Early Music History Midterm Flashcards
A musical piece based on the texts of the KYRIE, GLORIA, CREDO, SANCTUS, and AGNUS DEI, among other hymn texts. Chants named after their respective functions include: Puer Natus Est, Viderunt Omnes, Dies Sanctificatus, and Victimae Paschali Laudes, among others. Each feast day has its own set of rules. Prayers for monastic groups are scheduled on a daily basis. Rule of Saint Benedict, written between 530 and 560 (about), set of regulations for maintaining a monastery. 1) A type of latin chant that is performed after the alleluia in various churches.
Grammar, logic (or dialectic, as it was referred as at the time), and rhetoric comprised the trivium of knowledge.
The following is an addition to the existing chant: 1) The lyrics and the music Melisma is a type of euphemism for a slang term for a slang expression.
Dorian (d), Hypodorian (a), Phrygian (e), Hypophrygian (b), Lydian (f), Hypolydian (c), Mixolydian (g), Hypomixolydian (h), Dorian (d), Hypodorian (a), Phrygian (e), Hypophrygian (b), Dorian (d), Dorian (d), Dorian (d), Dorian (d), Dorian (d), Dorian (d), Dorian (d) (d) Each mode is comprised of a final, a range, and a reciting tone, among other things.
-a more pleasing sonic harmony, similar to that of contemporary music rhythm is divisible into three and two-duple meter subdivisions (1320) Abolished the dramatic innovations of the Ars nova, with its duple connections and short note values, and chose instead the previous style of Parisian music, with its consistent tempo and distinct ternary units, which was popular between 1260 and 1330.
- His diplomatic duties as secretary and counsellor to various French kings, as well as his religious position as bishop of Meaux, were highlights of his life.
- Credited with the formulation of the concepts included within Treaste Ars Nova
In his work on mathematics, -991-1033, is credited with inventing the four-line staff. Microglus – the current five-line staff – did not appear in France until the 16th century. It was developed a system of hexachords solfegge, which is a mnemonic device used to locate the pitches of the system using the left hand’s joint as a point of reference Solfege’s first notes are heard here. Guido of Arezzo devised the syllables to aid vocalists in the identification of full tones and semitones. The University of Notre Dame produced six different rhythm patterns known as modes (late 12th) The book “Ars cantus mensurabilis(1260)” was written by Franco of Cologne, and the duration of pitches was specified by him.
Position has an impact on the triple duple.
Minnelieder (love songs) were primarily concerned with the themes of loyalty, devotion, and responsibility.
a poet-musician of the courtly art of vernacular sung poetry, which flourished in northern France during the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, who performed in the court of the King of France.
the “Great Book of Organa,” which contains the full two-part organa of Leoninus, as well as additions by Perotinus, is known as the “Great Book of Organa.” created towards the end of the 13th century Treatise written in 1275 about the two composers of polyphony (Leonin and Perotin), as well as the style of the Notre Dame Cathedral.
a self-contained segment of an Organum that concludes with a cadence in the University of Notre Dame’s organum When a new clausula is created to replace the previous polyphonic arrangement of a particular piece of a chant (typically in discant form), it is referred to as a clausula replacement.
ABaAabABO ne of the forms is permanent.
It was possible to dance to the music, which was frequently monophonic and frequently related to nature and love.
An allegory for corruption in politics and the church, written as a symbolic narrative poem There are 169 items that fit the poem (most are monophonic, some motets, contains first examples of Ars Nova) Style in the form of flowers: Lower voice sings long held notes (tenor); upper voice sings melismas of varying lengths above it –Discant style: both parts are active, including the tenor, and sing 1-3 notes for each note of the lower voice –Discant style: both parts are active, including the tenor, and sing 1-3 notes for each note of the lower voice –Discant style: both parts are active, including the tenor, and sing 1-3 notes for each note of the lower voice In English polyphony, this is referred to as “English Quality,” which is the frequent usage of harmonic 3rds+6ths in parallel motion.
- With numerous stanzas and a burden, or refrain, an English song, generally on a religious topic, is performed.
- Extensive pattern of durations that is repeated in a vocal part across a section or the entire composition isorhythmic compositions have a prolonged rhythmic pattern, which is repeated one or more times, generally in the tenor of the composition’s voice.
- POLYPHONY from the late fourteenth or very early fifteenth century in southern France and northern Italy, characterized by extraordinary intricacy in rhythm and NOTATION and originating in southern France and northern Italy.
- A type of Italian song from the fourteenth century with the pattern AbbaA, in which A is the refrain and the single stanza consists of two piedi (bb) and a volta (a) sung to the melody of the reprise; the refrain is A.
- This term refers to an ornamented 6-to-octave cadence from the 14th and 15th centuries in which the upper voice drops down a step and then rises a third while the lower voice moves down a step.
- This produces a major third and a major 6th that extend to an open 5th and octave.
improvised English polyphony from the late Middle Ages to the Renaissance in which a middle-voice chant is joined by an upper voice moving in parallel with it at a P4 above it and a lower voice that follows below the chant mostly in parallel thirds, moving to a 5th below it to mark the beginning and end of phrases and the ends of most words.
Mass in which the same cantus firmus is employed in each movement, generally in the tenor, is known as a polyphonic mass.
Polyphony, isorhythmic motets, mass ordinary sections, chants, free liturgical texts, and secular songs were all written by this highly regarded English composer during the 15th century.
He used paraphrase and accented words with rhythm to create a canon in which voices move at different rates of speed by using different mensuration signs. – RENAISSANCE
- In his book on the four-line staff, -991-1033-is credited with inventing it. In France, it was not until the 16th century that the Microglus (modern five-line staff) was invented. It was developed a system of hexachords solfegge, which is a mnemonic technique used to locate the pitches of the system using the left hand’s joint joints. Solfege is just getting started. Guido of Arezzo popularized the use of syllables to aid vocalists in the identification of whole tones and semitones in their repertoire. The University of Notre Dame created six rhythm patterns known as modes (late 12th) The book “Ars cantus mensurabilis(1260)” was written by Franco of Cologne, and the duration of pitches was defined by Franco. The mode (square with line)(long) -perfect 3 -imperfect 2 3 – perfect 3 – imperfect 2 – time (diamond) (breve) Prolation(diamond)(semi breve) -perfect/maj 3(with line) -imperfect/min 2(with line) -perfect/maj 3(without line) -imperfect/min 2(without line) Time signatures were not addressed. Due to the location, triple duple is determined. A group of knightly poet-musicians who flourished in Germany throughout the period spanning the 12th to the 14th century and wrote in Middle High German. Lies, constancy, and responsibility were the themes of many Minnelieder (love songs). Southern France’s composers and poets of the 12th and 13th centuries The courtly art of vernacular sung poetry, which emerged in northern France during the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, was performed by a poet-musician during this time period. This piece has the first rhythmic notation linked with the Cathedral of Notre Dame in France. the “Great Book of Organa,” which contains the whole two-part organa of Leoninus, as well as additions by Perotinus, as well as the “Great Book of Organa” built somewhere around the late thirteenth century In 1275, Leonin and Perotin, two polyphonic composers, as well as the Notre Dame style, were discussed in detail. A solemn medieval song, either MONOPHONIC or POLYPHONIC in style, set to a rhymed, rhythmic Latin text, with a serious tone. a self-contained segment of an Organum that concludes with a cadence in the case of the University of Notre Dame organum When a new clausula is created to replace the original polyphonic setting of a certain piece of a chant (typically in discant form), it is referred to as “replacement polyphonic setting.” The Ars Nova has three primary chansson types: France’s principal literary and musical genres in the 14th and 15th centuries were the rondo, ballade, and virelai. ABaAabABO Fixes a particular one of the forms AbbaAbbaAbbaA. It was possible to dance to the music, which was frequently monophonic and frequently related to nature and romance. Forme fixe in French is a three-stanza form in which each stanza has the form aabC and finishes with a refrain
- It is often written in the third person. -A symbolic narrative poem that makes fun of corruption in politics and the church. – the text was paired with 169 pieces of furniture (most are monophonic, some motets, contains first examples of Ars Nova) Style in the form of a floral arrangement: Lower voice sings long-held notes (tenor)
- Upper voice sings melismas of varying lengths above it –Discant style: both parts are active, including the tenor, and sing 1-3 notes for each note of the lower voice –Discant style: both parts are active, including the tenor, and sing 1-3 notes for each note of the lower voice –Discant style: both parts are active, including the tenor, and sing 1-3 notes for each note of the lower An important aspect of English polyphony is its extensive usage of harmonic 3rds+6ths in parallel motion. With numerous stanzas and a burden, or refrain, an English song, generally on a religious topic, is performed. Polyphonic compositions have predominated since the 15th century forward. Extensive pattern of durations repeated in a vocal part over and over again over a portion or an entire piece An isorhythmic composition is characterized by a long rhythmic pattern that is repeated one or more times, generally in the tenor range. In an isorhythmic composition, a repetitive melodic pattern is used instead of a recurring rhythmic pattern to create a contrasting effect. In southern France and northern Italy, a style of POLYPHONY from the late fourteenth or very early fifteenth century that is characterised by its great intricacy in both rhythm and NOTATION has been identified. 1) A poetry form and musical setting from the fourteenth century Italy, consisting of two or three stanzas followed by a ritornello (return) a fourteenth-century Italian song type in the form AbbaA, in which the refrain (A) serves as the refrain, and the single stanza consists of two piedi (bb) and one volta (a) performed to the accompaniment of the reprise (A). a 14th-century Italian form in which two voices sing in canon over a free untexted tenor is performed This term refers to an ornamented 6-to-octave cadence from the 14th and 15th centuries in which the upper voice drops down a step and then rises a third as the lower voice moves down a step. cadence with two leading tones In a cadence that was popular in the 14th and 15th centuries, the bottom vocal travels down a whole tone while the higher voices rise up a semitone. This forms a major third and a major 6th that expands to an open 5th and octave, respectively. An early Renaissance form of polyphony in which two voices are written, moving mostly in parallel 6ths and finishing each phrase on an octave, with the third unwritten voice sung in perfect parallel fourths below the upper voice is known as the continental style. The English style of improvised polyphony (from the late Middle Ages to the Renaissance), in which a chant in the middle voice is joined by an upper voice moving in parallel with a P4 above it and a lower voice that follows below the chant mostly in parallel thirds, moving to a 5th below to mark the beginning and end of phrases and the ends of most words It is a pre-existing melody, frequently derived from Gregorian Chant, on which to build a new polyphonic composition
- It is particularly appropriate for melodies delivered in lengthy notes. Mass in which the same cantus firmus is employed in each movement, often in the tenor, is known as a polyphonic mass. This is a polyphonic mass in which each movement is based on the same monophonic melody, which is usually a chant, and which is paraphrased in most or all voices rather than being employed as a cantus firmus in one voice. Polyphony, isorhythmic motets, mass ordinary sections, chants, free liturgical texts, and secular songs were all written by this highly regarded English composer during the 15th century. He used paraphrase and accented words with rhythm to create a canon that moved at different rates of speed by using different mensuration signs. – RENAISSANCE
- Credited with the formulation of the concepts included within Treaste Ars Nova
Which musician is credited with the composition of Messe de Notre Dame, widely regarded as the most famous piece of music from the fourteenth century? 1477: The author of THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT (Liber de arte contrapuncti), which was published in Latin. Humanism receives my sympathies. Dissonances are introduced in accordance with stringent criteria, which confine them to passing and neighbor tones on unstressed beats and syncopated passages at cadences, among other things. Parallel fifths and octaves are strictly prohibited.
a compositional approach in which a sequence of musical ideas are conveyed imitatively in all voices across an entire piece or segment of a work is known as polyphonic composition
Week 2 – From One Voice to Many: Renaissance Polyphony Archives
How did the composer of Messe de Notre Dame, often considered the most renowned piece of music from the fourteenth century, come to be known? 1477: The author of THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT (Liber de arte contrapuncti), which is a work of literary criticism. Humanism receives my sympathies Dissonances are introduced in accordance with rigorous criteria, which confine them to passing and neighbor tones on unstressed beats and syncopated passages at cadences, respectively. Permission is granted for parallel fifths and octaves.
a compositional approach in which a succession of musical ideas are conveyed imitatively in all voices across a whole piece or segment of a work is called polyphonic composition.
The Order of Mass and Renaissance Polyphony
J.J. Wright made the presentation. In this video, we’ll look at the ordinary, often known as the Order of Mass, and how polyphony grew into a fully established musical style between the 14th-16th centuries.
Article: The Order of Mass and Renaissance Polyphony
J.J. Wright gave the presentation. In this video, we’ll look at the ordinary, often known as the Order of Mass, and how polyphony evolved into a fully established musical style between the 14th-16th century.
- Ordinary– The Ordinary is referred to as ordinary since it does not alter in any significant way. kyrie, gloria, alleluia, credo, the holy of holies, agnus dei, and so on are the sections of the Mass that are the same every week. – The Propers are referred to as proper because they are designated to certain days – for example, Sundays and Feast Days – and have distinctive prayers that are associated with those days. Introit, gradual, offertory, and communion are the terms used to describe them.
Ordinary– The Ordinary is referred to as ordinary since it does not alter in any significant manner. kyrie, gloria, alleluia, credo, the holy of holies, agnus dei, and so on are the sections of the Mass that are the same each week. – The Propers are referred to as proper because they are designated to certain days – for example, Sundays and Feast Days – and have specific prayers associated with them. Introduction, gradual introduction, offertory and communion are all terms used to describe these parts of the service.
Listening Example 1
Ordinary– The Ordinary is referred to as ordinary since it does not alter much. kyrie, gloria, alleluia, credo, the holy of holies, agnus dei, and so on are the sections of the Mass that are the same every week; – The Propers are referred to as proper because they are allocated to certain days – for example, Sundays and Feast Days – and have unique prayers associated with them.
The introit, gradual, offertory, and communion are the four types of services.
Listening Example 2
J.J. Wright made the presentation. On Holy Saturday, the hymn O Vos Omnes (which translates as “taunt” or “reproach”) is performed during Tenebrae. The passage is drawn from the Book of Lamentations, and it is written in the third person. While you’re listening, think about the following words: If you’re one of the people that transacted for us, pay attention and pay attention to what we’re saying: If there is a dólor smilis, there is also a dólor méus. Attention, univérsi pópuli, and dolórem méum are all required.
O all of you who pass by on the road, pay heed and see whether there is any grief similar to my own.
Click Here to Hear It
View the Event
J.J. Wright made the presentation. View Eventreturn to the top
Outline – Medieval Period c. 500-1400
A Chronology of Western Musical Traditions with the assistance of Donald Jay Grout and Claude Palisca (4th ed.) David Papandrew put up and modified this outline. Originally: Three-hundred-and-fortieth chapter: Introduction to Polyphony and 13th-century Musical Traditions. I. The earliest Organum A. The earliest theoretical sources are listed in alphabetical order (9th century) 1. Musica enchiriadis (enchiriadic music) a. Unknown author’s treatise Organum is a term used to refer to two forms of diaphony (singing in harmony), both of which are mentioned in the text.
- Scolica enchiriadis is a kind of enchiriadis.
- A dialogue-based textbook that also includes information on polyphony 3.
- The only person who mentions organum in the 11th century is Guido d’Arezzo.
- Styles of early organum, part B 1.
- Either voice is frequently heard over the octave in the same song.
- The early organum is primarily concerned with embellishing and outlining a plainsong tune.
- Developments in the eleventh century As shown by the rising usage of opposing and oblique motion, there is an increasing independence of melodic lines (along with preexistant parallel motion).
By the eleventh century, the vox organalis is usually heard above the principalis voice.
Parts are commonly cross-referenced.
Increasing rhythmic variety when the vox organalis occasional gets two notes for every one note in the principalis (a ratio of 2:1).
Winchester Troper (sometimes spelled Winchester Troper) Includes two 11th-century mansucripts and a repertoire of troped chants used at Winchester Cathedral, among other things.
Symbolic notation 1.
Neumes that are elevated but do not have staff lines d.
Sections of polyphonic music that are confined to soloists singing bits of the original chant Therefore, polyphonic passages were interspersed with periods of monophonic chant sung by the entire choir in unison during the performance.
In addition, Soloists sang polyphony, which was more challenging than monophony.
Florid Organum (Flower Organum) A.
Illustrations from a book from the monastery of Santiago de Compostela in northwest Spain, preserved in manuscript form 2.
Martial in Limoges, in south-central France, is also a place of cultivation.
Variously referred to as a florid organum, a melismatic organum, an Aquitanian organum, or a St.Martial organum.
(newly composed texts).
The term organum refers to the type of singing in which the lower voice retains extended notes.
When both sections move in the same rhythm (as was the case in the 12th and early 13th centuries), the medieval name for this was discant.
When floral organum was first applied to a 2-voice texture, it was referred to as organum duplum or organum purum, depending on the context.
System is formalized by 1250 as a set of six different rhythmic modes.
LS LS (anapest) 2.
Fourth, the ternary division (perfectio) as a rhythmic guideline is extremely important.
The Organum of Notre Dame A.
1170-1236), who both worked at the same cathedral, were the most notable exponents.
Leonin is a euphemism for “B.
The Notre Dame school, as well as the 13th century, reflect three fundamental styles.
Organum aeternum a.
Music for Leonin’s organ is arranged to the soloistic passages of the responsorial chants of the Mass and the Office of the Dead.
For example, Alleluia Pascha nostrum (Alleluia for Easter Mass), which was composed by Leonin (and many others).
Characteristics of style In this case, the juxtaposition of ancient and modern components is used: 1.
Passages of livelier discant clausulae were alternated (sections) b.
A motet is formed when the clausulae become quasi-independent components and finally merge into a motet.
Perotin is a Russian writer.
The fundamental formal structure of the organum, consisting of an alternating of unison chant and polyphonic passages, was preserved by Perotin.
Within polyphonic parts, on the other hand, Perotin’s drive toward increased rhythmic accuracy continues to be evident.
Older ‘rhapsodic’ sections of the florid organa were frequently replaced with discant clausulae, which were more recent additions.
A set of repeating rhtymic themes was used to establish the overall tone of the composition (often corresponding to the 3rd or 5th rhtymic mode).
Tenors in Leonin are often composed of shorter note values than tenors in other styles.
The repetition of the motive and melody becomes part of the structure of the 13th century motet, and it foreshadows the emergence of the isorhythmic motet in the fourteenth century.
One of the most significant innovations made by Perotin and his contemporaries was the enlargement of two voices to three and four voices, respectively (triplum and quadruplum respectively).
During the Perotin era, the 3-voice organum becomes standard.
There are two fundamental types of organum triplum.
Long-held notes in the tenor, over which the higher voices glide in measured phrases in harmony (discant in the upper voices) In his treatise on Notre Dame rhythm, De mensurabili musica, Johannes de Garlandia recognized this style as a distinct genre called copula: a genre resembling discant organized in modalrhythm in the upper parts but in the lower parts in the organum purum style, which was derived from the organum purum style.
In addition, music is frequently arranged into antecedent/consequent phrase structures.
Conductus Polyphonic (Polyphonic Conductus) Aspects of the Conductus that distinguish it 1.
Developed from quasi-liturgical sources such as the song and sequence, among other things.
Martial versus: metrical Latin poems, rarely liturgical, though often on sacred themes; 4.
The exchange of voices is frequent.
A rare exception is that certain conductus have extended textless passages known as caudae at the beginning and finish of the piece.
Text was placed syllabically a.
The tenor was frequently a newly created tune that served as a cantus firmus for the choir.
Conductus is regarded as the first instance of newly produced polyphonic music in the Western tradition.
Irrespective of whether or not the content was borrowed b.
The Origins and General Characteristics 1.
Composers of the succeeding age were captivated by this development.
the Montpellier Collection).
Bamberg Codex: 108 3-voice motets from the late 13th century, with an aconductus and seven clausulae thrown in for good measure.
The Las Huelgas Codex, a Spanish record from the 14th century that contains numerous motets from the 13th century among its 141 polyphonic pieces.
MOTETS were also increasingly being sung outside of church services, in a variety of contexts.
Motets with French texts in the upper voices continued to employ plainsong melody as cantus firmus, but there was no liturgical function to the compositions in this genre.
Polytextuality became a typical characteristic in the second half of the 13th century and was occasionally carried over into the 14th century ballade and virelai.
Because these clausulae were initially written over melismatic passages of chant, their texts were usually only a few words long, and in some cases only a piece of a word or a syllable was included in the text.
Additionally, tenors were selected from modern secular chansons and instrumental estampies.
These modifications were accompanied by a loosening of the rhythmic modal formulae as well as an increase in rhythmic flexibility.
In the case of both poems, they are frequently written in the form of trouvere songs.
A refrain is included in one or more of the upper voices of a significant number of French motets, generally near the end of the verse, in one or more of the higher voices.
Franconian Motet) 1.
A more lyrical tune has been added to Motetus’s lengthier breaths.
Tenors are less strict than they were in the early 13th century.
At the end of the 13th century, there were two types of motets: a.
one with a fast speechlike triplum, a slower motetus, and plainchant tenor (though instrumentally performed) in a relaxed rhythmic pattern.
The other, generally sung by a French secular tenor, in which all voices progressed in a more or less equal beat, while the triplum was usually the most significant melodic element.
The 5th and 8th consonants are still the most commonly used for powerful beats.
The fourth is becoming more considered as a dissonance.
The cadences were largely uniform after the year 1250.
There was a lot of room for dissonances.
According to Franco’s rule, ‘he who wishes to compose a quadruplum.ought to have in mind the melodies previously recorded, so that if it is discordant with one, it will be in concord with the others.’ 2.
Because of the increasing rhythmic intricacy of the motet, a new notation was required.
Using ternary grouping as a foundation b.
Double long 2.
The breve was the basic time unit, and the semibreve was the intermediate time unit.
As a result, the choirbook format became the de facto standard.
Different sections printed in different locations on the same facing pages.
Is a technique rather than a form that is properly described 2.
The time between 1300 and 1400 is often recognized as the period of the ars nova (new art).
The principal genres of the antiquity of art a.
Organum (the organ) 2.
Motet (Conductus b.
4. 5. The most significant accomplishments are as follows: the encoding of the rhythmic modal system in codified form Innovation of a new notation for measured rhythmic patterns b. The development of secular genres