The term “fixed song” refers to a preexisting melody, such as a plainchant extract, that underlies a polyphonic musical work (Latin: “fixed song,” pluralCantus Firmi) (one consisting of several independent voices or parts). To an existing plainchant melody (thevox principalis, or principal voice), the 11th- and 12th-century organums added a modest second melody (duplum), which was subsequently enlarged to include a tune by the end of the 12th century. The plainchant cantus firmus was featured prominently in the tenor of the 13th-century polyphonicmotet, on the other hand.
In the top voice, the cantus firmus was embellished or paraphrased at times, but this was not always the case.
Renaissance composers, on the other hand, took advantage of secular tunes, whether they were folk songs or the first lines of chansons (French polyphonic songs).
The cantus firmus approach was also utilized by composers of German polyphonic lieder in the sixteenth century, as well as by Lutheran composers of the Baroque era, such as J.S.
The practice of improvising on chorale cantus firmi was still common among organists in the late twentieth century.
Music Appreciation Ch 12 -20 Flashcards
|The set order of the church services and to the structure of each service.|
|Gregorian Chant (a.k.a “Plainchant” or “Plainsong”) is.||Church or sacred music that consists of a single-line melody. It is monophonic in texture, and lacks harmony and counterpoint.|
|One note sung to each syllable of text.|
|Five or six notes sung to a syllable of text.|
|Long groups of notes set to a single syllable of text.|
|Little ascending and descending symbols that were written about words to suggest the contours of melody.|
|The most solemn ritual of the Catholic Church, and the one generally attended by public worshipers. The reenactments of Jesus Christ.|
|Texts that vary from day to day throughout the church year.|
|Texts that remains the same in every mass.|
|Harmonized chant that is the earliest polyphonic music.|
|Two lines moving together in the same motion.|
|Voices moving opposite of each other.|
|One static droning on. One voice is static while the other is moving.|
|Writing new texts for the previously text-less upper voices of organum. A four voice harmony with alternating texture.|
|“Rebirth” – The rebirth of the ideas from the Classical Era.|
|How long did the Renaissance last?|
|How long did the Middle Ages last?|
|What kind of texture does Notre Dame School: Gaude Maria Virgo (Rejoice Virgin Mary) have?Monophonic? Polyphonic? Consonant? Conjunct?(Listen to the actual song and explain your answer.)|
|The style of singing the text in each vocal part of the Gaude Maria Virgo is:Syllabic? Melismatic? Neumatic? Direct?(Listen to the actual song and explain your answer.)|
|Which voice part in this organum is singing the older Gregorian chant (cantus firmus) in Gaude Maria Virgo?The Highest? The Lowest? None of them?(Listen to the actual song and explain your answer.)|
|Which best describes the rhythmic treatment in Gaude Maria virgo?Nonmetric? Duple Meter? In a rhythmic mode? Syncopated?(Listen to the actual song and explain your answer.)|
|The phrase heard in Gaude Maria virgo excerpt ends with a _.Cadence? Coda? Conjunct? Comma?|
|The three voices singing together at the same time in Gaude Maria Virgo excerpt form vertical sonorities, called _.Choir? Ternary Form? Conjunct? Chord?|
|A fixed melody; which serves as the basis for ornamentation in other voices. Taking chants and using them as underlying structures in songs.|
|What was the Council of Trent?||The longest committee meeting in history that the Catholic Church organized.|
|The language of the people.|
|Troubadours/Trobairitz are.||Musicians who lived in the Southern region of France.|
|Musicians who lived in the Northern region of France.|
|Musicians (or composers) in Germany. Singers of courtly love.|
|“New Art” – Changes of musical style whichspanned between the 14th and 15th century primarily in France. This period saw the invention of modern notation and the growth in popularity of the motet. Birth of Organum.|
|“Old Art” – Spanned from 1100-1300 in France. It began at the Cathedral de Notre Dame in Paris and emerged from the Gregorian Chant. Birth of Round.|
|What are the three Poetic Forms?||Rondeau, Ballade and Virelai.|
|Soft instruments that are played indoors.|
|Loud instruments that are played outdoors.|
|Who was Hildegard Von Bingen?||German nun, poet, and composer. Revered as a visionary during her own lifetime. Her style of music resembles Gregorian Chant but is full of expressive leaps and melismas.|
|He was a poet-composer of the French Ars Nova who wrote sacred and secular music. His poetry embraces the ideals of medieval chivalry.|
|An English composer who created four voice madrigals. He used clever word paintings in his light-heated works and helped shaped the madrigal into a truly native form.|
|A French composer who wrote secular and sacred music. His musical simple and lyrical and he gives attention to the text.|
|Any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular.|
|Aristocratic form of poetry and music that the Italians courts as a favorite diversion of cultivated amateurs.|
|Making the music directly reflect the meaning of the words.|
|A large scale drama that is SECULAR. Has SINGING, DRAMA, ACTORS, SCENERY, and COSTUMES. It is performed in a THEATRE.|
|Sponsorship of the church or aristocracy.|
|A musical declamation, vocal style, or speech in Opera when the plot and are generally advanced through.|
|Italian for “Air”; When Recitatives gives way at lyric moments which releases through melody the emotional tension accumulated in the course of the action.|
|A ternary form that brings back the first section with embellishments improvised by the soloist.|
|Instrumental number heard at the beginning of most operas, which may introduce melodies from the arias.|
|A repeated phrase that descends along the chromatic scale, always symbolic of grief in Baroque music.|
|Written for the Lutheran church service. They have NO DRAMA, NO CHARACTERS, and IS SACRED. Also are MULTIMOVEMENT WORKS with SOLO ARIAS, RECITATIVES and CHORUSES all with ORCHESTRAL ACCOMPANIMENT.|
|Large-scale dramatic genre with a SACRED TEXT, performed by SOLO VOICES, CHORUS, and ORCHESTRA. NO COSTUMES, NO SCENERY, NOT STAGED. Based on BIBLICAL STORIES and performed in a CHURCH or HALL.Ex: “Messiah” – Handel|
|An energetic instrumental idea that unifies the movement recurring several times between the vocal statements of the chorale.|
|German-born composer who was heir to the polyphonic art of the past. He is a culminating figure of the Baroque style and one of the giants in the history of music.|
|A German-born composer who embodied the worldliness of the late Baroque Era. He is known for his Oratorios (“Messiah”), concertos, and his Water Music.|
|A five part structure that is unified by the repetitions of the opening recurring theme (Ritornello).|
|A recurring theme set against several contrasting sections.|
|A form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno or tutti).|
|Small group of instruments|
|Large group of instruments.|
|Italian born composer who was one of the most prolific of his era. He wrote much chamber music and numerous opera, as well as cantatas, and an oratorio.|
|A line of the poem, that is printed above a certain passage in the score; the music graphically mirrors the action described.|
|A contrapuntal composition in which a single theme pervades the entirefabric, entering in one voice (or instrumental line) and then in another.|
|What constitutes the unifying idea, the focal point of interest in the contrapuntal web.|
|when the theme has been presented in each voice once.|
|When the subject of the fugue is imitated in another voice.|
|Serious Itialian-texted opera with heroic or tragic subject.|
|Realistic style of Italian comic opera.|
|Interludes that serves as areas of relaxation-until it reaches its home key.|
|A melody that is presented in longer line values, often twice as slow as the original.|
|A melody presented on shorter time values that go by faster.|
|Pitches that can be stated backwards.|
|Pitches that move by the same intervals but in the opposite direction.|
|Overlapping statements of the subject that heighten the tension.|
|A group of Florentine writers, artists, and musicians.|
|A numeral that is written above or below the bass note to indicate what chord is required.|
|A system often employed by two instrumentalist for the accompaniment.The bass line was played by a SUSTAINING LOW-PITCH INSTRUMENT, typically ‘cello or bassoon.|
|An entire piece or movement that is built on a single affection.|
|A male singer who was castrated during boyhood in order to preserve the soprano or alto register of his voice for the rest of his life.|
|The text or script of the opera.|
|Italian Madrigal vs English Madrigal||Italian Madrigals were emotional and serious. English Madrigals were humorous and light hearted.|
|Was a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence.|
|A musical work for a court festivity. Forms were very simple. Music was functional so people could follow and dance to it.|
|Which statement about the Notre Dame School is NOT true?a)Pérotin and Machaut are two of the main composers.b)Composers there wrote some of the earliest examples of polyphony, called organum.c)The first book containing compositions by composers of this school is called the Magnus liber organi.||a)Pérotin and Machaut are two of the main composers.|
|The medieval motet can have a combination of sacred and secular texts. True or False?||True – The medieval motet can have a combination of sacred and secular texts.|
Léonin, Pérotin, and the Birth of Polyphony at Notre Dame
Is there a reason for the international outpouring of concern following the terrible fire at Paris’ Notre Dame Cathedral this week? For one thing, the way Notre Dame ties us to the past through its nearly a thousand-year history helps us to understand ourselves better. Victor Hugo characterized it as “a huge symphony in stone” in 1831, and its stones have presided over catastrophic epidemics, the tumult of France’s Revolution, Napoléon Bonaparte’s self-coronation, and the ringing of bells signaling the liberation of France at the conclusion of World War II, among other events.
We float aimlessly, disempowered, without a link to the past.
The Notre Dame school, a group of composers who worked in and around the Cathedral between 1160 and 1250, transformed religious music from a single line of Gregorian chant into polyphony, which is the simultaneous occurrence of many melodic voices, a technique known as polyphony.
Polyphony must have looked surprising, contentious, and alluring at the same time at the time it was introduced.
The soft harmonies of the various singers, some singing high parts and others singing low parts, some singing in advance, some following in the rear, others with pauses and interludes, you would think you were listening to a concert of sirens rather than men, and you would marvel at the abilities of voices…
When the treble and shrill notes are mingled with the tenor and bass, the ears lose their ability to discriminate between the two.
In excess, this is more suited to arouse desire than devotion; nevertheless, when practiced within the bounds of moderation, it relieves the soul of anxiety and the solicitudes of life, bestows pleasure and serenity on the soul and exultation in God, and transports the soul to the company of angels.
An English medieval musical scholar, currently known only as Anonymous IV, exposed the identities of these individuals via his writings.
In his (or her) opinion, Léonin was responsible for the creation of the Magnus Liber Organi (in Latin, “Great Book of Organum”).
After more than 800 years, the characteristic sound of the historic Notre Dame Cathedral may be gone forever, according to some estimates. Despite this, the great music continues to be played. Here are a few works that were written during Notre Dame’s early years.
Léonin:Organum Duplum, “Viderunt Omnes”
Is there a reason for the international outpouring of concern this week over the terrible fire at Paris’ Notre Dame Cathedral? Notre Dame’s connection to the past, forged through over a thousand years of history, is one of the reasons behind this. The stones of this iconic structure, which Victor Hugo described in 1831 as “a vast symphony in stone,” have presided over great plagues, the turmoil of the French Revolution, Napoléon Bonaparte’s self-coronation, and the ringing of bells signaling the liberation of France at the end of World War II, among other events.
We wander, disempowered, when we lose touch with the past.
A group of composers working in and around the Cathedral between 1160 and 1250 was known as the Notre Dame school.
Everything from Bach’s fugues to the closing movement of Mozart’s “Jupiter” Symphony to the most contrapuntally intricate parts from Mahler’slate symphonies was set in motion by this.
Let us consider these words spoken by John of Salisbury, an English philosopher and bishop of Chartres who attended ceremonies at Notre Dame from 1111 to 1180 and was a frequent attendee: The degradation of religious worship has been brought about by bad taste, which has brought into the presence of God and into the recesses of the sanctuary a kind of luxurious and lascivious singing, full of ostentation, which when performed by women, amazes and enervates the souls of those who listen to it.
The soft harmonies of the various singers, some singing high parts and others singing low parts, some singing in advance, some following in the rear, others with pauses and interludes, you would think you were listening to a concert of sirens rather than men, and you would marvel at the powers of voices….
Such is the ease with which notes can be moved up and down the scale; how wonderful is the shortening or multiplying of notes, the repetition of phrases, or their emphatic utterance: the treble and shrill notes are so mingled with the tenor and bass that the ears have lost their ability to discriminate between the two registers In excess, this is more suited to arouse desire than devotion; nevertheless, when practiced within the bounds of moderation, it relieves the soul of anxiety and the solicitudes of life, bestows pleasure and serenity on the soul and exultation in God, and transports the soul into the company of angels.
Léonin and Pérotin, both born in France in the mid-1100s, are the only two composers associated with the Notre Dame school who are still known today.
At Notre Dame during the 1270s, Anonymous IV had firsthand knowledge of the innovative music that was being produced at the time.
According to the definition, organum is “one or more vocal parts accompanying the cantus firmus, typically in parallel motion at a fourth, fifth, or octave above or below the cantus firmus as well.” In most cases, the Cantus firmus (or pre-existing music) was Gregorian chant.
After more than 800 years, the characteristic sound of the ancient Notre Dame may be gone forever. Despite this, the magnificent music continues to be played on stage. Some early writings authored by Notre Dame alumni are shown below:
The Hilliard Ensemble is performing in this performance: http://www.thehilliardensemble.com/
- “Music of the Gothic Era,” according to Léonin. Amazon
- Pérotin: The Hilliard Ensemble
- David Munrow, Early Music Consort of London
- David Munrow, Early Music Consort of London Amazon