True It is recommended that men’s voices sing this piece since the vocal range in Puis qu’en oubli is low.

The poems of the troubadour and trouvère repertory include: b.

What category do they fall into?

A feature of Sumer is icumen is the continual imitation from beginning to conclusion between the voices of the characters, which is distinctive of its genre, which is: (p83)A round of applause Troubadours were medieval poet-musicians from the southern part of France who belonged to a group known as the Troubadours (p83) The upper classes and the aristocracy are the primary targets.

  1. (p89) Textured in monophonic mode and sung in the vernacular L’homme armé was used as a cantus firmus in one of Guillaume du Fay’s masses, and it is a favorite of mine.
  2. virgo serena: (p91) a.
  3. (p92) True About Josquin’s moteta, all of the following things are correct.
  4. The material is in the form of a rhymed poemc.
  5. Each voice sings a separate passage that exalts the Virgin Mary in a different way.
  6. virgo serena: (p89-91) The Virgin Mary is a historical figure who lived during the time of the Roman Empire.
  7. (p92) Fragments from holy or secular music might be used to create the fixed melody in a number of ways.

Not: i.

During the early sixteenth century, the Catholic Church attempted to regain the devotion of its adherents by returning to real Christian piety.

(p91)Latin The Gloria of Palestrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass is easily comprehensible, in part because of the syllabic character of the text and Palestrina’s frequent use of homorhythms in his compositions.

(p93) True Which of the following was a suggestion made by the Council of Trent about church music?

In the final two words of the book, “O Mater Dei, remembrance mei,” how does Josquin create a sense of difference and contrasts?

In the case of lengthy note values In a homorhythmic texture, for example.

(p94) True A good way to define the harmony of Palestrina’s Gloria from the Pope Marcellus Mass is “full and sonorous” (p94) True Palestrina’s Gloria from the Pope Marcellus Mass is included in the Proper, which is the section of the Mass that is subject to change.

(p92) Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei are some of the most well-known hymns.

(p97)True When Susato’s Three Dances are played, what instrument may be distinguished as a cross between a woodwind and a brass instrument?

(pages 96 and 97) False The performing forces for Arcadelt’s madrigal are a four-voice SATB ensemble, as specified in the score.

(p100) The poet Arcadelt employs word painting to depict the imagery in the lyrics of this madrigal (p97).

(100) a.

(p101) Ronde In Susato’s Three Dances, what meter may be discerned?

(p99) a.

Each of Susato’s Three Dances has a distinct musical structure that may be summarized as follows: (p101)There are two portions, each of which is repeated (A-A-B-B) The last phrase of the text is emphasized in the madrigal by Arcadelt not repeating it in the aria.

(p100) Monophony Tielman Susato was well-known for his work as a music printer, a composer, and an instrumentalist, among other things.

(p96) False The creation of the English madrigal occurred around twenty years before the emergence of the Italian madrigal (p99) False The Renaissance chanson and the madrigal are distinguished by the characteristics listed below (p96) These pieces were set to poetry that was either courtly or rustic in nature.

Not:i.

During the Renaissance, women were forbidden from participating in secular music-making (p96) Contrary to popular belief, specific instruments for Renaissance dancing music were frequently indicated in the musical scores.

The countries of France and Italy b.

The music towards the end of the piece reflects the action and emotions of the text. Not: i. The narrative makes use of historical figures who actually existed. The instruments used to record Susato’s dances are primarily soft (bass) instruments. (p101)

Music Unit 2 Free Essay Example

False During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the early Christian church held relatively little influence in Europe, and this continued until the modern era. True The Middle Ages were a period of almost one thousand years in length. False Art and literature from Ancient Greece and Rome held little appeal for painters and authors working throughout the Renaissance era. True In ancient civilizations, there was a rich musical culture that was preserved in shards, and we can only guess at what it was like based on the few bits of music that have remained to this day.

  • False During the Renaissance, European culture transitioned from being primarily secular to becoming primarily holy, as represented by the Church.
  • The Roman Empire was shattered.
  • When it comes to religious authority throughout the Middle Ages, which religious institution was in charge?
  • Monasteries The growth of patronage had a significant role in the development of culture during the Middle Ages.
  • The Crusades were the most important European port for the interchange of Eastern riches in terms of culture.
  • During the Renaissance, Europeans discovered areas that had previously been unknown to them, including: Johannes Gutenberg was a printer and publisher who lived from 1453 until 1536.
  • False Gregorian chant is characterized by melodic lines that are frequently stated and backed by musical accompaniment.

True The majority of surviving samples of Gregorian chant remain unidentified.

True Early notation made use of neumes, which were little ascending and descending indications placed above the words to indicate the form of the melodic line’s progression.

False The Ordinary is a term used to refer to the texts of the Mass liturgy that are special to a particular feast day.

False The Kyrie is not included in the celebration of the Mass.

False Most of the material of Alleluia, O Virga Mediatrix is written in syllabic notation.

TrueThe medieval motet is characterized by the presence of many texts that occur at the same time.

Singing in Response to a Call to Action Perotin and Machuat are two of the most important composers who created music that was played with exchanges between soloist and chorus.

Text in the Greek language The Kyrie has the following in its text: The Appropriate Which part of the Mass does the text Alleluia, O Virga mediatrix come from, and where does it appear?

Hildegard was well-known for the following characteristics: EXCEPT: The lowest of the three voices Which organum voice is responsible for carrying the original chant in sustained notes?

True It is written in triple meter with gently syncopated beats, and it is titled Puis qu’on oubli.

True Instrumental music in the Middle Ages was often improvised rather than performed from a written score, as was the case in the Renaissance.

Music that is not religious in nature Puis qu’on oublie by Machuat may be divided into three categories: Polyphonic These are the finest words to describe the texture of Puis’ qu’on oubli: Courteous affection The lyrics to Machuat’s song Puis qu’on oublie relate the story of: Rondeau What poetic style does Machaut’s song Puis qu’on oublie take on in its lyrics?

  1. Machaut can best be characterized as follows: The refrain is repeated over and over.
  2. Puis qu’on oubli exemplifies a particular period in history.
  3. Troubadours were medieval poet-musicians from the southern part of France who belonged to one of the following groups: Ballads on politics and morality, as well as love songs focusing on the concept of “unrequited love,” can be found on the album.
  4. Which composer was active and alive during the Ars Nova period?
  5. The following is NOT true of medieval instrumentalists: Instruments that are loud (haut) Sackbut, crumhorn, cornetto, tabor and nakers are all medieval instruments that fall into a certain genre.
  6. Minnesingers In Germany throughout the Middle Ages, poet-musicians were referred to as: Bas In the Middle Ages, the recorder, the lute, and the hammered ducimer were all classified as belonging to which group?
  7. The Crusades were a period of conflict between Christians and Muslims.
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England One of the oldest examples of secular polyphony is found in the following work: An ostinato is a short piece of music.

True In one of his masses, Guillaume du Fay utilized L’homme armé as a cantos forums, which is a kind of cantos.

True The Pope Marcellus was composed for a total of six different voice roles.

True The language of the Gloria in Palestrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass is simple to understand, in part because of its syllabic character and Palestrina’s frequent use of homorhythm in his compositions.

False It was common throughout the Renaissance for the Mass to be delivered and sung in the local tongue (language of the people).

The wording of Josquin’s motet Ave Maria is as follows…

Polyphony in imitation Throughout Josquin’s motet Ave Maria, the primary texture is that of…

In the case of Josquin’s motet, this is not the case: Note values and homoryhthmic texture are used in extended notes.

“o Mater Dei, memento mei” (Mother of God, remember me)?

The following are the portions of the Mass Ordinary: The only set music was Gregorian chant, which was utilized exclusively.

The following is not typical of a Renaissance motet: Counter-reformation A return to real Christian piety was part of the Catholic Church’s endeavor in the early sixteenth century to win back the allegiance of its adherents.

Which of the following was a suggestion made by the Council of Trent about church music?

True The performing forces required for Arcadelt’s madrigal are a four-voice SATB ensemble, which may be found here.

TrueArcadelt creates images in the poetry of this madrigal by using word painting to depict the imagery in the poem.

True Fair Phyllis has passages that are repeated many times, as well as repetitive material.

False The chanson and the motet were the two most important genres of Renaissance secular music during this period.

False During the Renaissance, women were forbidden from participating in secular music-making.

False Josquin des Prez composed exclusively holy Renaissance music throughout his lifetime.

There are two portions, each of which is repeated.

Cornetto When Susato’s Three Dances are played, what instrument may be distinguished as a cross between a woodwind and a brass instrument?

Monophony From the opening word of the text, “Fair Phyllis I noticed sitting all alone,” until the lines “Up and down he strolled,” Farmer creates a “painting” of the text.

A music printer, a composer, and an instrumentalist are all involved in the process. Tielman Susato was well-known for his work in the following areas: England Arcadelt did not reside or work in the following places:

EARLY POLYPHONY: SOME DEFINTIONS

EARLY POLYPHONY: A COLLECTION OF DEFINITIONS From approximately the 10th century until around the 13th century, the term “Organum” was used to refer to a type of polyphony in which a preexisting chant is enriched by the addition of extra voices singing new melody. A polyphonic piece of music is defined as one that is composed of several persons singing or playing various lines at the same time. There are several stages in the development of Organum Added voice moves in parallel fourths and fifths either above or below the chant in the Parallel Organum (9th – 10th Centuries).

2.Free Organum(10th and 11th Centuries): Added voice moves note-against-note utilizing a range of intervals to create a free-form movement of notes.

  1. Melismatic Organum (11th and 12th Centuries): Melismas are sung over held notes in the lower voice (which still provides the chant)
  2. Added voice has melismas spoken over held notes in the lower voice (which still displays the chant)

RHYTHM NOTATION DEVELOPMENT AT THE SCHOOL OF NOTRE DAME (12th and 13th centuries) The solo passages of the responsorial chants of the Mass and the Office are set by the Notre Dame Organum. The organum is very melismatic; it may accommodate 2, 3, or 4 voices; chanting is always done in the lowest voice, known as the Tenor, of the ensemble. With the exception of the instances where a melisma emerges in the chant, long held notes in the Tenor (seeClausulabelow). I. The Different Types of Notre Dame Organum

  1. Organum purum, also known asOrganum duplum, is composed of a tenor and one additional vocal, known as the duplum
  2. The added voice may be ordered rhythmically, but no one is certain. The most current consensus is that it isn’t the case. For the liturgical year, Léoninis is credited with composing a cycle of Organum purum arrangements of soloistic portions from responsorial chants of the Mass and Office, which is known as the Magnus Liber. Organum triplum has three voices: the tenor, as well as two more voices above him named duplum and triplum (triplumis the highest voice). In the additional voices, there is rhythmic notation. The composer Pérotinis is rumored to have written some organum triplum arrangements. Organum quadruplum has four voices: the tenor, as well as three other voices known as duplum, t riplum, and quadruplum (quadruplum is highest voice). In the additional voices, there is rhythmic notation. Sederunt (Anthology, p.64), for example, is assigned to Pérotinis as an organum quadruplum setting.

II. A subgroup of the Notre Dame Organum that is unique. Clausula: This clause may appear in any Organum context. It corresponds to the chant melody amelismain, which is the underlying melody. The Tenor and upper voice(s) are clearly ordered in terms of rhythmic structure. This is referred to as the Discant Style in order to distinguish it from the melismatic style of Organum proper. Originally a component of organum settings, the clausula quickly establishes itself as a distinct genre in its own right.

It’s only the syllables of the initial melisma that formed the first clausula setting of any chant fragment that’s the only thing there is to read.

The Notre Dame composers also created a unique genre known as theConductus, which means “conductor.” No chants are used in the performance of theconductus It has newly created lyrics and melody, and it may be performed by one to four voices.

the Tenor does not have long held notes as inOrganum).

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